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BX8947=Ct4 S8 

Stacy, James, 1830-1912. 

History of the Presbyterian church in Geo: 




REV. JAMES STACY, D. D. 



Pastor Presbyterian Church, Newnan, Ga., forty-three years, Stated 
Clerk of Synod of Georgia thirty-three years, and 
Author of this History. 



..\» «• 



•^■" 



MAR 10 19M 



A 

History 

of the 

Presbyterian Church 

in 

Georgia 

REV. JAMES STACY, D, D* 

A Member of the Synod and for Thirty-Three Years 
its Stated Clerk 




Mark XVI. \b. — Go ye into all the world, 
and preach the gospel to every creature. 



To the 

SYNOD OF GKOROIA. 

At whOH<i inHtancc 

thla work wan uudcnakan', 

And aH a tok^in of ^(rai<;fijl appreciation 

of tho many act.H of klndn<;KH and courtesy 

Bhown the Author by the entire body, 

both In hlH private and 

ofnchil f;hara(;t<;r, 

la thiH volume rnoKt affectionately 

INSCItlliKb. 



Contents 



CHAPTER I. 

Settlement of the Colony. Religious Condition of th€ 

Province. Different Denominations. 

CHAPTER II. 
First Presbyterians. Scottish Highlanders. Midway Church. 
Independent Church, Savannah. Brier Creek. Waynes- 
borough. 

CHAPTER III. 

Presbytery of Hopewell. Ministers. Churches. First Meet- 
ing, Presbytery of Harmony; Georgia; Savannah; 
Flint River; Cherokee. 

CHAPTER IV. 

Synod of Georgia. Athens Presbytery. Transfer of Savan- 
nah Presbytery, Division of the Synod. 

CHAPTER V. 

Internal Development. Presbyterianism in Atlanta, Savan- 
nah, Augusta, Macon. Columbus. Presbyterianism in 
the Country. Camp Meetings. 

CHAPTER VI. 
Education. Denominational Schools, 

CHAPTER VII. 
Oglethorpe University. 

CHAPTER VIII. 
University Scheme. Recent Efforts. 

CHAPTER IX. 
Female Colleges. Greensboro. Griffin. Rome. Agnes Scott. 

CHAPTER X. 
Presbyterial High Schools. 



CHAPTER XI. 
Hindrances; War Period, Controversy. 

CHAPTER XII. 

New Schoolism. Presbytery of Etowah. Chattahoochee. 

CHAPTER XIII. 
Block Controversy. Fashionable Amusements. Dancing. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Evolution. 

CHAPTER XV. 

The Great Commission. Home Missions. 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Foreign Missions. 

CHAPTER XVII. 
Work Among the Colored People. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
Theological Seminary. 

CHAPTER XIX. 
Religious Journals. 

CHAPTER XX. 

Presbyterian Hospital. 

CHAPTER XXI. 

Retrospect. 

CHAPTER XXII. 

Sketches and Incidents. 

CHAPTER XXIII. 
Final Outlook. 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

Appendix. — Statistics of Presbyteries. Athens. Atlanta. 

Augusta. Cherokee. Macon. Savannah. 

Moderators. Clerks. 



PREFACE. 



At the meeting of Hopewell Presbytery, August 1827, 
at Decatur, Ga., Drs. Cummins, Waddell and Brown were 
appointed a committee to prepare a history of the Pres- 
byterian Church in the Southern States, and especially in 
this state. 

At the meetings in 1829, both in April and August 
they "reported progress," but we find nothing beyond this. 

In 1836 the Synod of Georgia appointed Dr. John S. 
Wilson, the stated clerk, "to prepare Biographical sketches 
of its deceased ministers," which were prepared and pub- 
lished afterwards. (See Necrology). As introductory to 
this work, he also prepared a short sketch of the Presby- 
terian Church in this country, and more particularly in 
this state in which many facts connected with its early 
history have been preserved. He also states that he had 
gathered up quite a large collection of items with a view 
or preparing a history of the Presbyterian Church in Geor- 
gia; but that these were all destroyed with the burning of 
his library by the Northern army during the late civil war. 

At the Synod of Georgia, at GrifRu, November 1905, 
the writer was requested to prepare a "History of the Pres- 
byterian Church in Georgia," and upon which, as opportuni- 
ty offered, has since been engaged. But having been called 
to this work so late in life, (in his 76th year) and in view 
of sickness and other interferences he feels that all that 
he has been able to do has been simply to gather out some 
materials for the future Historian. These are now offered, 
and with the prayer that they may be of some help to him 
who shall hereafter undertake this work. 

Newnan, Ga. 



EDITOR'S EXPLANATION. 



Since the Sj^nod requested my uncle, Dr. Stacy, to un- 
dertake the preparation of this History, he has frequently 
consulted with me about it, and as I could find opportun- 
ity, I have tried to be of some service to him in gathering 
and preparing the material. Most of it has been read by 
us together; discussed, and in many instances revised. 
We have had many warm but friendly arguments over the 
opinions expressed in the book, with some of which I 
agreed, while others I contested, but all the while claim- 
ing that his province as Historian was simply to state 
facts, and not to express opinions. Finally he partially ac- 
cepted this view, and ommitted some and modified others. 
But even his great wish to complete the work was not 
proof against the ravages of ageand disease, and on his 
death bed, almost the last intelligible sentence he utter- 
ed was his request that I complete and publish this His- 
tory. This I promised to do, and I have honestly tried to 
keep my promise. But my part of the work has necessar- 
ily bee done in the midst of a busy round of Pastoral and 
Evangelistic work, and I realize that it is far from per- 
fect. Hr. Dr. Stacy been spared a year longer, the work 
would have been spared my errors. As it is, it is incom- 
plete, but I have done the best I could with the insufficient 
data available. It has been a labor of love for the Church, 
and I trust it may be received with that spirit of apprec- 
iation of his work and forgiveness for mine that alone 
will make it acceptable. The honor of authorship, like 
the opinions, are his; the mistakes are mine. 

C. I. STACY. 
Elberton, Ga., June, 1912. 



History of the Presbyterian Church 
in Georgia* 



CHAPTER I. 



INTRODUCTION 

It ought to be a matter of thanksgiving to every Christ- 
ian that the religious el-ement was not overlooked in the 
early planting of the colony of Georgia. The Trustees, 
many of whom were distinguished clergymen of the Church 
of England, seemed as solicitous about the spiritual inter- 
ests of the early colonists, as their temporal welfare; as 
appears from the care manifested in the selection of suit- 
able emigrants, (Note 1), the number of Bibles, Prayer 
Books, and works of a religious nature, included in the 
first cargo, as well as the number of Missionaries sent 
out at different times, under their auspices, and at their 
expense. 

It is also worthy of note, that all the early colonies took 
with them ministers, thus recognizing the great truth, that 
religion constitutes an essential requisite in the success- 
ful founding of a nation. With the first colony under Ogle- 
thorpe in 1733, came Rev. Dr. Henry Herbert. With the 
second colony of Saltzburgers, who arrived in 1734, we find 
Rev. Messrs. Bolzius and Gronau. With the third colony 
of Moravians, who settled above Savannah, in 1735. was 
Rev. Gottleib Spangenberg. With the fourth colony, of 
Scottish Highlanders, who came over in January of the 
same year, and settled at Darien, came Rev. John McLeod. 
Wi[h the fifth embarkation, of Saltzbergers and Moravians, 
in 1736, known as the "great embarkation," with whom 
Oglethorpe returned, were the Wesleys, John and Charles. 

Note (1). Ga. His. Soc. Vol. II. 281. Jones' His. 



2 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

In addition to these there were others who came over 
at different times, and on different occasions. Among them 
may be mentioned, Rev. Dr. Burton, chaplain to Ogle- 
thorpe's regiment, in 1738; Rev. John Ulrich Driesler, pas- 
tor of the Church of SaRzbergers organized at St. Simon's 
1743; George Whitfield who came over the same year, 
who preached in Savannah and other places, and estab- 
lished an Orphan's Home at Bethesda; Rev. Mr. Norris, 
appointed by the Trustees as Missionary to St. Simon's, 
and as successor to Mr. Wesley; Rev. Christopher Orton, 
as minister to Savannah in 1741, and afterwards Rev. 
Thomas Bosomworth as his successor; still later Rev. Bar- 
tholomew Zouber-bughler at Savannah in 1746; and Rev, 
Jonathan Copp in 1751 as missionary at Augusta. All sup- 
ported in whole, or in part by the Trustees. 

Thus it would seem that the colony, for the first twenty 
years, while under the Trustees, was outwardly at least, 
supplied with ministers and the means of grace; and yet 
it appears from various causes, among which may be men- 
tioned the general low state of the country, as well as in 
some cases the unsuitableness, if not the unfaithfuln*^ss, of 
her ministers, the cause of Christianity and religion made 
little or no progress. Indeed the outlook at the end of 
those twenty years was anything but encouraging. The 
Saltzburgers at St. Simon's Island had become extinct on 
the death of their pastor. Rev. Mr. Driesler, in 1745, and the 
disbanding of Oglethorpe's regiment in 1749. The Church 
of the Scottish Highlanders, at Darien, had likewise become 
disorganized, by reason of the decimation of its ranks, and 
the removal of its pastor. Rev. John McLeod, to South Car- 
olina, in 1741. The Wesleys, for lack of success, and on 
account of opposition, had returned to England. Rev, 
Mr. Norris had left Savannah under a cloud. The Mora- 
vians, after two years had abandoned their settlement 
above Savannah, and gone to Pennsylvania, because sum- 
moned to bear arms against the Spaniards; as they were 
opposed to war, and. as they said, they had been freed by 
the Trustees, from all military duty, that being one of the 
conditions of their coming over and settling in the prov- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA. 3 

ince. Th« church edifice commenced in Savannah in 1741, 
twelve years before, was still in an unfinished state. With 
the exception of the Saltzburgers at Ebenezer, the rest of 
the province seemed to be in a very impoverished condi- 
tion, both temporally and spiritually. The population in- 
stead of increasing had commenced growing less. The peo- 
ple were becoming discouraged; mutterings of discontent 
were heard on every side. Predictions of failure were 
even indulged in by some. Indeed the state of the prov- 
ince was so much reduced that the idea of subordination, 
if not of actual merging into Carolina, became a theme 
for conversation. Note (1.). 

After twenty years of honest effort, worried and har- 
assed beyond measure, the Trustees in 175/1 surrendered 
their Charter to the Crown, and John Reynolds was ap- 
pointed Royal Governor, and the province placed under the 
direction of the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plan- 
tations. With this change in the management, also came 
changes in the policy of administration. There was a 
change in the form of title to land, so as to make the 
ownership absolute and complete. There was also the 
abrogation of the laws forbidding the introduction of slaves, 
and the importation of rum. With the removal of these 
features so objectionable to many, emigrants began to pour 
in from Carolina and other parts of the country, and com- 
menced settling in the interior parts of the State, espe- 
cially in Burke, Jefferson and Wilkes counties. A colony 
from South Carolina with their pastor. Rev. John Osgood, 
settled in St. John's Parish, now Liberty county, in 1753. 
With increased inducements offered by the State, a large 
colony of Scotch-Irish settled about 1768 on the Oconee 
river, in Jefferson county, about three miles south of Louis- 
ville, at a place they called "Queensborough," and after- 
wards known as "Irish Settlement." Note (1). Likewise 
settlements were formed in Burke county, on Brier creek, 
to which Presbyterian ministers had been sent from the 
North. In addition to the Episcopal Church known as 

Note (1). Stevens, I. 296. 



4 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Christ Church, the Independent Church had been set up in 
Savannah; and a Church established in Augusta, known 
as St. Paul's Church. The Saltzburgers had a congrega- 
tion in Savannah, supplied by Rev. Messrs. Roberhorst and 
Walton. The Baptists had also commenced work in Colum- 
bia county, on the Kiokee and some other places. The 
population of the province, which in 1750 was little more 
than 3,000 had now more than doubled itself. 

But all this progress and improvement were suddenly 
arrested by the breaking out of the revolution, which not 
only brought every thing to a stand still, but well nigh 
to destruction, especially after the fall of Savannah in 1778, 
when the British overran the State. St. Paul's Church in 
Augusta was demolished, the building destroyed and the 
congregation dispersed. The country of the Saltzburgers 
was overrun by the British soldiers, and they themselves 
scattered, and their house of worship, first used as a hos- 
pital, and afterwards as a stable, by the British. (Note Stro- 
bel, p. 206.) The settlements in Jefferson and Burke coun- 
ties were broken up. The orphanage at Bethesda was aban- 
doned on account of an accidental burning, as well as the 
death of Mr. Whitfield, a few years before. Christ's 
Church in Savannah was without a pastor. So the Inde- 
pendent Prebyterian Church through the defiection of Dr. 
Zubly, its pastor, was also in a destitute condition. The 
colony in Liberty county had been broken up and their 
house of worship burned, and the pastor. Rev. Moses Allen, 
being taken and kept as a prisoner on board of a prison 
ship, lost his life in the attempt to secure his freedom by 
swimming to the shore. The Baptist Churches had shared 
the same fate; the one at Kiokee, on the present site of 
Applington, founded by Rev. Daniel Marshall in 1772, the 
first organized by that denomination in the State, and the 
one at New Savannah, below Augusta, gathered by the 
Rev. Mr. Bottsford about 1773, had both been abandoned, 
Note (Campbell's His. p. 188-9.) Indeed there was not, at 
the close of the Revolutionary war, a single settled pastor 
in the whole province, as far as we know. So Rev. Archi- 
bald Simpson, of South Carolina, when in Savannah on his 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 5 

way to Scotland writes under date of May 3, 1784. "There 
is at present no minister of any denomination in this plv^c;; 
and I am told there is not an ordained ministei' in the 
whole State." We find also the following record in his 
journal of that date: "Visited my old friend, Mr. Zubly's 
Meeting House, which is in a very ruinous condition, and 
has a chimney in the middle of it, having been an hospital." 
(Note 3. Howe I. 468.) 

With the return of peace, however, in 1783, commenced 
the work of rebuilding the material interests of the coun- 
try, as well as the re-establishment of the Churches, and 
renewal of Church work. The Midway people returned to 
their homes in Liberty county, the Saltzburgers to Ebene- 
zer and the Baptists to their former work. The Episcopal 
and Independent Churches in Savannah were repaired and 
opened for service, and the Church at Augusta rebuilt, and 
worship renewed. 

In addition to the above mentioned denominations, we 
may add, as among the early co religionists of the land, a 
colony of Israelites, who came to Savannah in 1733, soon 
after the arrival of Oglethorpe; objections being raised 
most of them removed, leaving several families, however, 
behind, whose descendants are still in the state, some of 
whom have occupied positions of honor and influence. 
There was also a small colony of Quakers, who settled 
some 'seven miles above Augusta, at a place still well 
known as "Quaker City." 

Here then, were the religious elements, or factors, 
entering at first into the forces and destiny of the country; 
viz; Episcopalians, Salzburgers (Lutherans, styled "Salz- 
burgers" from Salzburg, the name of their home in Aus- 
tria), Congregationalists, Baptists, a few Israelites, and 
Quakers; no Methodists, at least in name, but strongly 
existing in its incipient germs, till a few years later. 
Whitfield died a suspended minister of the Methodist 
church (suspended for not using the forms of prayer, in 
the Book of prayer). (1). Neither did Wesley withdraw 
from the Established Church till the separation in 1785. 
According to Wesley, Methodism had for its origin three 



6 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

distinct p€riods. "The first rise of Methodism," says he, 
"was in 1729, when four of us met together at Oxford. The 
second was at Savannah in 1736, when twenty or thirty 
persons met at my house. The last was at London, on this 
day. May 1st, 1738, when forty or fifty of us agreed to meet 
together every Wednesday evening." Savannah, therefore, 
as Stevens says, "may be regarded as the birth place oi 
Methodism." He also declares it to be a little remarkable 
that of the few young men, students of Oxford, who gave 
rise to Methodism, "four of them, viz: Rev. John Wesley, ;i 
graduate of Lincoln College, Rev. Charles Wesley, of Christ 
College, Rev. Benjamin Ingraham, of Queen's College, and 
George Whitfield, of Pembroke College, should visio and 
settle in Georgia, and three of them have the care of 
churches in the colony. (Stevens, Vol. I. 340). The true 
rise of Methodism, proper, however, was not till 1785, the 
year of the separation from the Church of England. The 
first and only regularly appointed Methodist minister in 
the State at that time, was the Rev. Beverly Allen, and 
the field to which he was appointed being simplv "Georgia " 
The number of converts reported to the Conference the 
next year being "Seventy Eight." (Note Min. Conf, p. 23, 
28). Neither were there any Roman Catholics; as they T\ere 
not allowed in the province till the adoption of the new 
Constitution in 1799. (Watkins Comp. 42). Their first 
Church being at Locust Grove, Taliaferro county, in the 
year 1800. (White's statistics p. 532.) 

But the thing that chiefly concerns us is the rise, prog- 
ress, and development of the Presbyterian Church in the 
State, and to this we now give our attention. 



CHAPTER II. 



FIRST PRESBYTERIANS. 

1st. The first Presbyterians we meet with, as already 
stated, were the Scottish Highlanders, who settled at 
Darien in 1735 with their pastor. Rev. John McLeod, the 
first Presbyterian minister in the State. Oglethorpe, desir- 
ous of having a sort of bulwark against the Spanish inva- 
sion from the southland, al30 of obtaining a more substan- 
tial class of citizens, than many who had already come sim- 
ply as adventurers, secured a colony of sturdy Highlanders, 
who with John Mcintosh, Mohr, as head of the Clan, set- 
tled on the north bank of the Altamaha river, at a place 
they called "New Inverness," after the place of their ren- 
dezvous in Scotland. The District they named "Darien," 
after the Isthmus of that name, where some of their fore- 
fathers so disastrously attempted the founding of a colony 
in the year 1690. Their number being greatly depleted by 
sickness, and also the Spanish bullets at the unfortunate 
assault upon Fort Moosa in Florida, in 1740, the Rev. John 
McLeod, their pastor, left them and removed to Carolina 
in 1741, after which the colony became scattered. Although 
disorganized as a colony, still their influence was not lost. 
Among them were several prominent names, as McKay, 
Dunbar, Baillie, Cuthbert and Mcintosh, who settled upon 
the coast, and whose descendants figured largely in mould- 
ing the after history of the State, and in giving prominence 
to her chivalry, as well as furnishing material for Church 
membership. Thus we find the name of Cuthbert, not only 
on the Council under Reynolds, but also afterwards in the 
Halls of the Nation, and likewise among the list of our 
Georgia towns; Baillie, a prominent member of the Pres- 
byterian Church in Savannah, in 1769. We alao note the 
fact, that Gen. John Mcintosh appears in the Presbytery of 
Georgia, as a Ruling Elder, representing the Church at 
Darien, at the organization of said Presbytery in December 
1821. It is also worthy of mention that Catherine Mcintosh, 



8 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

the mother of Gov. George M. Troup, was the daughter of 
Captain John Mcintosh, a relative of John Mcintosh, 
Mohr. It is hardly necessary to add that the Mcintosh 
family has left the impress of its name and deeds upon 
one of the counties of the State, after whom it w^as named. 

2. The second planting, and afterwards the nursery 
and stronghold of Presbyterianism in the State was the old 
MIDWAY CHURCH, Liberty county, which, though nomi- 
nally Congregational, was nevertheless substantially, Pres- 
byterian, so understood and so styled in common parlance. 
As she has used the treasury of the Presbyterian church 
for the transmission of her Missionary and Elymosenary 
funds, as all of her pastors except two, have been Presby- 
terian ministers, as she has given fifty of her sons and 
grandsons to the Presbyterian ministry, and as in the 
pangs of her dissolution she has given birth to three 
white, and three colored Presbyterian churches, we do not 
hesitate to place her in the list with the others. Indeed the 
history of Presbyterianism in 'Georgia would simply be in- 
complete without her contribution. This will appear as 
we further proceed. This colony came from Dorchester, 
S. C, in 1753, and '54 bringing its pastor. Rev. John Osgood 
with them. 

3. The third point occupied by Presbyterians, at this 
early day, was the CITY OF SAVANNAH. As early as 
June 5, 1755 we find that "forty-three persons. Dissenters 
from the Church of England, and professors of the doc- 
trines of the Church of Scotland, according to the West- 
minister Confession of Faith," petitioned the Council for a 
lot in the city of Savannah, upon which to erect a church 
building. (Pub. Col. Rec. 183.) The petition was granted, 
and the next year, 1756, a warrant was issued 
and signed for the same. The building was erected 
and occupied till the great fire in 1796. (Idem p. 313.) The 
exact date of the organization of the church is unknown; 
though it must have been at the time, or soon after the 
erection of the building. It soon became one of the lead- 
ing churches of the province, and still maintains its organi- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 9 

zation and prestige, as a powerful factor in upholding the 
cause of religion and good order. 

4. The fourth point occupied by Presbyterians in the 
State, was the Church or group of churches in Burke 
county, on Brier and Beaver Creeks, which like the Mid- 
way Church though Congregational or independent, af- 
filiated with the Presbytery, and wich one or two exceptions, 
were always supplied with Presbyterian ministers. When, 
or by whom organized, we have no means of determining. 
The first notice we find of them is in the Minutes of the 
Synod of New York and Philadelphia, in 1766, in which 
"an application was made for supplies from Brier CreeR 
in Georgia,"; and Mr. Lewis and others appointed to "Visit 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and Georgia." 

In addition to this there was another church or Congre- 
gation near by called "Walnut Creek." In 1789, a petition 
for supplies was made to Hopewell Presbytery for Walnut 
Church (Note) and the Old Church. (The old church no 
doubt being the Brier Creek Church, and in which Bishop 
Asfcury preached in cne of his missionary tours in 1790) 
Vol II. P 67) 

These two churches were afterwards united and re- 
moved to the town of Waynesboro, in 1810; and from that 
time till their withdrawal in 1840 known as the "Presby 
terian Church of Burke County." 

Thus the Wayjiesboro Church may be considered the 
legitimate offspring, if not the actual continuation of these 

(Note) "Walnut Creek Church was situated on the 
creek of that name some four or five miles West from 
Waynesboro. Brier Creek Church afterwards called "Old 
Church," was situated on Brier Creek some six miles North 
East of Waynesboro. Its site is now occupied by a negro 
church; while the original "Old Church," first Episcopal, 
then Presbyterian; on being abandoned by the Presbyter- 
ians afterwards passed into the hands of the Methodists, 
with its glebe of thirty acres of land. They now hold it; 
and it is again known as the "Old Church." (MS Letter of 
Rev. C. I. Stacy, Pastor Pres. Church.) 



10 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

earlier organizations; and therefore one of the few ante- 
revolution Churches in the State. Concerning this church, 
I will have more to say hereafter. 

Here then were the points where the seeds of Pres- 
byterianism were first planted in Georgia: In the south- 
ern portion at Darien and the Altamaha; in the eastern and 
middle, at Savannah, and the Parish of St. John now Lib- 
erty county; and in the northf^rn, in the counties of 
Burke, and Jefferson. And although a great deal of the 
seed thus sown, seemed lost, yet not lost; but like "the 
ashes of Wickliffe, cast into the Swift, and borne by that 
stream into the Severn, and by the Severn, carried into 
the broader seas, and thence into the mighty ocean;" so 
this seed was only scattered and planted in different places, 
■afterwards to come up, and to yield, some thirty, some 
sixty, some an hundred fold. 



CHAPTER III. 



PRESBYTERIES. 

PRESBYTERY OF HOPEWELL. 

The State of South Carolina was settled in 1670, some 
sixty three years before the landing of Oglethorpe at Yam- 
acraw. The Presbyterian Church therefore was established 
in that state at a much earlier date than in Georgia, and 
through its emigrants contributed largely to the building 
of churches in the latter. The Presbytery of Orange, one 
of the original sixteen which constituted the first General 
Assembly, formed in 1788, included the Carolinas as well as 
the State of Virginia. From this Presbytery was formed 
in 1784, the Presbytery of South Carolina, which also in- 
cluded Georgia in its territory. The upper portion of South 
Carolina being largely settled by Scotch Irish and other 
Presbyterians, these together with emigrants from Penn- 
sylva nia, and Virginia began soon to cross over the Savan- 
nah River into the middle and upper parts of Georgia, and 
to form settlements in the counties of Columbia, Oglethorpe 
and Greene. Churches were soon planted, and supplied by 
ministers belonging to the Presbytery of South Carolina; 
notably among them, the Rev. John Newton, and Rev. 
Daniel Thrasher, (note I) the first regular missionaries and 

Note. (1) Rev. Daniel Thrasher was a native of New 
Jersey. Licensed and ordained by the Presbytery of 
Orange, in 1781; received into the Presbytery of South 
Carolina, April 11, 1793, labored in Georgia, though not 
wholly and with much success in organizing several of the 
earlier churches, as appears from his letter to the Presby- 
tery, in which he gives an account of his labors in 1795. He 
returned to New Jersey his native state, and accepted a 
missionary appointment, under the General Assembly, in 
the State of New York and which appointment he contin- 
ued to fill until his death. He was dismissed to the Pres- 
bytery of Hudson in 1796, and died Aug. 1, 1797, very much 
lamented. (Min. Gen. Ass. P. 139) 



12 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

pioneers into the State, and afterwards by Rev. Messrs. 
Springer, Cunningliam, Waddel and Montgomery, who soon 
gathered Congregations and became settled pastors over 
them. 

As the number of Churches and Ministers increased, it 
soon became apparent, that on account of the distance, a 
new and independent Presbytery should be formed. Accord- 
ingly upon petition, the Synod of the Carolinas, at their 
meeting at Morganton, N. C, Nov. 3rd., 1796 divided the 
Presbytery of South Carolina, setting off the portion below 
the Savannah River into a separate and independent Pres- 
bytery, to be known as the Presbytery of Hopewell, and to 
be composed of the following ministers, and all the church- 
es and missions belonging to the old Presbytery, and within 
the State. 

Ministers. — John Newton, John Springer, Robt. Cun- 
ningham, Moses Waddel, William Montgomery 

The Cixurches, as well as we can gather them, for tlia 
records are very imperfect, are as follows: 

Bethsalem, Bethany, Ebenezer, Richmond, Little Brit- 
ian, Siloam, Bethlehem, New Hope, Goshen, Carmel, Joppa, 
Providence, Liberty, Smyrna. 

In addition to these, there seemed to have been several 
other places occupied by the old Presbytery, but whether 
organized churches that had now become extinct or mere 
preaching places, the Records do not show. Some of the 
places thus indicated were Sharon, Sherril's Creek, Furgus 
Creek, Goose Ponds, Great Kiokee, Kettle Creek, Falling 
Creek, Bethel, and "Concord in Wilkes county," (Howe I, 
659.) It is probable that some of these names were 
changed, as in the case of several other instances, and of 
which no mention is made. 

FIRST MEETING. 

In accordance with the action of the Synod of South 
Carolina and Georgia, the Presbytery held its first meet- 
ing at Liberty Church on Thursday March 16, 1797. Rev. 
John Springer preached the opening sermon from Luke IV., 
18, and constituted the Presbytery with prayer, and was 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHTjI^pa IN GEORGIA 13 

afterwards chosen Moderator, and Rev. Moses Waddel, 
Clerk. 

There were present. all the above mentioned ministers 
viz: John Newton, John Springer, Robert Cunningham, 
Moses Waddel, and William Montgomery, and the follow- 
in Elders: James Darrach (Daniel) from Liberty, Ezekiel 
Gilliam from Bethsalem, Loderick Tuggle, from Bethany, 
and William Calahan, who came the next day, from Little 
Britian. The Records do not giv« the names of any of the 
churches except that of Little Britian. In other places and 
from other sources, we learn what churches were repre- 
sented. We feel almost certain that the name of "Daniel" 
should be substituted for that of "Darrach" and for the fol- 
lowing reasons: (1) There is no evidence that there ever 
was an Elder in the Liberty church of the name of Darrach, 
or even a family of that name in the community. (2) The 
name occurs no where else. (3) The Daniel family being a 
prominent and influential one in the church, James Daniel 
being a well known elder and representing the church a 
the next meeting of Presbytery, as the Records show. (4) 
But the principal reason is that, we have only the copied 
Records of the Presbytery. Dr. Waddel was Stated Clerk, 
and at the request of Presbytery he had the first 30 years 
copied; this copying being done by Maj. Watkins and for 
which sixty-five dollars were paid; as the Records show. 
This copying was done in 1827 thirty years after the re- 
cord was made. And it is very easy to see how the name 
of "Darrach" should be mistaken by the copyist for "Daniel." 
on an old and time worn manuscript, and he a stranger to 
the parties, and with nothing to guide him but the Man- 
uscript of Dr. Waddel, which according to the testimony of 
his own son, was at times extremely difficult to descipher- 
Dr. John Waddel, in his "Academic Memorials," says of 
him, (though this is not true of the specimens of his hand 
writing we have seen, which are remarkably clear and 
distinct.) 

"He always prepared skeletons on very small sized 
leaves of paper and in handwriting so diminutive, and with 
certain hieroglyphics of his own adoption, so obscure as to 



14 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

be almost illegible to any beside himself. There are still 
m possession ot some of his living friends many of these 
briefs, serving only as relics of him, but not answering any 
farther purpose, by reason of their illegible chirography." 
As this was the mother Presbytery, and these minis- 
ters and churches, the early seed of Presbyterianism in the 
state, a more minute and particular description of them 
would be interesting and eminently befitting. 

PLACE OF MEETING. 

And first as to the place of meeting. Liberty church 
where the Presbytery met was so called because allowed 
to the use of other denominations, and selected on account 
of its central position. It was a rough house built of logs, 
and located in the South-western part of Wilkes county, 
about fourteen miles from Washington, and seven from 
Woodstock, and about half a mile from "War Hill" where 
was fought the battle of Kettle Creek, in 1790. It was or- 
ganized soon after the war of the revolution, by the Rev. 
Dan Thatcher, with fifteen or twenty members, among 
them, the grand father of Hon. A. H. Stephens, and father 
of Dr. David Finley of Montgomery, Alabama, with Ruling 
Elders James Daniel and Archibald Simpson. (Simpson's 
Sketch, Pres. Com. Pub.) Rev. John Springer was the first 
regular minister. After the death of Mr. Springer in 1798, 
the Church was supplied for a short time by Rev. Robert 
M. Cunningham, who was then also supplying Bethany. 
After Mr. Cunningham, the old church was closed for a 
time. The old building in the mean while becoming dilap- 
idated, a new house was erected about a mile South, and 
its name changed to Salem. The Rev. Francis Cummins 
who came to Georgia from South Carolina about 1803, took 
charge of the new building at the same time supplying 
Bethany Church. After his removal to Greensboro in 1820 
the church was without a minister for four years. In 1824, 
Rev. Alexander H Webster, who then had charge of the 
Washington Church also supplied Salem. After the death 
of Mr. Webster, the church was again w^ithout a pastor, 
and in 1828 several members and families withdrew and 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 15 

organized themselves into a church in the neighborhood of 
Raytown, being too remote to attend regularly, and named 
the new church South Liberty, being south of the Mother 
Church. In 1832 Rev. S. J. Cassels being called to the 
Washington Church preached occasionally at Salem. In 
1834 a new and better house was erected at the junction of 
the Greensboro and Crawfordville roads, twelve miles from 
Washington. The membership at this time was reduced to 
seven. In 1837, Rev. John B. Cassels, the brother of the 
Rev. S. J. Cassels, took charge of the church and also open- 
ed a day school, but was soon cut down with malarial 
fever. After his death Rev. F. R. Goulding supplied the 
church for a while. He was followed by Rev. J. W. Reid, 
who was teaching and preaching at Woodstock. In 1847 
the old house was sold to the Bapcists and the remaining 
membership removed to Woodstock into which the church 
was merged. 

Although the little church has always been weak in 
numbers, yet its mission has not been a failure. The fol- 
lowing ministers have gone out if not from its bosom, at 
least from its training hand, viz: David Finley, B. L. Beall, 
R. A. Houston, and Robert Milner, and others who have re- 
ceived deep and lasting impressions from its moulding 
hand. 

It is also worthy of remark that the Penfleld church 
may be considered an offshoot from the Woodstock Church. 
Mr. Johnson Boswell from that church and living near that 
place and although in the midst of a Baptist neighborhood, 
was the means of establishing a Presbyterian church which 
now numbers 50 members. (Simpson's Sketches). 

PERSONNEL OF THE BODY. 

Concerning the Elders we know little or nothing, as 
Records are very silent concerning them, saying nothing 
more than giving their names, and not even mentioning 
the Churches they represented, except that of Little Brit- 
ian. In those days the Elders seemed as quiescent factors; 
or as Dr. R. J. Breckenridge once expressed it in his Speech 
before the Assembly, that their office seemed to be a body 



16 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

guard to the minister to accompany him and "lay down the 
bars before him." We are glad to know the views of the 
Church have of late materially changed on that subject, 
and greatly for the better. 

MINISTERS. 
REV. JOHN NEWTON. 

Rev. John Newton was a native of Pennsylvania, born 
Feb. 20, 1759, was received by the Presbytery of South 
Carolina at Jackson Creek October 1785, was ordained by 
said Presbytery, Oct. 18, 1788, being a Licentiate* for ^ve 
years,; having taken charge of the churches of Bethsalera 
in Oglethorpe county, and New Hope in Madison county, in 
the previous Spring where he labored till his death. He 
was the first resident of the State ever ordained, and yef 
ordained out of the State. The call to said churches was 
borne by Messrs. Park and Gillam, Elders, to the Presby- 
tery at Duncan's Creek where ijo was ordained, and in- 
stalled pastor of the associated churches, though about a 
hundred miles away! these men receiving him in the name 
of the churches, a proceeding altogether right at that time 
and under the circumstances, but would now be considered 
quite irregular. 

Mr. Newton was the missionary of South Carolina 
Presbytery before the division; a man abundant in labors, 
quite a number of the earlier churches being organized by 
him. Indeed the evidence is he was among, if not the very 
first minister that visited the state, as Rev. W. E. Dozier, 
his great grandson, has a skeleton of one of his sermons 
preached at Goshen, "near Greensboro," Aug. 15, 1784, and 
therefore he must have visited Georgia while still a Licen- 
tiate of Orange Presbytery as he was not received by South 
Carolina till October of next year. According to a diary he 
kept, and now in the hands of his grandson. Rev. Henry 
Newton, he made a missionary tour during the summer 
of 1785. 

According to that Diary he crossed the Savannah 
river at its junction with Broad river, then went South to 
Little river, thence North West to Washington,, where he 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 17 

found neither hotel nor Church. Going then North West 
he came to a church (of what denomination not said), 
where he spent the Sabbath and preached. From thence he 
proceeded Westward till he reached Oconee river; seeing 
no towns or Churches. North and West of the river were 
the Cherokee Indians. He then took his journey North- 
ward, through an almost unbroken forest, till he reached a 
settlement in Oglethorpe county not far from Crawford, 
where finding acquaintances and friends, he rested awhile, 
and which place he made his after home. From there he 
began his homeward journey. Though passing through 
four or five counties, he speaks of only one Church, of 
which mention is made above. He was six weeks away 
from home. He moved to Georgia in the Fall of 1785 or 
Spring of 1786. (MS. Letter. Rev. Henry Newton.) 

Mr. Newton was a man of dark complexion, with dark 
hair, and black eyes; strongly built, though lean and long. 
He married Katherine Lowrance of North Carolina, in 
1780 and had six children, three sons and three daughters, 
many of whom have occupied positions of prominence in 
the church. Two of his sons, Ebenezer and Elizur were 
elders; the former at Long Cane, and the latter at Athens. 
One of his grandsons is a minister, viz., Rev. Henry New- 
ton of Athens. Five of his grandsons were elders: John T. at 
Long Cane, Charles at the Central Church, Atlanta, John 
A. Cooper at LaGrange, William at Long Cane and Wil- 
liam Henry at Athens. Among his great grandchildren, 
two are ministers, viz: Rev. W. E. Dozier, pastor at Car- 
rollton, and Rev. J. W. Stokes, pastor at Americus, Ga., and 
one, Henry E., an elder at Loyd Church. Annie, a great 
grand daughter married Rev. Joseph H. Wilson of South 
Carolina; and Lucy, another great grand daughter is de- 
voting her life to Missionary work in connection with the 
movement on Cumberland Mountains in Kentucky. What 
a record! ! Mr. Newton died at Athens June 17, 1797, and 
was buried at the site of the old Bethsalem church, but in 
1900 his remains were removed to Lexington where they 
LOW repose. 



18 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

REV. JOHN SPRINGER. 

Rev. John Springer was a native of Delaware, his fa- 
ther being James Springer and his grandfather being Carl 
Springer a wealthy citizen of Sweden and resident of Stock- 
holm. 

We give the following tradition concerning his father, 
James Springer as related by Joseph Springer one of his 
descendents, and taken from Benjamin Farris's History of 
the original settlements on the Delaware, pages 283, 284, 
and furnished by Mr. Herbert Patman, the Librarian at 
Washington, D. C. 

"My grandfather when a youth was sent by his parents 
into England, for the purpose of finishing his education. 
One evening, when in London as he was walking to his 
lodgings, a party of ruffians seized and gagged him. They 
then hurried him into a carriage, and driving it down to 
the river, put him on board of a ship, bound to Virginia, 
and confined him in the hold. When the vessel arrived at 
the port of her destination. Springer was sold to a farmer 
for a term of years. During the time of his bondage he 
learned that in a country lying far to the Northeast, there 
was a settlement of his countrymen, which he determined 
immediately to visit as soon as his term of service should 
expire. When that time arrived, he set out on foot to seek 
them and after many difficulties in crossing a new coun- 
try, much of it in its wild state, inhabited only by Indians, 
he to his great joy, found them at Christiana, and settled 
himself permanently among them." 

This seems a marvellous story indeed! If it had been 
said, that yielding to the spirit of adventure, and desirous 
of seeing the "New World," he had suffered himself to be 
taken and sold to defray the cost of his passage as many 
others had done, of which we read in the early history of 
the Province, we would think it far more probable. But we 
give the story as we find it. 

In process of time, after reaching Christiana, James 
married, and reared a large family; many of his descend- 
ants being men of prominence; among them one congress- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 19 

man, and two judges. Among his numerous sons was one 
named John, the subject of this notice. 

John Springer was born on a farm near Wilmington, 
Delaware, Sept. 20, 1744, and graduated at Princeton 1776. 
After this, became one of the assistants or tutors in Hamp- 
den-Sydney school. After leaving Princeton, he taught 
school for a while in Virginia. Leaving Virgina on account 
of the breaking out of the war of the Revolution, he re- 
moved to North Carolina where he taught at White Hall 
and Cambridge. After a few years in Carolina he removed 
to Georgia, and opened a school near Washington, Wilkes 
county. Though feeling that he was called to the ministry, 
yet a feeling of unworthiness kept him out for a number 
of years. While at White Hall, he studied Theology under 
Dr. James Hall. After being a candidate for a number of 
years, under Orange Presbytery, he was transferred to the 
Presbytery of South Carolina and by that Presbytery was 
licensed at Duncan's Creek, Oct. 18, 1788. He continued to 
teach, at the same time supplying some of the surround- 
ing churches. Receiving a call from the united churches of 
Providence, Smyrna, and Washington in Wilkes county, 
Georgia, he was ordained by the Presbytery of South Car- 
olina, at Washington, July 21, 1790, he being the first Pres- 
byterian minister ever ordained in Georgia. This was the 
first meeting of any Presbytery in Georgia. Not having a 
house of w'orship, the ordination took place under a large 
Poplar tree in the suburbs of the town, under which the 
Presbytery held its meeting. (Note I.) 

Mr. Springer had a home some five miles North of 
Washington, called "Walnut Hill," where he also had a 
school of some celebrity, having for a wiiile as studentE, 
Jesse Mercer, and Pope Hull, where he continued till 
his death. He w&s called upon in the latter part of Aii- 
fejst to preach the funeral of Hon. John Talbot, the father 

Note. 1. As the Vol I of the records of the Presbytery 
are lost, we are unable to give the names of the members 
of the Presbytery. This we greatly regret, as this is the 
first Presbytery held in the State. 



20 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

of GoverDor Talbot, and also of Thomas Talbot, for a long 
time a ruling Elder in the Washington Church. The day- 
was warm, he exerted himself; being caught in a shower of 
rain that came up, he was taken with a chill and fever 
which terminated his life. He died Sept. 3rd., 1798, aged 
54 years. At his request he was buried in the garden, by 
the roadside. The next owner in straightening the road 
threw the grave into the middle of the road, and there his 
ashes remain in an unknown, unmarked grave, over which 
vehicles are continually passing. 

He was a man of large size; as was said of him "A 
gian in body and mind," an easy and fluent speaker. 
He married Ann Greene of North Carolina, and had three 
daughters and one son. Many of his descendants are still 
living in the State. The son, William Greene Springer, 
married Mary Baxter of Hancock county, and removed to 
Carroll county where he became a man of prominence, at 
one time representing the county in the State Senate, 
which place he creditably filled for the years 1838 and 
1839. He was a man of huge proportions, weighing over 
four hundred pounds! He and Hon. Dixon H. Lewis of 
Alabama being at that time the two largest men, in the 
whole country. 

As the old tree under which the Presbytery held its 
meeting and of which mention has been made, is a wonder 
in itself, hoary with years, and upon which, like the Pyra- 
mids of Egypt, "generations have wonderingly gazed;" and 
as it stands the only living witness of that first meeting we 
think it worthy of special mention. We herewith therefore 
append a cut of its present appearance, and add the follow- 
ing description given by my young friend, Mr. Robert Guin, 
a native of Washington. 

"The circumference of the big Poplar Tree under 
which the first Presbytery was held, and under which the 
first Presbyterian minister was ordained in Georgia, is 
twenty six feet. This is the average figure, for the base of 
the tree is bulged out on account of the large roots. 

"The old tree, though it is more than a thousand years 
old, and has been struck by lightning five or six times is 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA ?.l 

still in a prosperous condition. Its original height is not 
known, but is supposed to have been over a hundred and 
fifty feet. The upper half it is plain to see, has decayed, or 
in other ways succumbed to th-e attacks made upon it in 
the past centuries, but the part remaining stands high 
above any other tree in the woods, and these woods are 
made up of oak and poplar trees; And this fact must 
prove that the tree was in its prime over a hundred years 
ago, when the Presbytery was held under it; and even 
then must have been a gigantic tree. A swarm of bees have 
a hive in the lower limb, and various air plants have be- 
gun to appear on the upper branches. But notwithstanding 
all these life sappers, the old tree will undoubtedly be wit- 
nessed by several generations yet to come. 

"The old tree is situated almost directly East of Wash- 
ington, three quarters of a mile out from the city. It is 
owned by the widow of Capt. C. A. Alexander, an old con- 
federate veteran, and has been in possession of his fore- 
fathers, dating from the Revolution. Mrs. Alexander is very 
proud of it, and has several pictures of it, and has a table 
made from one of the gigantic branches torn away by the 
lightning." 

To this description we add the hope that the words of 
our young friend, may indeed be prophetic of the future 
of the grand old church, which is yet to stand for ages in 
the conscious majesty of its strength, harmlessly receiving, 
but hurling back with fearful recoil, every blow directed 
at it. And like the old tree ever carrying in its bosom a 
swarm of active workers, furnishing the sweetness of 
honey, and even "of fine droppings of the honey comb," to 
the generations yet to come. 

REV. ROBERT CUNNINGHAM, D. D. 

Rev. Robert Cunningham, D. D., was born in York 
county Pennsylvania, Sept. 10, 1760. Licensed by the 
Presbytery of South Carolina Sept. 29, 1791. Ordained 
and installed pastor of the Ebenezer and Bethany Church- 
es, July 31, 1793, where he continued to labor till 1808, 
when he removed to' Lexington, Kentucky. There he re- 



22 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

mained fourteen years, till the Fall of 1822, when he re- 
moved to Moulton, Alabama, preaching at Tuscaloosa, 
which church he organized, and at other places, till his 
death. He was appointed by the General Assembly to 
preach the opening sermon and to preside at the organiza- 
tion of the Synod of Mississippi and South Alabama, in 
1829, and also to render this service at the organization of 
the Synod of Alabama in 1835. (Minutes Gen. Ass. pp. 263. 
489.) He died July 11, 1839, in the 80th year of his age. 

REV. MOSES WADDEL. 

Rev. Moses Waddel was born in Rowan, now Iredell 
county, North Carolina, July 29, 1770, his father being an 
emigrant from Ireland. He graduated at Hampden Sydney 
in 1791; Licensed by Hanover Presbytery May 13, 1792; or- 
dained June 6, 1794 by South Carolina Presbytery; Opened 
a school at Carmel, Columbia County (Sherwood, p 112,; 
two miles east of the village of Applington where he taught 
school for a number of years. In 1804 he removed to 
Vienna, Abbeville District S. C, where he continued to 
teach till 1819 when elected president of the University of 
Georgia holding that office for ten years, resigning in 1824, 
and died at Athens July 21, 1840. Among his pupils were 
men of distinction, as John C. Calhoun, Hugh I. Lagre, 
Jas. S. Pettigrew, W. H. C. Crawford, and others. In addi- 
tion to teaching, he supplied many feeble and destitute 
churches. His name is a household word in educational 
circles, having left to the state and country a rich heri- 
tage in the number of educationists, and men of promi- 
nence and distinction. His eldest son, James P. was pro- 
fessor of Languages in Franklin College and Ruling Elder 
in the church at that place till his death May 26, 1867. His 
second son, Isaac Watts, was a minister and serving the 
churches of Willington, South Carolina, Damopolis, Ala- 
bama and Marietta, Georgia, where he died, in 1849. His 
third son , William Woodson, was an Elder and Physician 
at Tallahassee, Florida, where he died after a useful life 
in 1843. His fourth son, John Newton, was a minister, 
and teacher, in the Synodical College of Alabama; at one 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 23 

time, President of the University of Mississippi; at anoth- 
er. Chancellor of the South Western University at Clarks- 
ville, Tennesse-e. Among his grand children, one, William 
Henry, the son of James P. was first Tutor, then Adjunct 
Professor of Latin, and afterwards Professor of Greek, in 
the University of Georgia, and Elder in the Church till 
his death, Sept. 21, 1878. Another James Daniel, son of 
Isaac Watts, was editor and author of several volumes, 
among them the life of Linton Stevens. Another, John 
Oliver, the second son of Isaac Watts, was an Elder in the 
Cedartown Church. Still another, Isaac Watts, Jr. was a 
minister supplying various Churches, at one time President 
of the North Georgia Agricultural College at Dahlonega, 
also President of the Euharlee Institute, and now pastor 
at Archer, Florida. And still another yet, George N., the 
son of John Newton, became a minister in Alabama, and 
died just after entering the ministry. Dr. Waddell was 
married twice. His first wife being Catherine, the sister 
of his pupil, John C. Calhoun, who lived but a short while. 
His second was Elizabeth W. Pleasants, of Virginia. The 
honorary degree of D. D. was conferred upon him by South 
Carolina College in 1807. He was also elected to the chair 
of Theology in Columbia Seminary, but declined, to which 
Dr. Goulding was afterwards appointed. 

REV. WILLIAM MONTGOMERY. 

Rev. William Montgomery was educated at Mt. Zion 
College, Winnsboro, S. C, licensed by the Presbytery of 
South Carolina April 16, 1793; ordained by the same, and 
made pastor of Little Britain and Siloam Churches May 28, 
1795, and afterwards also of New Hope Church. In 1800, in 
company with Drs. James Hall, of Concord Presbytery, and 
J. H. Bowman, of Orange Presbytery lie was sent on a 
pioneer missionary tour to the "Natchez Country," as Mis- 
sissippi was then called, where they remained nine months, 
the three preaching at nine different places, at six of which 
Churches were afterwards established; after which they 
returned to their homes. 

In 1811, Mr. Montgomery went back to Mississippi, and 



24 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

carried his family with him, and became the supply of the 
Pine Ridge Church for six years, from Jan. 1812 till 1819; 
and then also taking charge of Ebenezer and Union 
Churches, all in Jefferson county, preaching alternately at 
these Churches from 1820 till his death. 

In 1816, in company with Rev. John Bullen, Rev. James 
Smilie and som-e Elders, he went to Pine Ridge Church, and 
there they constituted the Presbytery of Mississippi, the 
mother Presbytery of the Southwest. His being the honor 
thus of being one of the Charter members of two first Pres- 
byteries in two different States, the one in Georgia, and the 
other in Mississippi. He also was the first minister to 
preach in Port Gibson, being called upon to conduct the 
funeral of Mrs. Gibson, the wife of the hotel keeper in that 
place. 

In his early ministry under a charge of indiscretion, if 
not of immoral conduct he was suspended, but before the 
next meeting there was a general reaction in his favor, and 
in accordance with a petition of the Church and congrega- 
tion, he was restored, showing that in the minds of the peo- 
ple, the action of the Presbytery seemed unnecessarily 
severe. 

Mr. Montgomery was a fine scholar, and withal a tried 
and trusted counsellor. He took a very prominent part in 
the organization of Oakland College, the first Presbyterian 
School in the Southwest. He had a son. Rev. Sam Mont- 
gomery, a most eloquent preacher, who supplied Union 
Church, one of his father's, till his death in 1884. 

Mr. Montgomery is described as a small man of slen- 
der frame, with fair and rather florid complexion, blue eyes 
and fiery red hair, an earnest and faithful minister. He 
died in 1848, greatly honored and beloved, and was buried 
near the old Ebenezer Church, to w^hich he so long minis- 
tered. (MS. Letter Dr. C. W. Grafton. Howe 173-5.) 

The first Presbytery seemed much imbued with the 
spirit of its mission, and a realizing sense of its weighty 
responsibilities, for after surveying the field, and voting 
supplies for its vacancies, they took the following action: 
"In view of the degeneracy of manners and declension in 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 25 

religion, which so awfully prevail, in coincidence with sev- 
eral other religious Judicatures, we recommend the 
first Tuesdays in January, April, July and October as days 
of humiliation, fasting and prayer." How intensely in ear- 
nest! Four days in the year for humiliation, fasting and 
prayer! 

Thus it would appear from the foregoing that these 
pioneers of Presbyterianism were neither pygmies nor 
drones in the vineyard of the Master, but were men of 
character and worth, of deep piety and entire consecration 
and well worthy of the honor put upon them, and the work 
assigned them, and indeed the worthy representatives of 
the great church, the foundation of which they were called 
upon to lay in the province of Georgia. 

THE FIELD. 

From the laborers, we turn to the field. That field was 
a very broad one, being the whole state of Georgia, at least 
as far as the population extended. Over this vast area there 
were some fourteen or more small and feeble churches, 
with quite a number of missionary or preaching places. On 
account of the imperfection of the records, and the change 
and confusion of names, several being applied to the same 
field, we have found it difficult, if not impossible to give •:\ 
correct list of all the churches, the time of their organiza- 
tion, or their order. This much however we can assert 
confidently that they were all formed since the Revolution- 
ary war; (see letter of Rev. Dan Thatcher) and most of 
them organized by Rev. Dan Thatcher and Rev. John New- 
ton, the first missionairies of the Presbytery. There were 
only five of the fields regularly supplied; viz: Bethany and 
New Hope, by Rev. John Newton; Liberty, Smyrna and 
Providence by Rev. John Springer; Bethany and Ebenezer, 
by Rev. Robert Cunningham; Carmel and Joppa by Rev. 
Moses Waddel; Greensboro and Little Britian by Rev. Wil- 
liam Montgomery. 

The following is the location of the different churches 
as well as we can locate them, many of them like the 



26 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

seven churches of Asia having passed away, and not leav- 
ing a single trace behind. 

Bethsalem in Oglethorpe county, near Lexington. 
New Hope in Madison county as at present; Liberty after- 
wards Salem, and now Woodstock to which it has been 
removed in Wilkes county. Smyrna, four miles South of 
Washington, on the Augusta Road. Providence a few miles 
North of Washington in the same county. Bethany as at 
present in Greene county. Ebenezer, now Mount Zion, in 
Hancock county. Carmel and Joppa, near Appling, Colum- 
bia county, where Dr. Waddel taught school. Siloam, now 
Greensborough as at present. Little Britian, near by on 
the head waters of Little river, between Greene and 
Oglethorpe counties. "Goshen near Greensborough," in 
Greene county. Sherril's Creek, Goose Pond, and Falling 
Creek, in Oglethorpe county. "Richmond near the Kio- 
kees, Columbia county," "Concord in Wilkes county," and 
Sharon and Kettle Creek, in the same; Great Kiokee, in 
Columbia county. Bethesda in Elbert county, Sharon and 
Fergus Creek in Wilkes county. 

To determine the order of the different organizations, is 
just as unsatisfactory, it being difficult to assert with any 
sort of certainty which is even the first organized. Bethany 
is usually spoken of as the oldest, and on that account call- 
ed the "mother of the churches." We regret that we are 
under the necessity of expressing doubt as to this point. It 
is usually claimed that this church was organized by Rev. 
Dan Thatcher in 1786 and therefore the church held its 
centennial celebration in 1886. But here are the facts as 
we find them. 

In 1791, two years after the General Assembly was 
formed it was "resolved that it be enjoined upon each 
Presbytery, strictly to order their members to procure all 
the materials for forming a history of the Presbyterian 
Church in these United States, to bring in the same to 
their Presbytery, and the Presbyteries to forward the same 
to the next Assembly." (Min. p 38.) This was repeated 
every year till 1795, on account of the slowness of some of 
the Presbyteries to act in the matter. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 27 

In obedience to this command of the Assembly, how- 
ever Rev. Daniel Thatcher and Rev. John Newton gave an 
account of their fields. Mr. Thatcher says in his letter dat- 
ed April 2, 1792, that "in accordance with the request of 
the Assembly and the order of the Presbytery, he would 
"undertake to give some account of the planting and ap- 
parent rise of those Churches now vacant in these parts, 
particularly where I am supplying at present." Then goes 
on to say "Bethany Church, I believe was settled in 1788" 
Ebenezer about the close of 1788," "Richmond Creek, about 
the year 1788," "Bethlehem, about the year 1789," Goshen 
near Greensboro, and Little Britian on the waters of Little 
river about 1790." 

Rev. John Newton, in his letter written the same year 
says that of the churches of New Hope, Bethsalem, Little 
Britian and Bethany, which were in a row North and 
South, that "Bethsalem was the first organized." Then 
goes on with the discription of the other churches, but 
says nothing more about their organization except Beth- 
salem. 

In the year 1877, says he, the people of this 
church, called Mr. John Newton, Probationer under the 
care of the South Carolina Presbytery, to be their pastor. 
The call was accepted, and he the said Mr. Newton, was 
ordained in 1788, and did then become and is still pastor 
of that church." (Howe, Vol. I. P. &57.) Here then we have 
the direct statements of Mr. Thatcher himself, who organ- 
ized the church, that Bethany was settled in 1788, and of Mr. 
Newton that Bethsalem called him in 1787. And we suppose 
that these men knew what they were saying, especially 
as these statements were to form parts of a History in 
which they had a whole year to secure accuracy. 

2nd. Dr. John Waddel in his Academic Memorials, 
(pg. 31) says of his father Dr. Moses Waddel, that he 
taught school at Willington, S. C, in 1784. Went on a tour 
of observation to Greene county, Georgia, in the Pall of 
1786. Opened a school which was broken up by the invas' 
ion of the Indians in 1787, who burned Greensboro and 
committed other depredations; returned to Georgia in 



28 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

1788 and opened another school near the same place, and 
being troubled about his spiritual condition conversed with 
Mr. Thatcher "who with other ministers visited the com- 
munity that year," in this account nothing being said about 
Mr. Thatcher before that time. (1788.) 

3rd. Then again in the list of churches made out by 
the Officers of the General Assembly in 1788, we see the 
names of Providence, Sherill's Creek, Bethsalem, and 
Richmond Creek but no Bethany. (Pub. Min. Pg, 20.) 

Thus from the evidence before me I am constrained to 
believe that Bethany is not the oldest Church organized in 
Georgia. That the neighborhood was settled several years 
before I doubt not; but that Mr. Thatcher was right in his 
official statement that the church was not gathered till 
1788, and after Bethsalem, Richmond, Sherril Creek, and 
Smyrna. Which of these was first organized, we have no 
means of determining. 

On viewing the extent of the field we are at once 
struck with the vastness of the work for these few labor- 
ers; and the more so, when we remember that the number 
01 these churches was soon increased, wliile the number 
of ministers diminished. Hebron w'as added to the list of 
Churches at the first meeting of the Presbytery. So supplies 
were ordered to some new fields, as requested, whilst th3 
ranks of the ministry was depleted by the loss of Rev. 
John Newton who died June 17, of the same year, just 
three months after the meeting of the Presbytery. So of 
the Rev. John Springer who died September the 3rd, of the 
year after; thus leaving but three laborers in that vast 
field, until Rev. Thomas Newton, a brother of Rev. John 
Newton was added to the list. He was a Licentiate of 
Concord Presbytery, and having received a call from He- 
bron church, was ordained and installed pastor of the same 
March 1799. For a number of years the Presbytery con- 
tinued very weak, at times not being able to meet on ac- 
count of a want of a quorum, and at best only with an attend- 
dance of about three or four ministers and tw or three el- 
ders. Edmund Pharr was ordained Dec. 1801, and John 
Hodge, a Licentiate was received from the Cumberland 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 29 

Presbyterian Church, and was ordained April 6, 1805. And 
Rev. Francis Cummins was received from the Preshytery of 
South Carolina at the Fall meeting of the same year and 
made minister at Greensboro. John R. Thompson, a teach- 
er at Augusta, "and late of New York," was received un- 
der their care in 1805 and licensed and ordained in 1807, 
and installed pastor at Augusta. On the other hand, Rev. 
Dr. Waddel had been dismissed to the Presbytery of oouth 
Carolina in 1801, and Rev. Robert Cunningham io West 
Lexington Presbytery in 1809. So that at the end of ten 
years, there were only six ministers, there being only a 
gain of one during that time. Indeed the number reported 
to the Assembly in 1810, was only five, the same as at 
first. We have no means of determining the number of 
Communicants at the organization of the Presbytery. The 
number reported in 1810. which was their first report, was 
only 218. As the number of ministers remained the same, 
we presume the size of the membership also remained 
about the same. 

To see the further weakness of the Presbytery and 
the difficulty under which they labored, we have only to 
consider their almost complete isolation from the rest of 
the brethren, and therefore the want of sympathy and co- 
operation. In 1809 the books of the Presoytery were sent 
to the Synod of the Carolinas, at Poplar Tent and reviewed 
for the first time! So the Presbytery, up to that time had 
been represented in the General Assembly, but twice! 
First by Dr. Moses Waddel, in 1798, and second by Dr. 
Robert Cunningham in 1805, and in neither case by an El- 
der. The next and third time the Presbytery was repre- 
sented in the Assembly, was in 1821, twenty six years af- 
ter by Rev. Talmage, and Elder Elizur L. Newton, who 
was the first Elder Representative. Three times in thirty 
four years; and by an Elder for the first time in thirty four 
years of its existence. 

Considering the extent of the field, the fewness of tho 
laborers, the number of the appointments, the distance to 
be traveled, the absence of public conveniences of travel, 
the smallness of the salaries in no instances being over two 



30 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

or three hundred dollars, which forced so many of them 
into the school room, as well as the lack of fraternal sym- 
pathy and association, we cannot but express our astonish- 
ment at the work performed, and their faith and persever- 
ance; nor yet ean we blame them for not attending the 
sessions of the Synod and the Assembly. 

HARMONY PRESBYTERY. 

The Presbytery of Harmony, was the second Presby- 
tery set up, and was set off from the First and Second 
Presbyteries of South Carolina, and a part of Hopewell, in 
Georgia, by the Synod of the Carolinas at their session at 
Poplar Tent, North Carolina, October 10th, 1809; the west- 
ern border being a line drawn from the mouth of Lynch's 
Creek, a point about an hundred miles from the sea, on the 
line between North and South Carolina, to the city of Au- 
gusta in Georgia, including the cities of Camden, Colum- 
bia and Augusta; with a continuation of said line to St. 
Marys in Georgia, and including Waynesboro and Mt. Zion. 
Thus embracing the whole of the seacoast of South Caro- 
lina, with a large part of Georgia, within its territorial 
area. The ministers of said Presbytery were: G. G. Mc- 
Whorter, Andrew Flinn, and James Cousar, of Carolina; 
and John R. Thompson, pastor of Augusta Church, and 
set off from Hopewell Presbytery. Their first meeting was 
held in Charleston, March 7th, 1810. Rev. James Cousar 
was chosen Stated Clerk, and continued in that capacity 
till his resignation October 1836; his death occurring the 
Fall of the next year. 

As the boundary of the Presbytery was so extensive, 
covering the entire seaboard of two states, and extending 
considerably into the interior of each; and as the ministers 
were so few, and all but one. Rev. J. R. Thompson, living 
in Carolina, and he far in the interior, the members for the 
most part were required to attend on horseback, little or 
nothing was done for quite a term of years towards the 
planting and training of churches in the Georgia half of 
the Presbytery. The same conditions obtained here as in 
the early history of Hopewell; a vast field, with few lab- 



THE IPRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 31 

orers; and nearly the whole of it, missionary ground. To 
see the extent of the field, we have only to consider the 
different places of the meting of the Presbytery. At one 
time at Charleston, then at Augusta, then at Charleston, 
then at Savannah, then at Columbia, then at Augusta, etc. 
The records show that the Presbytery of Harmony met but 
four times in Georgia during the eleven years of its exis- 
tence, till the setting up of the Presbytery of Georgia, in 
1821; viz: Three times in Augusta; Jan. 11, 1811, Nov. 12, 
1812, Oct. 28, 1813; and in Savannah once, Dec. 20, 1811. 
With the increase of population however, and further 
development of the country, ministers began to move in 
and settle at different localities. Rev. William McWhir, D. 
D., a native of Ireland, and member of the Presbytery of 
Killileagh, who had had charge of the • public school in 
Alexandria, Virginia, of which General Washington was a 
patron, removed to Georgia about 1790, had settled 
at Sunbury, and opened a school for boys and girls, and 
had been teaching quite successfully for a number of 
years. Rev. Murdoch Murphy, a member of the Presby- 
tery of Orange had gone in as the successor of Rev. Cyrus 
Gildersleeve, in December 1811 and for some time had 
been the pastor of the Congregational Church in Liberty 
county. Dr. Henry Kollock, who had been a member of 
Harmony Presbytery, but had disowned its authority, in 
the year 1813, had been supplying the Independent Presby- 
terian church at Savannah from the year 1806. Thomas 
Goulding, a member of the Midway church, had been re- 
ceived under the care of the Presbytery of Harmony 1813, 
and by them licensed, ordained and installed pastor of the 
White Bluff Congregational church in the year 1816. Rev. 
Samuel S. Davis, a member of Albany Presbytery, who had 
been acting as an agent for Princeton College, had been 
received by the Presbytery of Harmony, installed pastor 
of the Darien Church Nov, 1821. A congregation had been 
gathered at St. Marys, and was in need of a Minister. So 
the churches of Augusta, Mt. Zion and Waynesborougl?, 
felt, in their separation, the need of Christian fraterniza- 
tion and ecclesiastical oversight. 



32 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

GEORGIA PRESBYTERY. 
(The third Presbytery formed.) 

Under the then existing circumstances, therefore, it 
was deemed advisable that the Presbytery of Harmony 
should be divided, which was accordingly done by the 
Synod of South Carolina and Georgia, at their Sessions at 
Washington, Wilkes county, Nov. 3rd, 1821; setting off the 
lower half of the Presbytery, south of the Savannah river, 
into an independent Presbytery, to be known as the Pres- 
bytery of Georgia. To which also the Rev. Nathan S. S. 
Beman, and Rev. Benjamin Gildersleeve, members of 
Hopewell Presbytery, were set off by the Synod, and united 
to the new Presbytery. The western boundry line as set by 
the Synod, and separating it from the Presbytery of Hope- 
well, was the lower lines of the counties of Lincoln, 
Wilkes, Greene, Putnam, Jasper, Monroe, Upson, Talbot, 
and Harris. Thus cutting the Sta^e into two unequal 
parts, and giving the larger half to the newly formed 
Presbytery; and throwing the churches of Augusta, 
Waynesboro and Mount Zion into the bounds of Georgia 
Presbytery and so continued till 1824, when the boundary 
line between the Presbyteries of Georgia and Hopewell was 
changed, and placing them back into the bounds of the 
latter. 

The Presbytery of Georgia, at its organization, com- 
prised the following ministers: 

William McWhir, who had been received into Harm- 
ony Presbytery, from the Presbytery of Killileagh, Ireland, 
Nov. 9, 1815, and who was then teacher at Sunbury. 

Murdoch Murphy, received by Harmony Presbytery, 
from Orange Presbytery, Dec. 27, 1811, then pastor of Mid- 
way Congregational Church. 

Thomas Gouldlng, licensed, Oct. 31, 1813, and ordained 
and installed pastor White Bluff Congregational Church, 
by Harmony Presbytery, Jan. 21, 1816. 

William Moderwell, received by Harmony Presbytery, 
April 19, 1821, from New Castle Presbytery, and then pas- 
tor Augusta Church. 

Samuel S. Davis, received by Presbytery of Harmony, 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 33 

from Pr€sbyt€ry of Albany, Nov. 2, 1821, (only a month 
before) then minister at Darien. 

Remembrance Chamberlain, received by Harmony 
Presbytery, (only a month before) from Addison Associa- 
tion, Vermont, Nov. 2, 1821, then a missionary m Georgia. 
Nathan S. S. Beman, set off by the Synod from Hope- 
well Presbytery, teacher and supplying Mt. Zion Church. 

Benjamin Gildersleeve, set off by the Synod from Hope- 
well, assistant teacher and Editor at Mt. Zion. 

LICENTIATES: James Wood, and James S. Olcott. 

CANDIDATE: Carlisle P. Beman. 

CHURCHES— Augusta, Mt. Zion, (formerly Ebenezer) 
Darien, St. Marys. The other fields, either Congregational 
or Independent. 

The Presbytery held its first meeting at Washington, 
during the Synod, and by its appointment, with Rev. Nath- 
an S. S. Beman as Moderator, and Re^^ William Moder- 
well, Clerk. 

Although the Presbytery started seemingly under fav- 
orable auspices with aboundant territory, and a goodly sup- 
ply of faithful ministers, yet its after success was disap- 
pointing, for its progress was marked, for many years, with 
languishing and weakness. 

The reason for this was twofold: 

1st. The wide prevalence of the Congregational or 
Independent element, which drew so largely upon the body 
of its ministry, and at the same time interfered with any 
definite purpose of church extension. The churches of 
Augusta, Darien, Mt. Zion, and St. Marys, were the only 
regularly constituted ones within its wide domain, and 
they too remote for well directed and concerted action. 
The church at Wayuesborough was Congregational and 
though independent of the Presbytery, yet drawing upon 
it for supplies. In like manner the Independent Church of 
Savannah, at different times, employed the ministers of 
the Presbytery, as pastors. So the Independent Congrega- 
tional Church at White Bluff, depended upon the Presby- 
tery for its supplies. So also the Midway Church, Liberty 
county; after Rev. Mr. Osgood's time, with the exception 



34 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

of Dr. Abiel HoIm€s was supplied entirely by ministers of 
the Presbytery. During the last fifty years of its existence, 
it employed as many as three of its ministers, two regular 
pastors, and one as missionary to the blacks. With the ex- 
ception of the four points above mentioned, viz: Augusta, 
Darien, Mt. Zion, and St. Marys, the ministers were doing 
little or nothing towards the building up of Presbyterian- 
ism, and equally as little for the extension of Congregational- 
ism, or the principles of Independency, as the after results 
have abundantly demonstrated. We conceive it to be a 
difficult task indeed, for a set of workmen to build a house 
with different models before them. 

2nd. The second reason for the poor success, was the 
frequent spoliation of the Presbytery, by the repeated dis- 
memberment of its territory; thus reducing it after awhile 
to a mere coast wise strip. 

1. The first dismemberment was in 1824, when the 
Synod detached, and annexed to the Presbytery of Hope- 
well, eighteen of her counties, and taking away Augusta, 
Waynesborough, and Mt. Zion, three of her strongest and 
best organized churches. The counties thus detached are 
as follows: Columbia, Warren, Hancock, Baldwin, Jones, 
Bibb, Crawford, Houston, Twiggs, Wilkinson, Washington, 
Jefferson, Richmond, Burke, Emanuel, Laurens, Pulaski, 
and Montgomery. Against this action of the Synod, the 
Presbytery demurred, but in vain. 

2. The second dismemberment was in 1835, when in 
the setting up of the Presbytery of Goodhope, afterwards 
Flint River, and defining the boundary line between Geor- 
gia and Flint River Presbyteries, the counties of Early, 
Randolph, Lee, Stewart, Sumter, Marion, Muscogee, and 
parts of Dooly, Decatur, and Baker were detached, and 
added to Flint River; thus cutting off seven more whole 
counties, and parts of three others. 

3. The third dismemberment was in 1840, when the 
Presbytery of Florida was set up, and when the counties 
of Baker, Decatur, Thomas, and Lowndes were set off with 
a portion of Florida to form the Presbytery of Florida. 

4. The fourth dismemberment was in 1878, when the 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 35 

county of Mitchell was detached and added to the Presby- 
tery of Macon. 

Recently,' in 1908, the counties of Screven, and 
Jenkins, were transferred to the Presbytery of Augusta. 

As the result of all these excisions the Presbytery be- 
came so weak that frequently it failed to meet for the want 
of a quorum. 

SAVANNAH PRESBYTERY. 

In 1866, at the time of the redistribution of the Presby- 
teries by the Synod, the name of this Presbytery was 
changed from "GEORGIA," to that of SAVANNAH, and 
the counties of Emanuel, Montgomery, and Lowndes were 
restored to her. So in 1890, the county of Worth was re- 
stored by the General Assembly; the Presbytery at that 
time being in connection with the Synod of South Georgia 
and Florida. 

In answer to an overture of the Synod of Georgia for 
division and formation of a new Synod, the General As- 
sembly in 1881 detached the Presbytery of Savannah, and 
united it to the two Presbyteries of Florida, viz: the Pres- 
bytery of Florida and that of St. Johns, and thereby form- 
ing the new Synod of South Georgia and Florida. The 
Presbytery remained in this connection till 1891 when it 
was again restored to the Synod of Georgia and the Synod 
of South Georgia and Florida ceased to exist, but became 
the Synod of Florida. 

Since this restoration, and with the increased opening 
of the interior and southern portions of the state, and th^ 
general improvement of the country, the Presbytery of 
Savannah has become much stronger, and now bids fair to 
attain to a degree of success and prosperity, the equal of 
any other Presbytery in the Synod. 

Though Hopewell was the older, and mother Presby- 
tery, yet as we have seen, it made little or no progress 
during the first ten years of its existence; the number re- 
maining about the same, and that too only through the self 
denying labors of the few faithful ministers who struggled 
on, supplementing their small salaries, with the labors of 
the school room, thus discharging the three fold duties of 



36 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

pastor, teacher, and missionary; ofttimes discouraged and 
some times even almost ready to give up in despair. In 
their early Records we frequently find that, grieving over 
the low estate of the church, they would appoint days of 
fasting, humiliation and prayer. And at first as many as 
four in the year; "the first Tuesday in January, April, 
July, and October." And on one occasion we find that the 
Presbytery, in 1813, appointed a meeting at Bethany, not 
for business, but solely for conference, humiliation, and 
prayer, over their low estate! But such faithful service 
could not continue in vain: Such earnest prayers, not long 
remain unanswered. The night must give place to day. 
After a while the darkness began to disappear, and the 
dawn of the morning to appear wath the breaking of the 
day. With the coming of Dr. John Brown from South Caro- 
lina, and his election to the presidency of the College at 
Athens in the year 1811, came fresh hope and courage to 
the Presbytery. (Note) Dr. Brown was a native of Antrim 
county, Ireland, born June 15, 1763; joined the army under 
Gen. Sumter, 1778, studied theology under Rev. M. Mc- 
Corkle, near Salisbury, N. C. Licensed in 1788. In 1809 
chosen Professor of Logic and Moral Philosophy, in South 
Carolina College; Made President of Georgia University in 
1811, Resigned in 1816. Pastor of Mt. Zion Church in Han- 
cock county for twelve years, and died at Fort Gaines, Ga., 
Dec. 11, 1842. 

But the change became much more apparent upon the 
return of Dr. Waddel from Carolina, to which Presbytery 
he had been dismissed, after nineteen years absence, and 
his accession to the presidency of the State Institution, in 
1819, after the death of Dr. Robert Finley, who succeeded 
Dr. Brown upon his resignation in 1816 and who died 
Oct 3, 1817 the same year of his inauguration. Dr. Wad- 
del's influence was felt not only in the university, but 
throughout the entire state. He was a natural born 
teacher, and had established quite a reputation as a suc- 
cessful and skilfull educator. Dr. Ramsay in his history 
has quoted Dr. Smith the learned President of Nassau Hall 
as saying that "No scholars from any section of the Unit- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 37 

ed States, stood better examinations than those of Dr. Wad- 
del," (Vol. II. 369.) Under his skilfull management the In- 
stitution was soon built up, her walls hitherto almost de- 
serted, now became crowded with students; the standard 
of education lifted in the state, and many young men 
through the force of his example, had their attention turn- 
ed to the Presbyterian ministry; and thus becoming means 
of imparting fresh life and vigor to the work of the Pres- 
bytery. 

Another thing that added strength and increased cour- 
age and hope was the organization of the "Educational 
Society," in 1824. Though the scheme originated with the 
Presbyteries of Hopewell and Georgia, it was wholly unde- 
nominational; Methodists and Baptists taking part in it, 
though not to the same extent. The object of the enter- 
prise was to give aid to all young men of all denominations 
having the ministry in view, and who needed help in acquir- 
ing an education. At that age and time, such a Society did 
a great deal of good and many a young man was enabled 
to obtain an education, who otherwise would have been 
deprived of so great a blessing. One of the beneficaries of 
the fund thus raised was the Hon. Alexander H. Stephens, 
who was thus enabled to graduate at Athens College, who 
at the time expected to enter the Presbyterian ministry, 
but who afterwards changed his mind, but who conscien- 
tiously and faithfully returned every dollar of the funds 
thus advanced, and who also in his turn afterwards assisted 
quite a large number of young men in their efforts to 
acquire an education. 

(Hopewell had in 1829 fourteen beneficiaries of this 
and other funds. Min. Ass. p. 429.) 

Another thing still, which contributed additional im- 
pulse to this end was the action of the Trustees of the Col- 
lege in offering, upon the suggestion of Dr. Waddell, free 
scholarship to a number of pious young men who might 
have the ministry in view. Dr. Waddell was so impressed 
with the irreligion and ungodliness of the lives of students; 
that he felt that something might be gained by thus having 
a number of pious young men as members of the Institu- 



38 THE PRESBYTERIAN €HURCH IN GEORGIA 

tion, through the influences of their pious lives; and there- 
fore suggested the plan to the Trustees who approved the 
same. The offer was accordingly made and accepted by 
quite a number, among whom was Mr. Samuel J. Cassels, 
who exerted a happy influence resulting in a most gracious 
revival of religion, and the general uplift of the spiritual 
life and condition of the Institution. 

These things in connection with the general improve- 
ment of the country, conspired to give new life and 
increased impetus to the work of the Church. The ranks of 
the Presbytery began to swell with increased numbers, and 
with the addition of such names upon the roll as Alonzo 
Francis Cummins, minister and teacher at Greensborough, 
Alonzo Church, at first a teacher, afterwards licensed and 
ordained a minister, and who afterwards became president 
of the University; Rev. John S. Wilson, stated clerk of the 
Synod; Nathan Hoyt, for nineteen years pastor of the Ath- 
ens Church, and quasi chaplain and pastor of the students; 
Samuel K. Talmage, first Rector of the Academy at Augusta, 
then pastor of the Church and afterwards president of Ogle- 
thorpe College; C. W. Howard, pastor of the Milledgeville 
Church and afterwards one of the professors of Oglethorpe 
College; Francis Bowman, for many years pastor of the 
Greensborough Church; W. W. Cunningham, pastor of the 
Lagrange Church and elected president of Oglethorpe at 
the time of his death; and others of like character. With 
this increase in the ranks of the ministry was a corres- 
ponding increase in the number of the churches; and the 
whole heart of the Church was made to throb with new life 
and zeal. 

FLINT RIVER PRESBYTERY. 
(Good Hope at First.) 

The Presbytery of Hopewell having now received an 
Impetus continued to grow with considerable rapidity, espe- 
cially in the decade between 1820 and 1830. In 1820 it 
reported to the Assembly only seven ministers, and four of 
those "without charge," 15 Churches and 289 members. 
In 1830 they reported 22 ministers, 4 licentiates, 3 candi- 
dates, 52 Churches, with a membership of 2,263. As these 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 39 

Churches were scattered over a vast area, and in some 
instances quite remote from each other, it became very- 
inconvenient, if not impossible, for them to attend the 
meetings of the Presbyteries. A petition was therefore 
sent to the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia at their 
sessions at Columbia Dec. 5, 1833, praying that the Presby- 
tery might be divided, and a new one be set up south of the 
Ocmulgee river, embracing the portion of Hopewell be- 
tween t he Chattahoochee rivers, together with the 
counties of Newton, Walton, Gwinnett, Campbell, Carroll 
and Heard, to be known as the Presbytery of Good Hope. 
The petition was granted and the new Presbytery of Good 
Hope was accordingly set up. 

The Presbytery held its first meeting, according to the 
direction of the Synod, at McDonough, Ga., March 20, 1834, 
and was opened with a sermon by Rev. John S. Wilson, 
from Isaiah. 52, 1; "Awake, awake, put on thy strength, O 
Zion." Rev. John S. Wilson was chosen moderator, and 
Rev. James C. Patterson clerk. Present at the opening, 6 
ministers, 6 elders. 

PRESBYTERY OF GOOD HOPE 
MINISTERS 

James Gamble, S. S. J. C. Patterson, S. S. 

R. iChamberlain, S. S. W. B. Richards, W. C. 

Michael Dickson, S. S. Thos. F. Scott, W. C. 

John S. Wilson, P. Wm. K. Patton, S. S. 

J. Y. Alexander, S. S. John Baker, S. S. 

Edwin Holt, P. John )B. Smith, Licentiate. 

CHURCHES 

McDouQUgh, S. S. Alcovia, V. 

Philadelphia, S. S. LaGrange, V. 

Jackson, S. S. Fayettesville, S. S. 

Decatur, S. S. Zebulon, S. S. 

Smyrna, S. S. Union Cnapel, S. S. 

Harmony, S. S. Columbus, S. S. 

Fairview, P. Greenville, V. 

Newnan, S. S. Providence, S. S. 

Macon, P. Thomaston, V. 

Hopewell, S. S. Covington, V. 

Forsyth, S. S. Hamilton, V. 

Bethesda, S. S. Ephesus, V. 
Carmel, V. 



40 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

The Presbytery of Good Hope continued but one year, 
when its name was changed to that of Flint River. It held 
its first regular meeting at McDonough, its second at La- 
grange and a pro re nata meeting at Macon Nov. 21, of the 
same year to dissolve the pastoral relation between Rev. 
Edwin Holt and that Church, and then ceased to exist, but 
was afterwards known by the new name of Flint River. 

The boundaries of this Presbytery extended from the 
Presbytery of Hopewell on the North to the Florida line on 
the South, and from the Georgia Presbytery on the East, to 
the Chattahoochee river on the West. These limits contin- 
ued till 1840, when the Synod of South Carolina and Geor- 
gia detached the counties of Decatur, Early and Baker, and 
annexed them to the newly formed Presbytery of Florida. 
Another change was made in 1842, when the Synod trans- 
ferred the city of Macon and county of Bibb to the Pres- 
bytery of Hopewell; and by way of compensation of the 
loss, detaching the counties of Paulding, Walker, Cobb, 
Floyd, Cass, Cherokee, Chattooga, Murray, Gilmer and 
Dade, from Cherokee Presbytery, and giving them to the 
Presbytery of Flint River. This, as the author of "Necrol- 
ogy," well said, "was a singular ecclesiastical freak." 
And if personal feeling, as he suggests, and not the gen- 
eral good, was the controlling motive then we are glad thai 
the ground of the action is not stated, so that the secret 
may be forever buried with the men of that generation. 
PRESBYTERY OF FLORIDA. 

As Presbyterianism continued to spread towards the 
south, and ministers began to cross over into the state of 
Florida, and to establish churches in different places, the 
desire also soon began to grow, that a new Presbytery 
might be formed. A petition therefore was sent from the 
churches of Tallahassee, Quincy, and Mandarin, to the 
Presbytery of Georgia, at its meeting at Darien April, 
1840 asking for a division of said Presbytery. The Pres- 
bytery agreed to the request, and the Presbytery was di- 
vided by the Synod of Carolina and Georgia at its next 
meeting and a new Presbytery set up known as the Pres- 
bytery of Florida, by detaching from the Georgia Presby- 



THE PRES'BYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 41 

teri€s the whole of Florida and adding to the same three 
of the counties on Flint river; as has already been stated, 
viz: Decatur, Early and Baker. The Presbytery was constitu- 
ted that Fall and reported to the next Assembly as con- 
sisting of 7 ministers, and 5 churches, as follows: 

MINISTERS. 

John Brown, D. D. S. S. Joshua Phelps, S. S. 

Philo F. Phelps, P, Richard M. Baker, S. S. 

Benjamin Burroughs, S. S. Joel S. Graves, Ag't. 

Eli Graves, S. S.— 7. 

CHURCHES 
Tallahassee, P. Quincy, S. S. 

Monticello, S. S. Madison, S. S.— 5. 

Marianna, S. S. 

This Presbytery held its first meeting at Tallahassee, 
April 29, 1841. Rev. Dr. John Brown was chosen Moderator, 
and Rev. Joshua Phelps Stated Clerk. 

The Presbytery of Florida, continued the only one in 
the state for thirty seven years, at first growing very slow- 
ly, but afterwards more rapidly till 1877, when it number* 
ed sixteen ministers, twenty-seven churches, scattered 
pretty generally over the state. 

It may be here added that while Presbyterianism was 
moving Southwardly, there was an extension at the same 
time towards the West, into Alabama, which was legitimate- 
ly considered as a part of the field of the Synod of South 
Carolina and Georgia, and the Presbytery of South Carolina. 
So we find that in answer to an overture. Rev, Andrew 
Brown, and Rev. James Sloss, both of the Presbytery of 
South Carolina, and the Rev. Thomas Newton of the Pres- 
bytery of Hopewell were in 1821 set up by the Synod at 
meeeing at Upper Long Cane, Nov. 9, 1820, into a Presby- 
tery known as the Presbytery of Alabama, which name 
was afterwards changed into South Alabama, to distin- 
guish it from North Alabama. As many of the settlers "^f 
that state were from Tennessee, there was a dispute ^-s 
to territory, whether the new Presbytery should be under 



42 THE PRESBYTEKIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

the jurisdiction of the Synod of South Carolina or that of 
Tennessee, but settled in favor of the former. 

This Presbytery continued for eight years in connec- 
tion with the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia, till the 
formation of the Synod of Mississippi and South Alabama 
in 1829, into which it entered as a part of that body. Dur- 
ing these eight years it was represented in the Synod of 
South Carolina and Georgia, but three times! 

It may also be here stated that the Presbytery of North 
Alabama set up in 1824, was also in connection with the 
Synod of South Carolina and Georgia for two years. But 
we have no evidence of its representation at any time in 
the Synod. 

PRESBYTERY OF CHEROKEE. 

In 1838 the lands of the Cherokees were delivered to 
the authorities of the state, and the Indians removed west. 
Upon their removal, emigrants moved rapidly in filling up 
the country with settlements on every side, towns and vil- 
lages multiplied and grew; Presbyterians in common with 
other denominations commenced to occupy the newly ac- 
quired territory, and before many years had elapsed had 
quite a number of churches planted in different places, not 
only along the line of the W. & A. railroad, which was 
then in process of construction, but also in the interior. 
With this growth towards the North, was added a similar 
extension towards the South, so that the Presbytery had 
now not only covered all the territory contiguous to the 
river after which it was named, and all its tributaries, but 
even extending beyond; and therefore it became necessary 
that it should be divided. So in answer to an overture 
asking a division, the Synod of South Carolina and Geor- 
gia, at its meeting at Augusta, Novembed 1843, divided th€ 
Presbytery setting up the Presbytery of Cherokee. The 
following was its action: 

"That the Synod proceed to set off and erect into a new 
Presbytery, all that part of the territory now belonging to 
Flint River Presbytery, known as the "CHEROKEE COUN- 
TRY," and also the counties of Forsyth, Lumpkin, and Un- 
ion, belonging to the Presbytery of Hopewell, to be called 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 43 

by the name of the Presbytery of CheroRee, to include all 
the churches within said counties, and the ministers there 
located, etc." 

The Presbytery of Cherokee held its first meeting ac- 
cording to the direction of the Synod, at Summerville, Ga., 
April 18, 1844, and was opened with a sermon by the Rev. 
James Gamble, from Acts 20, 28, who was afterwards elect- 
ed Moderator, and Rev. A. B. McCorkle, Stated Clerk. 

The Presbytery as thus constituted comprised the fol- 
lowing Ministers, Licientiates, and churches: 

MINISTERS: I. W. Waddel, James Gamble, N. A. 
Pratt, D. D., A. B. McCorkle. 

LICENTIATES: Thomas Jackson, J. B. Dunwoody. 

CHURCHES: Lafayette, Roswell, Marietta, Pleasant 
Green, Mars Hill, Hickory Flat, Walnut Grove, Sardis, 
Sweet Water, Chickamauga, Dahlonega, Gumming. 



CHAPTER IV. 



SYNOD OF GEORGIA. 

We have now reached the period for the organization 
of a Synod in the State. For the same reason that the 
Presbytery should be divided, onerated for the division of 
the Synod, and even more so since that Synod extended 
over three states, Soutli Carolina, Georgia and Florida. Ac- 
cordingly the General Assembly at its sessions at Cincinnat- 
ti in May 1844, upon an overture from the Synod of South 
Carolina and Georgia, divided it, setting up the Synod of 
Georgia, the boundary line being the Savannah river, its 
territory as defined by the Assembly being "the State of 
Georgia, and the territory of Florida, as far as this may 
not interfere with the limits of the Synod of Alabama.'' 

The Synod of Georgia in accordance with the direction 
of the Assembly, held its first meeting at Macon, Georgia, 
Nov. 1845, and was opened with a sermon by Rev. Thos. 
Goulding, D. D., from Acts XX. 28 Dr. Goulding was elect- 
ed Moderator, and Rev. John S. Wilson, Stated Clerk. 

At the time of the organization of the Synod in 184.5, 
there were in connection with it five Presbyteriefe, with 
fifty-three ministers and ninety-four churches. Of the 
fifty-three ministers thirty were present, and twenty-three 
absent. Of the ninety-four churches, twenty-three were 
represented, and seventy-one not repreesnted; as follows: 

PRESBYTERY OF HOPEWELL. MINISTERS PRES- 
ENT: R. Chamberlain, N. Hoyt, D. D., S. K. Talmadge, D. 
D., F. Bowman, H. C. Carter, F. R. Goulding, J. W. Baker, 
C. S. Dod, H. Safford, J. C. Baldwin, J. W. Reid, R. Hooker, 
G. H. W. Petrie, Homer Hendee. 

MINISTERS ABSENT: A. Church D. D., John Harrison, 
C. P. Beman, E. Pharr, A. N. Cunningham. 

CHURCHES REPRESENTED: W. L. Mitchell, Ath- 
ens; C. M. Richter, Madison; W. O. Alexander, Thyatira; 
B. B. Hopkins, Augusta; W. Clark, Eatonton; E. A. Nis- 
bet, Macon. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN aEORGIA 45 

CHURCHES NOT REPRESENTED: Salem, Lincoln- 
ton, Concord, Greensboro, Bethany, South Liberty, Mill- 
edgeville, Mount Zion, Ebenezer, Hopewell, Bethel, Lexing- 
ton, New Hope, Danielsville, Hebron, New Lebanon, Turk- 
ey Creek, Clarksville, Sandy Creek, Gainesville. 
PRESBYTERY OF GEORGIA. 

MINISTERS PRESENT: W. Baird, John Winn. 

MINISTERS ABSENT: Wm. McWhir, D. D., C. C. 
Jones, I. S. K. Axson, John Jones, R. Quarterman, A. W. 
McClure, H. Axtel, John B. Ross. 

CHURCHES REPRESENTED: By Elders, none. 

CHURCHES NOT REPRESENTED: First Church Sa- 
vannah, Bryan Church, Darien, Harris Neck, Waynesville, 
Linton Grove, St. Marys, Jacksonville, St. Augustine. 
PRESBYTERY OF FLINT RIVER. 

MINISTERS PRESENT: Thomas Goulding, D. D., J. S. 
Wilson, J. Y. Alexander, W. M. Cunningham, D. Ingles, R. 
T. Marks, T. F. Montgomery, J. U. Parsons, J. C. Patter- 
son. 

MINISTERS ABSENT: H. L. Deane, George Dunham. 

CHURCHES REPRESENTED: G. E. Thomas, Colum- 
bus; James H. Davidson, Decatur; J. J. Pinson, Newnm; 
H. Smith, Carrollton; E. Newton, Long Cane; H. P. Rich- 
ards, Bethany; M. Robertson, Hamilton; Seth Cason, Hope- 
well, W. A. Skilley, Mount Zion; S. F. Duffey, Fellowship; 
James Espey, GrifRn; G. A. Winn, Bethesda; James Mc- 
Rory, Ephesus. 

CHURCHES NOT REPRESENTED: Fairview, Goshen, 
Covington, Circle, Smyrna, McDonough, Philadelphia, Sa- 
lem, Union Chapel, White Oak, LaGrange, Ebenezer, West 
Point, Brainerd, Greenville, Muscogee, Mount Tabor, Berea, 
Forsyth, Jackson, Friendship, Zebulon. 

PRESBYTERY OF FLORIDA. 

MINISTERS PRESENT: J. Phelps, R. M. Baker. 

MINISTERS ABSENT: B. Burroughs, Eli Graves, J. S. 
Graves, Edmond Lee. 

CHURCHES REPRESENTED: Alex. Cromartie, la- 
monia. 

CHURCHES NOT REPRESENTED: Quincy, Talla- 



46 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

hass€e, Monticello, Madison, Marianna, 1st, Church Thom- 
as county, 1st. Church Lowndes county. 

PRESBYTERY OF CHEROKEE. 

MINISTERS PRESENT: N. A. Pratt, W. H. Moore, R. 
A, Milner. 

MINISTERS ABSENT: James Gamble, I. W. Waddel, 
A. B. McCorkle, Charles R. Smith. 

CHURCHES REPRESENTED: John Dunwody, Ros- 
well. 

CHURCHES NOT REPRESENTED: Dahlonega, Gum- 
ming, Hickory Flat, Marietta, Sweet Water, Mars Hill, 
Rome, Sardis, Pleasant Green, Lafayette, Walnut Grove, 
Pea Vine, Friendship. 

Since the meeting of the Synod in 1845 there has been 
a redistribution of the Presbyteries, changing some of the 
names, and by division, setting up of two new Presby- 
teries. 

At the meeting of the Synod at Savannah, in 1866 that 
body ordered the change of the name of Georgia into that 
of Savannah, and that of Hopewell into that of Augusta; 
and that Flint River be divided into two Presbyteries, of 
Atlanta and Macon, and the transfer of the church of 
Macon to the Presbytery of Macon. The following is the 
action: 

"That the Presbytery be divided into two, the upper 
half to be known as Atlanta, and the lower portion Ma- 
con, the boundary line to be a line beginning at a point on 
the Chattahoochee at the corner of Troup and Harris coun- 
ties, and running thence on the most direct county lines 
to the Ocmulgee river, where the northern line of Bibb 
touches said river. 

That the Presbyterian Church in the city of Macon be 
transferred from the Presbytery of Hopewell to that of 
Macon. 

That the following ministers shall constitute the Pres- 
bytery of Atlanta, viz: J. S. Wilson, D. D., John Jones, 
W. J. Keith, A. G. Peden, W. M. Cunningham, Robert Lo- 
gan, James Stacy, H. C. Carter, R. T. Marks, T. F. Mont- 
gomery, and J. L. Rogers. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORKIA 47 

The following, the Presbytery of Macon: David Wills, 
C P. B. Martin, Geo. H. Coit, Homer Hendee, Luther H. 
Wilson, J. L. King, H. F. Hoyt, Theo. E. Smith, J. N. Brad- 
shaw, Samuel H. Higgins, D. D. and John C. McCain. 

The former to meet at Newnan on April 3d, and to be 
opened with a sermon by the moderator of the late Flint 
River, or the oldest minister present. 

That Rev. F. R. Goulding be transferred from the Pres- 
bytery of Georgia to that of Macon, and the Rev. I. S. K. 
Axson, D. D., and Rev. C. B. King from the Presbytery of 
Hopewell to that of Georgia." 

The Presbytery of Atlanta met as directed, at the place 
and time specified, April 3d, 1867, and was opened with a 
sermon by Rev. W. M. Cunningham, D. D., from Gal. vi., 
6-8. Rev. H. C. Carter was chosen Moderator, and Rev. 
Jas. Stacy, Stated Clerk. 

So the Presbytery of Macon met at the same time at 
Columbus, and was opened with a sermon by Rev. David 
Wills, D. D., from 1 Tim. iv. 14. Rev. Dr. Wills was chosen 
Moderator and Rev. J. L. King, Stated Clerk. 
PRESBYTERY OF ATHENS. 

In accordance with an overture from the Presbytery 
of Augusta, the Synod at its meeting at Gainesville in Octo- 
ber 1879 divided said Presbytery into two, with a line run- 
ning with the Southern lines of Elbert, Oglethorpe and 
Oconee counties; the upper receiving the name of Athens 
and the southern retaining the name of Augusta. 

It was ordered by the Synod that the Presbytery of 
Augusta shall be composed of all the ministers and church- 
es south of the line aforesaid, together with the Rev. James 
Woodrow, D. D., and with the Licentiate Donald McQueen, 
and the Candidate Charles B. Goetchius. Said Presbytery 
to meet at Augusta, April 14, 1880, and to be opened with 
a sermon by Rev. Henry Newton, or in case of his absence 
by the oldest minister present. 

The Presbytery of Athens to meet at the time appoint- 
ed, and to be opened with a sermon by Re". G. H. Cart- 
ledge, or by the oldest minister present in case of his 
absence. 



48 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

These Presbyteries met as appointed. That of Augusta 
met at Augusta and was opened with a 'sermon by Rev. 
Henry Newton from Acts 1-5. Rev. Mr. Newton was elected 
Moderator and Rev. Geo. T. Goetchius Stated Clerk. 

The Presbytery of Athens met at Athens at the same 
time and was opened with a sermon by Rev. G. H. Cart- 
ledge from Zach. iv. 6. Rev. T. P. Cleveland was elected 
Moderator and Rev. C. W. Lane, D. D., Stated Clerk. 

(F"or the names of ministers and cl'.urches composing 
these Presbyteries see Appendix). 

DIVISION OF THE SYNOD AND SETTING UP OF THE 
PRESBYTERY OF ST. JOHNS. 

To complete the view of the outward and Ecclesiasti- 
cal changes of the Synod we have only to make mention of 
the division of the Synod and the formation of the Synod 
of South Georgia and Florida. 

At the meeting of the Synod of Georgia, at Columbus 
in 1878, an overture was presented from the Presbytery of 
Florida asking the Synod to divide said Presbytery and 
also to give its consent to the formation of a new Synod of 
Florida, by setting off the Presbytery of Savannah, and 
to unite the same with the two Presbyteries aforesaid. 

The Synod agreed to the request, so far as the division 
of the Presbytery was concerned, but deferred action loucli- 
ing the transfer of the Presbytery of Savannah, till thffv 
should hear from said Presbytery. The Presbytery hav- 
ing expressed its strong opposition to the transfer, the 
Synod declined any further action in the matter till its 
next meeting. 

At its next meeting in 1879 the matter came up again 
in an overture from the Presbyteries of Florida and St. 
Johns, and the petition for a new Synod renewed. After 
much discussion and upon the recommendation of the com- 
mittee on overtures, the Synod again deferred action till 
the next meeting. 

The Synod held its next meeting at Thomasville in 
1880. The necessity for a new Synod becoming more and 
more obvious, and the Presbytery of Savannah having 
given its consent for the formation of the new Synod, upon 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 49 

application, the General Assembly diviaed the Synod, set- 
ting up the new Synod of South Georgia and Florida, con- 
sisting of the three Presbyteries of Savannah, Florida and 
St. Johns. 

SYNOD OF SOUTH GEORGIA AND FLORIDA. 

This Synod of South Georgia and Florida continued in 
existence for ten years from 1881 to 1891, till the forma- 
tion of Suwanee Presbytery when by request from the Pres- 
bytery of Savannah, and overture from the Synod of South 
Georgia and Florida, the General Assembly restored the 
Presbytery of Savannah to the Synod of Georgia, and also 
in accordance with the request of the former, changed its 
name into that of Synod of Florida. 

The Synod of Georgia as now (1912) constituted is 
composed of the following six Presbyteries, viz: Athens, 
Atlanta, Augusta, Cherokee, Macon and Savannah; com- 
prising one hundred and twenty-seven ministers, two hun- 
dred and thirty-seven Churches, and twenty thousand and 
six hundred and forty-nine members. 



CHAPTER V. 



INTERNAL DEVELOPMENT. 
Having traced the outward history of the Church, 
from its incipient beginning, as the Presbytery of Hope- 
well, to its present position as a Synod with its six at- 
tendent Presbyteries, we now proceed to enter more par- 
ticularly into its inner life, and to note some of its in- 
ternal struggles and trials, its victories and defeats. And 
as God's people of old were "chosen in the furnace of af- 
fliction" Isaiah 48. 10, we would expect that this people 
would likewise have their share of trials and drawbacks, 
as was the case not only in their earlier struggles but 
later on, in the devastation and interference of a destruc- 
tive W'ar, which paralysed the whole country; and as well 
also as in the internal strife and discussions, which for 
some time disturbed her peace and impeded her onward 
march. Before speaking of these things however, we will 
first rehearse the story of her enlargement and growth, 
especially in some of her more prominent cities. 

PRESBYTERIANISM IN ATLANTA. 
The story of Presbyterianism in Atlanta, especially 
in its beginning, is an interesting one. God many times 
uses the passions of men, as other means for the exten- 
sion of his kingdom. He makes the wrath of man to 
praise him; the remainder of that wrath he restrains, Ps, 
76, 10. Paul and Barnabas differed as to the policy of the 
early church in the use of men. The contention became 
sharp; insomuch that those honored servants of the Lord 
separated, Paul taking Silas, and Barnabas, John Mark, 
and went on different missions. The result was the ex- 
tension of the Redeemer's Kingdom. In 1784, two parties 
were formed in the Synod of Philadelphia, the one with- 
drawing and forming the second Synod of New York, 
which, doubtless, was the means of the more rapid ex- 
tension of the Presbyterian church. So with the division 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 51 

in 1861, into North and South. So with the other denom- 
inations. We are not advocating these divisions as right, 
but simply stating the fact that they exist, and that God 
will overrule them, as all other evils, for his glory and the 
advancement of his cause. It may seem to us a strange 
method of church extension, yet it cannot be denied that 
it is one of God's methods for advancing the interest of his 
kingdom. We have an illustration of this principle in the 
case before us. 

As early as 1848, when Atlanta was yet but a small 
town, it was reported to Synod that a Presbyterian 
Church had been organized in it, due mainly to the labors 
of Rev. John S. Wilson, D. D., the pastor of the Decatur 
church near by, he being one of the first ministers to 
preach in the place, when it was but the railroad term- 
inus, and who afterwards organized the same, and doubt- 
less had hoped that as the church grew with the place 
he would become the settled pastor. But in this he was 
mistaken, for a while at least. For the church, as is often 
the case, then preferred a young man, rather than an aged 
veteran of the cross who had been so abundant in labors, 
and so blessed in his work. So they engaged the services 
of a young man, Rev. J. L. King, as stated supply, who had 
but recently been ordained, who was at that time the in- 
stalled pastor of Fellowship church. He supplied them 
for ten months. In the mean while some disaffection hav- 
ing arisen in the church, a complaint was sent up to the 
Presbytery at West Point in 1853 stating certain grievances 
with reference to the election as pastor. The Presbytery 
replied that the relationship of Rev. Mr. King and the 
Church was unconstitutional, in view of the fact that he 
was at that time the installed pastor of the Fellowship 
church, and, said they, "that though we see no evidence 
that Bro. King and the Elders in Atlanta intended any 
violation of the requirement of the Constitution, yet it is 
evident that the relation thus formed should immediately 
cease; that the Church may be unembarrassed in taking 
such steps as the choice of Pastor or Stated Supply; we 
therefore recommend that Bro. King should immediately 



52 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

resign the place he now occupies, and that the elders of that 
church take such measures as are strictly in conformity 
with the requirements of the Book of Government to se- 
cure a supply for their pulpit." Min. P. 155. 

Rev. Mr. King accordingly resigned his position as 
stated supply, and the church then elected Rev. John E. 
DuBose, who was regularly installed pastor and so reported 
to the Synod the next year, 1854. 

Unfortunately, however, things did not move on as 
desired. The same year we find a petition of the church 
sent up to Synod asking the "change of the Presbyterial 
connection of that church from the Presbytery of Flint 
River to that of Cherokee." Min. 1854, P. 8. the petitioners, 
doubtless, feeling that a large portion of the Presbytery 
was not in sympathy with them in their dissatisfaction. 
Bu: the overture, upon the recommendation of the Commit- 
tee of Bills and Overtures, was afterwards withdrawn. 

The main source of the trouble was that the're were 
two parties in the church, one Northern and one Southern 
with their political affinities, and as the new pastor, though 
otherwise an able and acceptable minister, yet himself be- 
ing intensely Southern in his feeling (a native of South 
Carolina), could not expect to give satisfaction to all par- 
ties. To understand the situation the reader must bear in 
mind that this was in the beginning of the great struggle 
between the North and South. 

There was also another elemenc which greatly com- 
plicated matters. There were several worshippers at the 
church, not members, but pew holders, and who as sup- 
porters of the church, claimed the right to vote for the 
pastor, hence the following query which was presented to 
Presbytery. 

"In churches where it has been deemed advisable to 
rent the seats to non-communicants, or such persons as do 
not submit to the censures of the church, does the fact of 
their renting seats in the church entitle such persons, con- 
stitutionally, to vote in the election of a pastor independ 
ently of any rule or ordinance in such churches?" (Min. P. 
156). 




REV. C. I. STACY 



Pastor Presbyterian Church, Elberton, Ga., Auithor of "The Oldest 
Church in the Synod of Georgia" and "Seven World Movements," 
and who completed and Edited this Work, after the death of 
the Author. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 53 

The records of the Preahytery show that a motion was 
made that it be answered in the afBrmative, for which 
a substitute was offered "that it is the privilege of each 
church to adopt such a rule in relation to this subject as 
it may deem most prudent and proper." After which it 
was decided by the Presbytery that the matter be referred 
to the General Assembly in the form of an overture. The 
overture was accordingly prepared and sent up to the As- 
sembly, and after being placed in the hands of the Com- 
mittee was, at the request of the Delegate, Rev. W. M. 
Cunningham, withdrawn. 

As a result of the condition of hings Mr. DuBose, at 
the Presbytery April, 1857, made application for the disso- 
lution of the pastoral relation, whereupon Presbytery in- 
structed the church to send a delegate to an adjourned 
meeting to be held at Griffin, June 25, to show reason why 
the request should not be granted. At that meeting the 
delegates appeared. A paper was presented containing 
the action of the congregation and certifying that Dr. 
Logan and Wm. Markham were appointed to state the 
feelings and views of the congregation; also, a paper con- 
taining the viev/s and wishes of the minority of the Ses- 
sion, and a communication from sundry persons, mem- 
bers of the church, and of families connected therewith, 
containing reasons why the relation should not be dis- 
solved. 

After hearing all parties. Dr. Cunningham offered a 
resolution that the decision be deferred till the fall meet- 
ing. Rev. R. T. Marks offered the following as a substi- 
tute, which was adopted: 

"1st. That the application of Rev. Jno. E. DuBose be 
not granted, but that in view of the prevailing differences 
of opinion in the Atlanta church on matters not involving 
any vital principles of doctrine or church polity, and yet 
threatening to destroy the peace and prosperity of the 
church, it is hereby directed, that the said congregation 
divide and constitute two distinct congregations; the 
friends and supporters of the present pastoral connection 
to constitute one, and the opposing members, another of 



54 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

these separate congregations, and when this division and 
new organization shall be effected, the two congregations 
report their action to this body at its next sessions. 

(Note) Some of the older members of the Synod will 
doubtless remember a series of articles, on "Modern Eras- 
tianism," which appeared about that time, in the columns 
of the Southern Presbyterian. 

2nd. Resolved, That it be enjoined upon the whole 
church at Atlanta to make a just and equitable division of 
the property belonging to the church, having reference in 
this division to the present value ol the property, and also 
the amount originally contributed by the retiring mem- 
bers. The parties retaining the present building, to pay to 
the parties retiring a just and equitable proportion accord- 
ing to numbers, and according to the amounts of the orig- 
inal contributions paid in the erection of a new church ed- 
ifice; and the parties receiving these funds to surrender 
all claims, right or title to the property now held in com- 
mon. 

3rd. Resolved, That when the contemplated division 
shall have been effected, the parties retaining the present 
church building shall be known and recognized as the 
First Presbyterian church and the retiring members under 
the organization of the Second Presbyterian church, of the 
city of Atlanta. 

4th. ResoWed, That Drs. Wilson and Patterson, and 
Elder Levi Willard, of Decatur, be a committee to effect 
the division and superintend the organization of the new 
organizations." Min. P. 294. 

An appeal was taken from this action to the Synod, 
on part of a portion of the church, Mr. Wm. Markham 
being one of the appellants. Rev. Messrs. Rogers and 
Cunningham were appointed to defend the action O'f the 
Presbytery. 

The action of the Synod, after hearing the case, was 
both to sustain and not to sustain. It sustained the ap- 
peal against the action of the Presbytery- simply upon the 
ground that it used the word "Direct" instead of, "Advise, ' 
and thus transcending its authority in the case. But it did 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 55 

not sustain the appeal against the action of the Presby- 
tery in refusing to accept the resignation of the pastor be- 
cause a dissolution in their judgment seemed uncalled for. 

The following resolution was also adopted: 

Whereas, the pastor and Elders of the church at At- 
lanta, present at this session, have appeared on the floor of 
Synod, and with every evidence of sincerity and solemnity 
retraced every offensive imputation against each other's 
characters as gentlemen, Christians, and officers of the 
church; and whereas, the said parties have publicly taken 
each other by the hand, declaring before God and their 
brethren that they forgive each other all past offences, and 
promise by the grace of God to live in love and peace, and 
to seek individually to heal every wound in their church 
caused by recent animosities; therefore: 

"Resolved, That this Synod with humble and earnest 
thanksgiving to the Great Head of the Church for his 
great grace in giving so happy a termination to these un- 
pleasant difficulties, commend these brethren to the con- 
tinuance and increase of that same grace, and pray tha: 
they may be able to prove their present sincerity by ever 
after "Keeping the unity of the spirit in the bonds of 
peace." Min. 1857 P. 21. 

Thus the unhappy division terminated in a peaceable 
separation, something wisely done, as it was obvious to 
the Presbytery and Synod, and every one saw that "there 
were two nations in the womb," and that the only thing 
that could be* done was to divide. And, fortunately, there 
were no special difficulties in the way, the two different 
wings :being entirely homogeneous. So they were also 
evenly divided in numbers, wealth, influence and contri- 
butions. According to the direction of Presbytery, the one 
party set a valuation upon the house and offered the other 
to take or pay. The retiring party under the leadership of 
J. L. Rogers, who had been chosen by them as -pastor, sold 
their half to the remaining portion and selected the site 
of their present building on Washington Street; and first 
erected a suitable edifice in 1859, which was taken down 
a few years since, and the present structure erected. 



56 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

According to the action of the Presbytery the retir- 
ing party was to be known as the "Second Church," but 
being unwilling to be regarded as second, the term carry- 
ing the idea of inferiority at least as to time, they re- 
quested that the name might be changed to "Central" 
which was readily agreed to by the Synod. Hence it is 
we have no second church in the city of Atlanta, nor as 
to that, in many other places or communions, the term 
"Second Church," in ecclesiastical parlance, being ex- 
ceedingly unsavory to the most of men. 

These two churches though entering into a treaty of 
peace, nevertheless for several years, as might be expect- 
ed, looked upon each other with a jealous eye, until the 
calling of Drs. G. B. Strickler and E. H. Barnett, the form- 
er to the pastorate of the Central, and the latter to that of 
the First Church. This was a most fortunate thing. These 
men did a great deal for Atlanta and Presbyteriansm, as 
well as religion, in entirely healing the breach. Being warm 
personal friends in Virginia, they used all their influence 
in reuniting the two congregations in Christian love and 
sympathy, by working together and the exchanging of pul- 
pits, the one taking his vacation in the summer and leav- 
ing his congregation in charge of the other during his ab- 
sence, the pastor remaining preaching in the morning to 
his own people, and in the evening to the congregation of 
his absent colleague. Pastors are ofttimes responsible for 
the unchristian spirit frequently seen between rival con- 
gregations. 

Thus prepared by an overruling Providence, who 
brings good out of evil, these two churches have ^become 
centres of influence and power, and, so to speak, the pa- 
rents of nearly all the other churches that have since 
sprung up in the city. We here insert the different pas- 
tors who have served these churches. 

ATLANTA CHURCH. 

Rev. John S. Wilson, 1848-1850. Rev. J. L. King, 1850. 
Rev. J. E. Dubose, 1854-1858. 

Atlanta Church divided in 1858, into First and Cen- 
tral. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 57 

PASTORS AT FIRST CHURCH. 

R€V. Jno. S. Wilson, 1858—1873; Rev. J. H. Martin, 
1874—1882; Rev. E. H. Barnett, 1883-1898; R€V. R. O. 
Flinn, Ass't, 1898—1899; Rev. C. P. Bridewell, 1899— 
1906; Rev. W. L. Lingle, 1907—1911; Rev. Hugh K. Walk- 
er, 1912. 

The first building was put up in 1850-2 and dedicated 
July 4, 1852. During the seige of Atlanta, 1864, the wall 
was perforated by a shell from the enemy's guns. The 
present building was erected 1878, and at this date, 1912, 
the congregation is considering selling same and securing 
a new site. 

PASTORS AT CENTRAL CHURCH. 

Rev. J. L. Rogers, 1859—1863; Rev. R. Q. Mallard, 
1863—1866; Rev. R. K. Porter, 1867—1869; Rev. J. T. Left- 
wich, 1870—1879; Rev. W. E. Boggs, 1880—1882; Rev. G. 
B. Strickler, D. D., 1883—1896; Rev. T. H. Rice, D. D., 
1897 — 1908. Rev. Dunbar H. Ogden, D. D., is the present 
pastor. 

The first building of the Central Church was erected 
1859; the second in 1878; Sunday School Annex in 1906. 
CHURCHES SINCE ORGANIZED. 

1st. Moore Memorial. This church was originally the 
Third Church, the name being afterwards changed, in 
1891, in honor of Mr. W. A. Moore, the philanthropic El- 
der in the First Church, who did so much for it in a finan- 
cial way. It was an off-shoot of the First Church, being 
first a Sabbath School and mission station (*Note) on 
Haynes and Jones Streets and being organized into a 
church on Jones' Avenue, the building being moved to 
Baker, now Latimer Street. A new building was erected 

*(Note) Mr. Virgil Norcross was Superintendent. In 
1872 he placed himself under the care of Atlanta Presby- 
tery as a candidate for the ministry from the First Church. 
He was examined at Conyers in April 1874, with a view to 
licensure, and went so far as to preach his trial sermon 
from Matthew 16, 28. In the afternoon of the same day, 
he withdrew his application for Licensure "for the present." 



58 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

on Luckie street, its pr-esent location, and set up as a 
church in 1874, for a number of years being upheld and 
supported by the First Church. Its first pastor, the Rev. 
R. C, Ketchum, was succeeded by Rev. T. D. Latimer, 
187'6; Rev. F. Jacobs D. D., 1877; Rev. M. C. Britt, 1878; 
Rev. N. K. Smith, 1879—1883; Rev. K. P. Julian, 1884; 
Rev. N. K. Smith, a second time, 1886—1889; Rev. A. R. 
Holderby D. D., 1890. 

2nd. Hunter Street. The second organization was 
this church, being a mission of the Central Church, and 
organized in 1876, and, so to speak, under the care and 
financial assistance of the Central, as the mother. Its first 
and only pastor was the Rev. W. A. Dabney. On account of 
being unfortunately located this church was dissolved in 
1879. 

3rd. Fourth Church. The next organization was the 
Fourth Church, located on Jackson Avenue. At first it 
was a station of the First church, and was assisted finan- 
cially jointly by the First and Central churches. It was set 
up as an independent church in the year 1883. Its first 
minister was Rev. Z. B. Graves, since supplied by Rev. T. 
P. Cleveland, D. D., 1885—1896; Rev. F. R. Graves, 1897— 
1900; T. C. Cleveland 1900; Rev. W. W. Brimm, D. D., 
1902; Rev. T. H. Newkirk, 1906—1910. It changed its 
name and location to Druid Park, 1910, and is now served 
by Rev. T. E. Converse, D. D. 

4th. West End. This church was organized in 1887, 
and composed at first largely, if not altogether, of mem- 
bers from the two older churches, who were, on account 
of distance inconveniently situated to attend the services 

At the fall meeting at Carrollton, Presbytery having satis- 
factory evidence that he had withdrawn from the Presby- 
terian Church and connected himself with the Baptist 
church, revoked the license it had previously given him 
as "Lay Exhorter," to hold religious services, authorized 
by the Assembly at Mobile in 1869, and erased his name 
from' the list of its Candidates. Dr. Norcross is now a 
prominent Minister in the Baptist Church. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 59 

of said churches. Its first minister was Rev. N. B. Mathes 
from 1889 to 1896, who was succeeded by Rev. G. W. Bull 
1896—1903, and Rev. L. R. Walker from 1904 to 1910. Rev. 
W. E. Hill is the present pastor. 

5th. Wallace Church. Formerly the Fifth Church, or- 
ganized in 1888. This church was also the mission work 
of the First Church and named after Major Campbell Wal- 
lace, one of its ruling elders, who did so much for it 
financially, and in every way showing his interest. The 
building was first located on W. Fair Street but recently 
removed to its present location on Walker 'Street, which 
has given it new impetus and life. Its pastors and sup- 
plies have been Rev. N. Keff Smith, 1889; Rev. Geo. L. 
Cook, 1891; Rev. R. A. Bowman, 1893—1897; Rev. J. S. 
Sibley, 1897—1901; Rev. T. P. Cleveland, D. D., 1901—1907; 
Rev. J. D. Keith, 1908—1910; Rev. W. H. Chapman, 1910. 

6th. Georgia Avenue. This church was set up in 
1890, and was composed principally of members from the 
Central Church, it being one of the mission schools. Its 
ministers have been: Rev. J. W. Pogue, 1890; Rev. J, L. 
Ro'gers, 1891; Rev. Chalmers Eraser, 1892—1900; Rev. W. 
H. Frazer 1900—1902; Rev. J. W. Atwood, 1903; Rev. B. 
H. Holt, 1904—1906; Rev. H. J. Williams, 1907. 

7th. Barnett Church. Named after the lamented pas- 
tor of the First Church; was organized 1891. Being in a 
sparsely populated portion of the city, its progress has 
been slow. It was first a Sabbath School and mission sta- 
tion of the First Church. Its pastors have been: Rev. J. 
K. Smith, 1891; Rev. L. B. Davis, 1894—1896; Rev. J. B. 
Hillhouse, 1897 — 1900; now served by Rev. A. L. Johnson. 

8th. Kirkwood. This church was organized in 1892. 
Being situated half way between Atlanta and Decatur, its 
charter members were principally drawn from the church- 
es in both of these places. Its pastors have been: Rev. R. 
O. Flinn, 1895—1897; Rev. T. C. Cleveland, 1898; Rev. C. 
R. Nesbit, 1901; Rev. W. G. Woodbridge, 1902—1906; Rev. 
John I. Armstrong, 1906. 

9th. Inman Park. Was organized in 1896. Its orig- 
inal membership was drawn from almost all the churches 



60 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

of the city. Its pastors: Rev. D. G. Armstrong 1897—1901; 
Rev. J. E. Jam€s, 1903; Rev. J. B. Ficklen, 1904. It now 
occupies one of the most convenient and attractive church 
buildings of its size, in our Synod. 

10th. North Avenue. For a number of years Presby- 
terians felt the importance of a church located upon 
Peachtree Street, and in 1898 a number ot these with- 
drew from First and Central Churches, and together with 
others from the other churches organized themselves into 
a church, and called the Rev. R. 0. Flinn (then tempora- 
rily supplying the First Church), to become their pastor, 
who accepted the call and was installed the next year, 
1899. They soon erected an elegant stone building upon 
the corner of Peachtree and North Avenue, and have 
since more than doubled their membership. Mr. Flinn is 
still their pastor. 

lltlh. Westminster Church. On account of some dis- 
agreement among the members of the Fourth Church, (an- 
other illustration of the same strange principle of church 
extension already commented upon) a large part of said 
church withdrew, and in 1901 organized themselves into a 
church, and recently erected a handsome edifice on the 
Boulevard. They called the Rev. Charles R. Nisbet to be 
their pastor, who accepted the call and continued to sup- 
ply them till 1906, when Rev. B. F. Guille, became their 
pastor. The church has greatly increased in membership 
and influence and soon will be one of the strongest in the 
city. Since 1908 Rev. A. A. Little, D. D., has been the 
successful pastor of this congregation. 

12th. Pryor Street. This is the last church organized 
in the city. At first a Sabbath school and mission station 
of the Central church, but organized into a church in 
1902, the first pastor being Rev. H. C. Hammond, who was 
succeeded in 1911 by Rev. S. R. Preston, D. D. This church 
is now erecting a splendid house of worship. 

While speaking of the city churches we may also 
mention two others that are suburban, viz., Hapeville, or- 
ganized in 1894, and College Park, organized in 1900, as 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 61 

these are more or less identified with those within the city, 
many of the members doing business within the city. 

From the above exhibit it would appear that Presby- 
terianism has been making a gratifying progress in this 
growing capital of the State, and no doubt more rapidly 
advanced by the unhappy division already mentioned; and 
shows that God is the God of the Passions of men, as well 
as the forces of nature; and can and does overrule alike 
for His glory, the tumults of the people, and the raging 
of the sea. 

Another remark: This progress is also due in a great 
measure to the spirit of colonization. Instead of centraliz- 
ing and keeping every thing in one place, as in some other 
communities, Atlanta has been pushing out in every direc- 
tion, in church, as in temporal things, and thus increasing 
and multiplying. "There is that scattereth and yet in- 
creaseth, there is that withholdeth more than is meet and 
it tendeth to poverty." (Prov. 11. 24.) Other communi- 
ties may well profit by the example. 

COLORED CHURCHES. 

The history of Presbyterianism in the city would be 
incomplete without a mention at least, of the colored 
churches. Unlike the above mentioned these have made 
little or no progress. 

There was a colored church organized by the Presby- 
tery of Atlanta in 1867 but after a varied experience was 
stricken from the roll in 1869. In 1875 another effort was 
made in behalf of the colored people, but this also was 
alike unsuccessful, and in like manner was stricken from 
the roll, the church having connected itself with the 
Knox Presbytery, of the Northern church in about 1894. 
In 1879 another church was organized, having only a gen- 
eral connection with the Presbytery, said Presbytery being, 
so to speak, only a sort of guardian, upon the idea then 
obtaining, looking to the organization of a colored Pres- 
byterian Church, South. But tihe connection with the 
Presbytery being too loose, the guardianship being only 
in name, the scheme fell through and the name dropped 
from the roll, and the church received into the Northern 



62 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

church and is still under the care of the Knox Pres-bytery 
and after a terrible struggle, seems now to be able to hold 
its own. 

PRESBYTERIANISM IN SAVANNAH. 

The oldest regularly organized Presbyterian Church 
in the state that has come down to us is the Independent 
Church at Savannah. The supposition is that the congre- 
gation to which Mr. McLeod ministered at Darien was 
also regularly organized, but of this we have no positive 
proof. But whether regularly organized or not, it was 
broken up on account of the removal of Mr. McLeod in 
1741, the present Darien Church being no more than its 
nominal successor. 

The first notice we have of the Independent Church 
was the application, made June 3rd, 1755, to the Council 
at Savannah for a lot upon which to erect a house of wor 
ship. This was a petition signed by forty three persons, 
freeholders and inhabitants of the province, setting forth 
that they were "Dissenters from the Church of England, 
and professors of the doctrines of the Church of Scotland, 
agreeable to the Westminster Confession of Faith, and 
being destitute of a house to meet in to worship God ac- 
cording to the form of their profession, they were willing, 
could they obtain a vacant lot in Savannah, to build a 
house thereon at their own expense," (Col. Rec. Vol. VII 
P. 183). This petition was granted, and a warrant issued 
Jan. 16, 1756, "to Jonathan Bryan, James Edward Powell, 
Esq., Robert Bolton, James Miller, Joseph Gibbons, Wm. 
Gibbons, Benj. Farley, Wm. Wright, David Fox, Younger, 
and John Fox, in trust, a lot in Savannah, for a Presby- 
terian Meeting House, known by letter K, in Deckers 
Ward." P. 313. 

This house was built on said lot, on the west side of 
Market Square, between Julian and Bryan Streets, facing 
West, and was used until destroyed by the great fire in 
1796. After the destruction of this house the Presbyter- 
ians rented the unused house of the Baptists, until the 
erection of their second building. 

Dec. 3rd, 1800, a bill was introduced into the Legisla- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 63 

ture and passed, the title of which was "to increase the 
funds, and add to the Trustees of the Independent Pres- 
byterian Church in the city of Savannah," and proceeds to 
set forth the fact that "whereas, the Independent Congre- 
gation of the city of Savannah did, under the provincial 
government, obtain in said city, a lot known in the plan of 
said city, by letter "K," to build thereon a church to be 
denominated, "The Independent Presbyterian Church;" 
which was accordingly built and remained dedicated to 
the service of the Almighty God, until the same was de- 
stroyed by fire; and whereas, there are no successors to 
the original Trustees, except Barach Gibbons. 

"Be it therefore enacted, that Joseph Bryan and 
Joseph Gibbon Telfair, be appointed Trustees to act in 
concert with the said Barach Gibbons in aid and in addi- 
tion to the said Barach Gibbons, to continue in office, to in- 
crease the funds, and to rebuild the church on lot K., to be 
denominated and known by the Independent Church in the 
city of Savannah," (Claytons Comp. P. 248.) 

This church was never built, but another was erected 
on lot "Q," in the year 1800, to which the congregation 
removed. Hence we find that an act was passed -by the 
legislature Dec. 8, 1806, entitled "an act to incorporate the 
Presbyterian Church of the city of Savannah," in which 
is set forth the fact: 

"Whereas, a number of the inhabitants of the city of 
Savannah, had a lot granted unto them, Jan. 16, 1756, and 
known by the letter "K," on which a house had been 
erected and in use by those who w^ere professors of the 
doctrines of the Church of Scotland, agreeable to the 
Westminster Confession of Faith, and that said house 
was destroyed with fire 1796, and that in the year 1800, the 
professors of the said Presbyterian religion, were enabled 
by subscription to build a church on their other lot known 
by the letter "Q," etc., prayed that said act be repealed, 
and that the memorialists be made a body corporate; 
which was accordingly done, and the following made Trus- 
tees, viz: Thomas Newell, Charles Harris, Francis Cour- 
voisie, John G. Williamson, John Scriven, Barach Gibbons, 



€4 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Thos. F. Williams, Fingal T. Flyming, and Benjamin 
Maurice, under the name and style of "The Trustees of 
the Presbyterian Church of the city of Savannah." (Idem 
P. 325. Condensed.) 

This building was located on St. James Square, be- 
tween York and President Streets, and had its steeple, 
blown down by the storm of 1804. 

The next building on Bull Street was commenced 
in 1817, and completed in 1819, at & cost of over $96,000, 
when it was dedicated by Dr. Kollock, who was then pas- 
tor. This house was completely destroyed by fire April 6, 
1889, and rebuilt in precisely the same style as before. 

In addition to these, there seems to have been made 
another effort to erect another and independnt building in 
1769. In -the Georgia Gazette of March 3rd, 1769, we find 
a call to "the subscribers of the Presbyterian Meeting 
House to be built in Savannah, to meet on Friday, May 
5th, at the house of Jonathan Peat, to choose Trustees, and 
to take under consideration other matters relative to said 
building." Signed Lachlan McGilvery, James Cuthbert, 
Josepih Cuthbert, and Wm. Green. 

In the same Paper of July 16th, we find a notice to the 
subscribers, that "one fifth of the subscriptions, were im- 
mediately wanted, and to be paid Into the hands of Thomas 
and John Roe, Vendue Masters. Signed by John Graham, 
Lachlan McGilvery, Geo. Baillie, Lewis Johnson, John Roe, 
Joseph Cuthbert, and Wm. Greene. 

So in a manuscript letter of Dr. Zubly to Dr. Ezra 
Stiles, dated April 19, 1769, we find him saying: "Since 
my last, a Presbyterian meeting is set on foot in this place, 
as the house I preach in is upon so general a plan as to 
receive the Westminster Confession of Faith. Some think 
it done out of opposition to me; however, Phil., 1, 18. 
(Howe. Vol. II. P. 361.) 

Thus it appears there was some dissatisfaction among 
some of the Presbyterians, at least in 1769, either with 
Dr. Zubly, or the management of the Church, which pro- 
moted this outside effort. Whether the church was com- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 65 

pleted, where located, by whom supplied, we have no 
means of knowing. 

The first pastor of the Independent Church was the 
Rev. Zoachim Zubly, "the son of David Zubly, of Puris- 
burg" (Col. Rec. Vol. 1. P. 440.), who came over at the re- 
quest of some German and Swiss settlers at Varnonberg 
and Acton, and as assistant to Mr. Zouberbuhler, then 
minister at Savannah, in 1745, because he could preach 
to them in French and German. But not being able to 
agree with the Trustees on terms, (only 10 pounds being 
offered him), he went to Frederica, where he preached a 
few years after the death of Rev. Driesler, in 1745, and 
where he continued a few years, and then went to Orange- 
burg, S. C, (Strobel P. 118), after which he removed to 
Wappetaw, S. C, near Charleston, where he remained till 
1759, when he removed to Savannah, at the earnest solici- 
tations of the English and German congregations in that 
place. He preached his farewell sermon in Charleston, 
Jan. 28, 1759. (Howe. 1, 266) and removed to Savannah, 
and took charge of the church there, and continued pastor 
till 1777. 

He was a man of fine parts and prominence, and was 
very zealous in the cause of the Province, and on account 
of which he was honored by the people in making him a 
member of the State Provincial Congress, (He preaching 
to them a sermon by special request) and afterwards send- 
ing him as one of the representatives to the Provincial 
Congress at Philadelphia, 1775-6, but on the Declaration of 
Independence, however, he sided with the Royalists, not 
being in favor of a separation 'from the mother country, 
and, therefore, left Philadelphia and returned to Savan- 
nah. This deflection rendered him so unpopular that it 
was necessary for him to leave the city, being banished 
with the loss of half of his estate. Thus, as Stevens says 
of him, "while doing no harm to Georgia, he brought mis- 
ery upon himself." Vol.11, 121. Rev. Archibald Simpson 
says of him in his Journal: "Mr. Zubly died some years 
ago, having, in his last days, acted a very inconsistent 
part, changing sides from Congress to the British, and 



66 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

died despised by both. Yet I am persuaded he was a good 
man, and that he is now in the kingdom of heaven." 
Howe. I. 468. 

Dr. Zubly went to Carolina after leaving Savannah, 
where he remained till the Royalist government was again 
established in 1779, when he returned, having resumed 
his charge, which he served till his death. There seems to 
be some doubt as to where he died. Stevens and Jones 
say in Savannah, Judge E. J. Harden says some where in 
South Carolina on the 23rd of July, 1781, and his remains 
afterwards brought to Savannah. Sprague. II. 221. 

Two of the streets of Savannah were named after 
him, and still retain their names. 

Although this Church has always been Independent, 
yet it has been the warm supporter of the Presbyterian 
church in its contributions, which have been conducted 
through the channels of the Presbyterian Church, their 
Missionary operations being conducted through that 
channel, they supporting a missionary in a foreign field, 
in that way. 

The following have been its ministers: 

Dr. Zubly, 1760—1781; Mr. Phillips, 1793; Rev. Mr. 
McCall, 1794, Rev. Robert Smith, 1800; Rev. Robert Kerr, 
18—; Rev. Samuel Clarkson, till 1806; Dr. Henry Kollock, 
1806 — 19; Messers. Wallace and Capers, missionaries for 
one year: Rev. Mr. Frazer; Rev. John White; Dr. 
Daniel Baker, Dr. Snodgrass, 1822 — 3; Rev. S. B. Howe, 
1823—7; Rev. Samuel Brown, 1827; Dr. J. C. Stiles, 1829; 
Dr. Willard Preston till 1831; Dr. I. S. K. Axson, 1857— 
1886; Dr. Leonard Bacon, 1886—7, Dr. J. F. Drips, 1889— 
95; Dr. J. Y. Fair, 1895 — 1909; Rev. Rockwell S. Brank 
1910. 

FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

The Independent Church was the only Presbyterian 
Church in the city of Savannah till 1827. About that time 
several of the members 'of that church becoming dissatis- 
fied with the style and title of said church, with the seem- 
ing anomaly of being Presbyterian and independent at 
the same time, petitioned the Presbytery of Georgia, to 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 67 

organize them into a church more in accordance with the 
Scripture model as it seemed to them. Accordingly at a 
called meeting of the Presbytery held in Savannah June 
6, 1827, the petition was acted on, and a church organized, 
consisting of 14 members, with three Ruling Elders; under 
the name of "The First Presbyterian Church of Savannah." 

The following are their names: Joseph Gumming, Mrs. 
Joseph Gumming, Edward Coppee, Lowell Mason, * G. G. 
Faries, William King, Jas. C. A. Johnson, Capt. Crabtree, 
Mrs. Crabtree, Mrs. L. Gardiner, Mrs. Clifton, Mrs. Har- 
buck, Miss Spalding, Miss Lavender Messrs. L. Mason, J. 
Gumming, and G. G. Faries, Ruling Elders. 

The little flock worshipped in a frame building, known 
as "Lyceum Hall" on the Southwest corner of Bull and 
Broughton Streets. 

1. Their first pastor was Rev. John Boggs, a native of 
Savannah, but educated at the North, received from the 
Presbytery of New Brunswick, and installed Nov. 30th, 
1828; the relation continuing but a year, being dissolved 
Dec. 1st, 1829, and he dismissed to the Presbytery of 
Hopewell. 

2. Their second pastor was Rev. C. C. Jones, a native 
of Liberty County, who, after a vacancy of two years w^as 
installed pastor Nov 27, 1831. Mr Jones' ministry con- 
tinued but one year and a half, when he resigned to be- 
come evangelist to the colored people. 

It was about this time that steps were taken to erect 
a house of worship, which was put up on the south side of 

*The well known musician and composer. It was when 
in Savannah, and upon the request of Miss Mary Wallace 
Howard, a sister of Rev. C. W. Howard, and afterwards 
the wife of Rev. F. R. Goulding, a young lady deeply in- 
terested in the w^ork of Foreign Missions, that he com- 
posed that grand old Missionary Hymn, set to the words 
of Bishop Heber, "From Greenland's Icy Mountains." This 
statement was made to the writer in 1848, by Mrs. Goulding 
herself. 



68 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Broughton Street between Barnard and Jefferson, and 
dedicated May 31st, 1834. 

3. The third pastor, after another season of supplies, 
was Rev. Joseph L. Jones, received from Flint River Pres- 
bytery, and who was installed May 21st, 1837, and con- 
tinued pastor till his death in 1841. 

4. The fourth pastor was the Rev. Benjamin M. Palm- 
er, a Licentiate of Charleston Presbytery, who was or- 
dained and installed March 6, 1842. Dr. Palmer continued 
but one year, for, having received a call from the Church 
in Columbia, the relation was dissolved by the Presbytery 
at their meeting at Midway, Jan. 17, 1843. 

5. The next pastor was Rev. John B. Ross, a member 
of West Hanover Presbytery, who was received and in- 
stalled the first Sabbath in May 1845, by a committee of 
the Presbytery. Dr. Ross served the church for eight and 
a half years. At -the meeting of the Presbytery at Savan- 
nah October 27, 1853, the relation was dissolved, and at the 
next meeting, at Riceboro, he was dismissed back to West 
Hanover Presbytery. 

6. The sixth pastor was the Rev. D. H. Porter, a 
licentiate of Charleston Presbytery, who was received 
Nov. 8, 1855, and at a special meeting of the Presbytery, 
was ordained and installed pastor on Sabbath Nov. 25, 1855. 
Dr. Porter served the church faithfully for eighteen years. 
For two years 1863 — 5, he was Confederate Chaplain of 
tl^e 5th Regfiment of Georgia Cavalry. He died Dec. 21, 
1873, greatly regretted by his entire congregation. 

In 1854 the lot on Monterey Square where the build- 
ing now stands was purchased and a lecture room placed 
upon it, where the services were held till 1872, when the 
present building was completed and dedicated by Dr. B. 
M. Palmer June 9th of that year. 

7. The seventh pastor was the Rev. Daniel K. McFar- 
land, receiived from Chickasaw Presbytery, and installed 
Nov. 14, 1874, and who continued for seven years, until the 
middle of 1881. During the year 1876 the city of Savan- 
nah was visited by the terrible scourge of yellow fever, 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 69 

Mr. McFarland stood at his poit until stricken with the 
disease, and narrowly escaped with his life. 

8. Rev. T. M. Boyd, the eighth pastor, was received 
from th€ Presbytery of Lexington and installed in March, 
1881, and continued till August, 1883, when he resigned his 
charge, went to Arkansas, joined the Northern Church, 
and died in San Francisco, January 27, 1906, while ser\'ng 
as Evangelist of San Francisco Presbytery. 

9. After a short supply of eight months by Rev. J. P. 
Strider, of Virginia, Rev. J. W. Rogan, then pastor of the 
church at Thomasville, .Ga., was chosen pastor, and con- 
tinued from January 4, 1885, till June 15, 1890. Dr. Rogan, 
after leaving Savannah, joined the Northern Church and 
is now pastor of the Flemington Church, New Jersey. 

10. He was succeeded by Rev. Lachlan Vass, the 
father of Rev. L. C. Vass, Missionary to Africa, who had 
been pastor of the Newbern Church, N. C, and who min- 
istered to th-em from the Fall of 1890 to the Spring of 
1896; and who d'ied the Fall of the year of his removal. 

11. The eleventh pastor was the Rev. Arthur J. 
Smith, received from the Classis of Greene, who was in- 
stalled Dec. 1896, and resigned his positioii in the Fall of 
1900, that he might enter the field as an evangelist. 

12. The twelfth pastor was the Rev. W. P. McCorkle, 
who was at the time supplying the 'Graham Church, N. C, 
and was called to the pastorate and regularly installed 
February 1901, and continued pastor till 1907, when he was 
dismissed to the Presbytery of Roanoke. 

13. The present pastor, Rev. W. Moore Scott, was re- 
ceived from the Presbytery of Memphis, April 15, 1908, 
and installed the same year. 

For a long time the church being under the shadow 
of the mother church,had quite a hard struggle for exis- 
tence, but now seems to be in a flourishing condition, 
having acquired a sufficient momentum to enable it to 
move more easily and successfully in the future than in 
the past. 

WESTMINSTER CHURCH. 

As early as 1868, a Sabbath School Mission was estab- 



70 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

lished in Anderson Street, by the Independent Church. 

This enterprise continued for a number of years under 
the fostering care of said Church, being supplied success- 
ively by different assistant ministers of th^e parent church 
viz: by Rev. N. P. Quarterman for two years 1872-3, Rev. 
E. C. Gordon 1874—1880, Rev. R. P. Kerr 1881—1882 and 
by Rev. R. Henderson, 1885. 

This system of supplies continued till 1886, when the 
Mission became an independent church, received under the 
care of the Presbytery of Savannah, and employed Rev. R. 
Q. Way as pastor, who served them for seven years, 1886 — 
1893. 

In 1894 Rev. W. A. Nisbet was elected and installed 
pastor, and still continues as such. 

The church edifice erected in 1869, is now used for 
Sabbath School and prayer meetings but the congregation 
is worshipping in the Memorial Hall erected by Mrs. Ella 
S. 'Lawton, to the memory of her husband, G^n. A. R. 
Lawton, which she has generously offered to be used by all 
denominations. The congregation however, have pur- 
chased a lot and expect soon to commence to build. 

The name of the church has been twice changed: 
first in 1880 from Anderson Street, to Second Church; 
then again in 1901 to Westminster. 

PRESBYTERIANISM IN AUGUSTA. 

The town of Augusta was laid off in 1735. At an early 
date a church edifice was erected under Episcopal juris- 
diction, as all were at that early date, it being the estab- 
lished religion. In the setting up of the parishes in 1858, 
the town of Augusta and surrounding country was de- 
clared to be known by the title of "The parish of St. 
Paul's." This first building was burned during the war, 
and the ground turned over to the Trustees of the Acad- 
emy. A second building was erected by them and for 
common use, on the ground of the old Cornwallis Fort, and 
the present site of the St. Paul's Episcopal Church. This 
building was leased to a little band of Presbyterians, in 
1804, who had been gathered together by Rev. Washington 
McNight, who had been licensed and ordained a short time 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 71 

before by tli€ Presbytery of New York. The ministry of 
Mr. McNight was a short one, as he died September 5, of 
the same year, leaving a membership of thirteen. 
FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

At the meeting of the Presbytery of Hopewell Septem- 
ber, 1805, at Liberty, Mr. John R. Thompson, of New York, 
and at that time the Rector of the Academy, was received 
under its care as a candidate for the ministry. At the next 
regular meeting of the Presbytery, at Shiloh, April 10, 
1806, the church, upon a petition presented by Mr| Wil- 
liam Fee, was received under the care of Presbytery, as 
St. Paul's Church. Mr. Thompson was licensed at the 
same meeting. At an intermediate meeting of the Pres- 
bytery Mr. Thompson was ordained and installed pastor; 
Rev. A. N. Cunningham preaching the sermon, and Rev. 
Francis Cummins delivering the charges to the pastor and 
people. (See Min. Pres.) 

Mr. Thompson continued for ten years, during which 
time there was an increase of 74 in the membership. His 
health failing, the church gave him a vacation, and at 
their instance he took a trip North but never returned, 
having died at Nassau, New Providence, December 18, 
1816. 

It was during the ministry of Dr. Thompson that the 
present building was erected. In the beginning of 1809 
the Trustees of St. Paul's church refused to continue the 
lease upon the ground of impartiality, as the building was 
used by all denominations. This placed upon the Presby- 
terians the necessity of having a building of their own. 
Wherefore they secured the present lot on Telfair 
Street, had the Church incorporated under the title of 
Christ's Church, and at once proceeded to erect the pres- 
ent building, to which the steeple was afterwards added, 
and had the same dedicated May 17, 1812, Dr. Thompson 
preaching the sermon from Psalms 84:1. (1) Note. The 
name was changed to First Church, Augusta, by the Legis- 
lature in 1836. 

(2) Note. In 1796, by an act of Legislature a lot one 
acre in size, was conveyed to a Board of Trustees, among 



72 THE PRESBYTERIAN .CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

the number b«ing John Springer and Moses Waddell, for 
the church. 

Upon the death of Dr. Thompson, the Presbytery of 
Harmony, under whose care the church was at that time, 
appointed Rev. John Joyce to supply the pulpit four times 
at Augusta and once at Waynesborough. 

The next regular pastor was the Rev, Wm. Moderwell, 
formerly of New Castle Presbytery, who had been re- 
ceived into Harmony Presbytery April 4, 1821, and was in- 
stalled pastor by that Presbytery November 1, 1821. Dr. 
Howe, in his history, Vol. II. 339, says that he was install- 
ed by the Presbytery of Hopewell at their regular sessions 
November, 1821. This is a mistake. The Presbytery of 
Hopewell did not meet in November or at Augusta in 1821, 
but at Athens, Sepetember 7, 1821. The church of Augusta 
belonged to Hopewell till the setting up of Harmony Pres- 
bytery in 1809, when it was placed in that Presbytery; 
and therefore fell into Georgia Presbytery when set up in 
1821, and continued until 1824, when it was again cut off 
and placed back in the Presbytery of Hopewell. Mr. Mod- 
erwell never was a member of Hopewell till that time. He 
was installed by Harmony Presbytery just before his 
transfer to Georgia Presbytery, in 1821, and continued a 
member of Georgia Presbytery till its dismemberment in 
1824. 

During the year 1827 the church enjoyed the services 
of two supplies, Rev. S. K. Talmage, and Rev. S. S. Davis. 
The reason for two: Dr. Talmage was Rector of the Acad- 
emy at the time, and Dr. Davis acting as agent for Prince- 
ton Seminary, (See Min. Ass. p. 126.) At the end of the 
year Mr. Davis retired and Dr. Talmage was made regular 
pastor and so continued till he resigned the pastorate to 
accept the presidency of Oglethorpe, to which he had been 
elected in 1835. 

He was followed by Rev. A. N. Cunningham, D. D., 
who after supplying the church during the year 1837, re- 
ceived a call as pastor and was installed in 1838. Being 
accused of plagiarism. Dr. Cunningham tendered his res- 
ignation, which was accepte<l in April 1842. 



THE PRESBYTETIIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 73 

He was succeeded by Rev. Chas. S. Dod who was pas- 
tor from 1842—1845.. 

The next pastor was Rev. Ebenezer Rogers, received 
from New Hampshire Association, and installed pastor 
December, 1847, and after six years of service resigned 
December, 1853. 

From 1853 — 1857 the church was without a regular pas- 
tor but was supplied by several different ministers. The 
pulpit was temporarily filled by Rev. Messrs. D. H. Porter, 
H. Bingham, Rev. Jno. F. Baker and Rev. John A. Mc- 
Lung, all of whom were called but declined. 

After these Rev. Joseph R. Wilson, of Ohio, but then 
pastor at Staunton, Va., was called -and accepted the po- 
sition and was installed the second Sabbath in January 
1858. 

After the battle of Chickamaugua, the Church, like 
many others, was used as a hospital, for the wounded. 

In the summer of 1870, after a successful ministry of 
twelve years. Dr. Wilson resigned his position to accept 
a Professorship in the Theological Seminary at Colum- 
bia. 

Dr. Wilson was succeeded by Rev. Robert Irvine, D. 
D., of Montreal, Canada, who was called to the church 
October 1870, and regularly installed April 14, 1872. It 
was during his pastorate that the office of Deacon was es- 
tablished. Dr. Irvine continued pastor till his death, April 
8, 1881. Dr. Irvine was a most eloquent and successful 
minister, and withal very instructive, having unusually 
clear views of the typical teachings of the Old Scriptures. 
He died greatly lamented, and honored above all his pre- 
decessors, in having his remains deposited in the church 
yard with a life size figure of him over his tomb. But like 
many other great and good men, he was not entirely free 
from foibles, as well as enemies; that entirely relieved 
him of the remarkable denunciation of the Master, "Woe 
be unto you when all men speak well of you." 

He was followed by Rev. Wm. Adams, D. D., of Louis- 
ville Presbytery, U. S. A., who was installed May, 28, 1882, 
and continued pastor till Devember 9, 1888. 



74 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

He was succeeded by R^v. J. T. Plunket, D. D., a na- 
tive of Franklin, Tennessee, a graduate of Clarksville 
University and Columbia Seminary, and who, at that time, 
was supplying the Jefferson Aveuue church of Detroit, who 
was elected January 19, 1890. Under the ministry of Dr. 
Plunket the church greatly prospered, not only in 
large additions to its membership, but in general develop- 
ment in all lines of Christian activity. Dr. Plunket re- 
moved to Alabama in 1909, and was succeeded by Rev. 
Joseph R. Sevier. 

The church has been greatly honored in being the 
birthplace, so to speak, of the Southern Presbyterian 
Church. The first General Assembly met in this church 
December 4, 1861, composed of commissioners previously 
appointed by the Presbyteries, and organized the South- 
ern Presbyterian Church. There were present 55 minis- 
ters and 38 Ruling Elders, 93 in all, and among them many 
men of marked ability. The body continued in session for 
fourteen days. The writer, though not a member, enjoyed 
the rare privilege of being present and hearing all the 
deliberations and discussions. 

The Assembly met in this church a second time in 
1886, at which time the subject of evolution was considered 
and condemned. 

The church was also honored by having its pastor 
made the moderator of the Assembly which met at Fort 
Worth in 1905. 

The church held its centennial in May 15-18, 1904, 
being organized by Rev. Washington McKnight in 1804. 
The centennial exercises may be found in a published vol- 
ume. 

EFFORTS AT CHURCH EXTENSION. 

For a long time the church remained in its isolation, 
like the church in Savannah and many others of the early 
churches. 

The first effort was made in Dr. Rogers' day. Being 
a man of missionary spirit, instead of insisting upon the 
idea of centralization, he advocated the plan of coloniza- 
tion. Under his influence a parochial school was estab- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 75 

lish-ed on upper Greene Street, where a lot was purchased 
and a church building erected, and a pastor. Rev. W. H. 
Thompson, chosen. But after Mr. Rogers left, the enter- 
prise, through lack of interest and proper support, de- 
clined, and in 1856 the church was disbanded by order of 
the Presbytery, and the building turned over to the colored 
people, and was afterwards sold to the Methodists, who 
now have a flourishing church which the Presbyterians 
might have retained and, with proper management, made 
one of their strong holds. 

GREEN STREET CHURCH. (NO 2.) 

Having seen the error in letting the opportunity slip, 
another effort was made, another lot was bought and a 
church building erected thereon and dedicated March 1, 
1879, the dedicatory sermon being preached by Dr. W. S. 
Plumer. The church was organized 1879. The church was 
first termed Second Church, but the name changed to 
Green Street in 1905. 

The following are the ministers who have served the 
church: 

Rev. Geo. T. Goetchius, from 1880 to 1885; Rev. T. M. 
Lowry, from 1887 to 1891; Rev. J. K. Smith, from 1893 to 
1895; Rev. B. M. Shive, from 1896 to 1897; Rev. G. G. 
Sydnor, from 1898 to 1901; Rev. H. W. Burwell, from 
1902 to 1904; Rev. Geo. E. Guille, from 1905 to 1912. 

The church is now on an independent basis; and has 
started on a career of usefulness, and bids fair soon to 
become one of the leading churches of the Synod. 
REID MEMORIAL. 

In 1876, by the will of Mr. Robt. Reid, a member of the 
First Church, the church came in possession of a legacy of 
$17,500, upon condition that a church edifice be erected on 
the corner of his lot in Summerville, otherwise known as 
the "Sand Hills." This fund was left in the hands of 
three members of the First Church. According to the 
terms of the will the House has been erected. And when 
completed $7,000 remained in the hands of the Trustees, 
"Which, by good management and careful investment, has 
increased and today amounts to $20,000, and, yet no organ- 



7e THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

ization has yet been effected." (Centennial Memorial, 51) 
During the pastorate of Dr. Irvine, Rev. W. S. Bean was 
employed to supply the Reid Memorial pulpit, to which the 
Riverside Chapel was added the next year. After the re- 
moval of Rev. Mr. Bean, the Rev, W. E. Boggs, D, D., un- 
dertook the Missionary work of the church, which then 
consisted of weekly services at the Reid Memorial and 
the Sahbath School work in the Factory District. Since 
then no regular services have been kept up, and 
only such as the pastor of the First Church has been able 
occasionally to render. As a result, the Reid Memorial 
though with an endowment of $20,000, still stands as a 
silent memorial of the great liberality of the donor, but 
with no story of its own achievement to tell. Whether this 
be in accordance with 'the wish of the testator, may 
seriously be questioned by the disinterested observer. 
SIBLEY CHURCH. 

This church is located in the Factory district, and is 
largely due to the liberality, interest and support of Mr. 
W. C. Sibley, who was an Elder in the First church, and 
who was president, and large owner of the stock of the 
mills, who not only gave the ground but also erected the 
building. The organization of the church was reported to 
the 'Synod of Georgia, November 1891. The first minister 
who supplied it was the Rev. W. K. Boggs in 1892. The 
Rev. J. M. Plowden supplied them in 1893; Rev. Paul S. 
Rhodes, 1903; Licentiate G. O. Griffin, 1904; Rev. J. A. 
Thompson in 1906; Rev. A. M. Lewis, 1910. The church is 
gradually gaining strength, and bids fair, under the regu- 
lar ministration of the word, to become a centre of consid- 
erable influence and power in the community in which it 
is located. 

RIVERSIDE CHAPEL. 

For several years efforts were made to establish a 
mission church at Riverside, but from some cause or 
other such efforts have been unavailing and the field 
abandoned. 

PRESBYTERIANISM IN MACON. 

In 1806, Fort Hawkins was built upon the eastern bank 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 77 

of the Ocmulgee ais a trading post. The County of Bibb 
was created in 1822, and the following year the town was 
laid off on the western bank opposite the fort and named 
Macon in honor of Gen. Nathaniel Macon, of North Caro- 
lina, and commenced t€ grow with the increase of the 
population of the surrouning country. The place was fre- 
quently visited by Mr. Joseph C. Stiles, a licentiate and 
Evangelist of Hopewell Presbytery, who took it in as 
a part of his field. As the fruit of his ministry a church 
was organized June 18, 1826, of twenty five members, by 
Rev. Benjamin Gildersleeve, Mr. Stiles at that time being 
only a Licentiate. The church continued to be a part of 
the Evangelistic field of Mr. Stiles, till 1828, when Rev. 
James C. Patterson became the regular supply for two 
years till the Fall of 1830. During Mr. Patterson's minis- 
try the first building, a wooden structure, was erected on 
Fourth street. This building was turned over to the Bap- 
tists, who removed and enlarged it; and is now the Second 
Baptist church. 

The Rev. Edwin Holt was the first regular pastor. He 
was received from the Presbytery of Elizabethtown, 1831, 
installed November 20, 1831, and served the church fro7 
1831 to 1834, when the relation was dissolved by the Pres- 
bytery of Good Hope and he dismissed to the Presbytery of 
Newburyport July 27, 1836. 

He was followed by Rev. James Stratton, as supply, 
for two years. He was received as a Licentiate from 
the Presbytery of Philadelphia, May 13, 1835, and was 
ordained Sine Titulo, June of the same year. He was 
never settled. His name was stricken from the roll March 
29, 1843, he "having joined another church." 

He was succeeded by Rev. Samuel J. Cassels, who was 
installed November 5, 1836 and continued till April 13, 
1342. It was during the m.inistry of Rev. Mr. Cassels, that 
the second house, a brick building commenced during the 
ministry of Mr. Stratton, was completed. This house was 
a brick "building on Fourth Street. 

November 22, 1842, the Macon Church was detached 
from the Presbytery of Flint River and added to that of 



78 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Hopewell, by the Synod of South Carolina and Georgia at 
Athens, but returned to Macon President in 1866 at the 
redistribution of tihe Presbyteries. 

Mr. Cassels was succeeded by Rev. Richard Hooker, 
who had been preaching at Mt. Zion for three years, and 
afterwards at Monticello for two years. He was regularly 
installed November 17, 1843 and continued pastor till 1852, 
when he resigned his charge on account of failing health. 
The membership at that time was 229. 

After Mr. Hooker, Rev. R. L. Breck was pastor. He 
was received from West Lexington Presbytery, and was 
installed in 1854. His pastorate extended four years from 
1854 when the relation was dissolved, and he dismissed 
to the Presbytery of New Albany. 

He was succeeded by Rev. David Wills, who was re- 
ceived from South Carolina Presbytery and installed in 
1860, and continued till the relation was dissolved in 1870, 
that he might accept the Presidency of Oglethorpe Col- 
lege. 

In 1873, Rev. A. W. Clisby, a member of Macon Pres- 
bytery, was received and installed pastor. His pastorate 
extended through fourteen years, till 1887. The church 
under Dr. Clisby's ministry was very much strengthened, 
not so much in members as in being thoroughly indoctrin- 
ated in the principles of our church polity and Calvinistic 
theology. 

Dr. Clisby was succeeded by Rev. W. B. Jennings, who 
was received from the Presbytery of Bethel in 1888, and 
installed pastor and continued till 1895, when he resigned 
and removed to Louisville, Ky., to become pastor of a 
church in connection with the Northern church. 

He was followed by Rev. R. R. White, received from 
the Presbytery of Winchester and installed in 1895, and 
continued pastor till 1898, when the relation was dissolved 
and he dismissed to the Presbytery of New York. 

The present pastor, Rev. R. E. Douglass, was re- 
ceived from West Lexington Presbytery and installed in 
1902. 

This church has been honored by being the birthplace 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 79 

of tJhe Synod of Georgia and in being selected as the place 
where the semi-centennial exercises of the Synod were 
held in 1895. 

EFFORTS AT CHURCH EXTENSION— TATTNALL 
SQUARE CHURCH. 

A second church was organized in the city, in 1871, ac 
first called "Second Church," but in 1892 the name was 
changed to Tattnall Square. Its first pastor was Rev. 
Robert Adams, who had been supplying the Eatonton 
Church. 

He continued pastor till 1887, when he removed to 
Americus. 

He was succeeded by Rev. S. L. Morris, D. D., of 
South Carolina, who was installed in 1890, and remained 
pastor till 1901, when Dr. Morris resigned to accept the 
Secretaryship of the Assembly's Home Missions. 

The third pastor was the Rev. W. H. Frazer, who had 
been pastor of the Wallace Street Church, in Atlanta. Mr. 
Frazer continued pastor till 1906, when he resigned to 
accept the pastorate of the Church at Anderson, South 
Carolina. The present pastor is Rev. R. G. Newsome. 
VINEVILLE CHURCH. 

The Vineville church was organized in 1904. The first 
pastor was the Rev. James H. Taylor, who was received 
from the Presbytery of Louisville and installed in 1905, 
succeeded by Rev. T. R. Best, and later by the present 
pastor. Rev. C. P. Coble. 

EAST MACON CHURCH. 

This church was organized in 1906, with forty-eight 
members, with three Elders and two Deacons. Rev. G. T. 
Bourne, who was received from Cherokee Presbytery, was 
installed its pastor in 1906. The present pastor is Rev. C. 
B. Currie. 

A fifth church has recently been organized in South 
Macon, called tihe "Jeff Davis Street Church." 

PRESBYTERIANISM IN COLUMBUS. 

The city of Columbus was laid off in 1827, and incor- 
porated by the Legislature in 1828. It was located just be- 



80 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORaiA 

low th€ Coweta Falls on Chattahoochee river, at head of 
steamboat navigation, and two miles above the Coweta 
Town, where Oglethorpe held his council with the Indian 
tribes in 1739. In 1829, the year after the incorporation of 
the town, a Presbyterian church was organized, with only 
five members. The next year (1830) it was reported va- 
cant with ten members. The next year (1831) it was sup- 
plied by Rev. Thos. F. Scott, with a membership of twenty- 
two. The next year, 1832, the membership had increased 
to 34, and the church was reported as "Supplied," but the 
name of the minister not given. The church was next sup- 
plied for eighteen months by Rev. John Baker, a native of 
Liberty County, who died during the summer of 1834, 
whilst ministering to them. 

The first regular pastor was the Rev. Dr. Thomas 
Goulding, who commenced his ministry January, 1835. Dr. 
Goulding was also a native of Liberty County, and the first 
native born Presbyterian minister licensed in the state, 
and was at the time Professor in the Seminary at Colum- 
bia. The church grew very much under his ministry, at 
the time of his death numbering 189. 

He was a man of fine intellect and cultivated taste, 
as well as deep piety, and particularly excelled in con- 
ducting funeral services. According to the appointment 
of Synod, he preached the opening sermon at the organ- 
ization of the Synod of Georgia at Macon in 1845 and was 
elected its first Moderator. He continued pastor thirteen 
and a half years, and died suddenly of heart disease on 
the evening of June 26, 1848, on his return home after his 
weekly lecture, aged 62 years. 

The church, after a vacancy of about one year, was 
supplied by Rev. C. B. King, of Hopewell Presbytery, who 
supplied them about three years, till 1853. 

In 1854, Rev. S. H. Higgins, D. D., a member of the 
Suffolk Association, Mass, was call.ed and was installed in 
1855. He continued pastor for eleven years, till 1866, 
when the relation was dissolved. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHUROH IN GEORGIA 81 

He was succeeded by Rev. James H. Nail, D. D., who 
had been supplying the church at Americus. He was in« 
stalled in 1870 and continued till 1879, when the relation 
was dissolved, and he dismissed to the Presbytery of 
New Orleans, to accept a call from the Prytania Street 
Church. 

The next pastor was Rev. W. A. Carter, D. D., Mr. 
Carter was received from East Alabama Presbytery and 
installed in 1881, and continued pastor for twenty-four 
years, till 1905, when the relation was dissolved, on ac- 
count of ill health. 

The present pastor, Rev. I. S. McElroy, D. D., was re- 
received from West Lexington Presbytery, and had been 
the Assembly's Secretary of Ministerial Relief, and was 
received and installed in 1905. 

EFFORTS AT CHURCH EXTENSION— ROSE HILL 
CHURCH. 

The only successful effort at church extension w^as 
the organization of the Rose Hill Church, which was or- 
ganized in 1897, with 22 members, one Elder and two 
Deacons. The next year Rev. H. G. Griswold was ordained 
and installed pastor. He continued but one year, when the 
relation was dissolved. 

He was followed by Rev. J. D. Jones, a licentiate of 
Bethel Presbytery, who was ordained and installed" in 
1900. He also continued but one year, and in 1901 the 
relation was dissolved. 

The third pastor was the Rev. W. E. Phifer, a licen- 
tiate of Concord Presbytery, who was ordained and in- 
stalled in 1903. He continued two years, and in 1905 the 
relation was dissolved and he dismissed to the Presbytery 
of Mississippi. The membership at hat time was 42. The 
present Pastor is Rev. G. W. Tollett. 

WAYNESBOROUGH CHURCH. 

A great deal of interest clusters around this church 
not only on account of its antiquity, being one of the old- 
est in the State, but also its varied experience. 

As we have already seen, as early as 1766, there was 
a settlement of Presbyterians gathered about Brier Creek 



82 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

in Burke County, Ga., which in the course of time became 
two distinct congregations, one on Walnut Creek, and an- 
other on Brier Creek, and known as the "Old Church." 
The two were afterwards united and removed to the town 
in 1810, and known as the 'Waynesborough Congregational 
Church." 

The church at first was Independent or Congrega- 
tional, and so continued until 1831, when received under 
the care of Hopewell Presbytery, its name changed and 
afterwards known as "The Presbyterian Church of Burke 
County." It does not appear before this time upon the 
roll of the Assembly, as one of its regular churches. In 
its application in 1790 for its charter, as well as in its 
call to the Rev. E. B. Caldwell in 1818, it gives its name 
as "The Congregational Society in the vicinity of Waynes- 
borough." So in 1828, the Rev. Lawson Clinton is report- 
ed as supplying, "The Congregational Church at Waynes- 
borough." It is true that in 1814 it is reported on the 
list of the Assembly, as "vacant and able to support a pas- 
tor;" and then again, in 1819, as "supplied by Rev. E. B. 
Caldwell." But that does not mean that it was a Presby- 
terian Church. The Midway and White Bluff churches 
were also thus reported though Congregational and Inde- 
pendent in their form. That was an incipient and forma- 
tive age of the church, which accounted for the seemingly 
loose and imperfect manner in which its affairs were ad- 
ministered. Nor yet are we ever to lose sight of the fact 
that a union had been entered into in 1800, between the 
Congreg'ational and Presbyterian churches, whereby fra- 
ternal delegates were exchanged and in which their min- 
isters could be interchangeably installed — a Presbyterian 
minister over a Congregational church, and vice versa — 
and so that the churches entering into such an arrange- 
ment would in a certain sense be considered as belonging 
to both denominations. This explains why the Rev. 
Thomas Goulding was installed pastor of the White Buff 
Congregational church in 1816 by Harmony Presbytery. 
And why, at the meeting of Georgia Presbytery, at Waynes- 
borough, November, 1, 1824, the church at that place was 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 83 

not represented by either of its elders, but we meet with 
what seems to us a very singular statement, that "Samuel 
Dowse, Elder of Waynesborough church, being present was 
invited to sit as a corresponding member," and why Mr. 
Josiah Law, a Deacon of the Midway Congregational 
Church, was not only invited to sit in that Presbytery at 
its meeting in that church in 1821, but also afterwards 
sent as a delegate from said church, to the Presbytery at 
its meeting. May 30th, of next year, at St. Marys; and also 
why on November 11th, 1826, when the Presbytery again 
met at Midway, he was received as a delegate from said 
church, and even acted as their Temporary Clerk! Accord- 
ing to the terms of the union the Waynesborough Church 
was a quasi member of the Presbytery; hence its enroll- 
ment as above stated. 

Another thing that makes the history of this church 
interesting and worthy of emphasis, was the ordination 
of one of its pastors, Mr. Floyd, as it not only presents its 
independency in a clear light, but also because it fur- 
nished the occasion for the organization of "The Congre- 
gational Association of South Carolina." 

In 1800 Mr. Loammi Floyd, Licentiate of the Metho- 
dist Church, was stationed in Burke Conuty, (Min. Conf. 
P, 90.) The Waynesborough Church being pleased with 
his ministrations, and he with them, made him a call 
which was accepted. But not being yet ordained, the 
church, instead of applying to the Presbytery of Hope- 
well, in the bounds of which it was located, made appli- 
cation for his ordination to certain Congregational minis- 
ters in and around the city of Charleston, S. C, viz., Rev. 
William Hollingshead, D. D., Rev. Isaac S. Keith, D. D., 
Rev. Daniel McCalla, of Charleston, Rev. James Adams, of 
Dorchesrer, and Rev. Thomas Price, of James Island. In 
their application they style themselves, "A Committee of 
the Independent Congregation'al Society in the vicinity of 
Waynesborough." And by way of further explanation 
stated that, "On the eleventh day of August 1790, a 
Charter of incorporation was obtained for their churcn 
from His Excellency, Edward Telfair, Governor of the 



84 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

State, who had been authorized by an act of the General 
Assembly passed the 23rd day of December, 1789 (Wat- 
kins, Dig, P. 412.) that on the 20th day of September 1790, 
Mr. Henry G. Caldwell was received as a minister, and on 
the third day of March, 1794, he resigned his appointment 
Since that time we have had no established minister, or 
regular performance of divine worship." 

The petition was signed by David Robinson, Joshua E 
White, William Douglass, J. Whitehead, Alex Carter, and 
Geo. Poytress. 

In accordance with these proceedings, the above men- 
tioned ministers met and organized themselves into a 
body known as "The Congregational Association of South 
Carolina," and ordained Mr. Floyd, March 26, 1801, in the 
Independent or Congregational Church, in Archdale 
Street, Charleston, 'S. C. Dr. Hollingshead preaching the 
sermon, Mr. Adams offering the ordaining prayer, and Dr. 
Keith delivering the charge to the pastor. (Howe, Vol, II. 
47;. 

This was the origin of the "Congregational Associa- 
tion of South Carolina," and the Waynesborough Church 
has the honor, at least of being the occasion, of its forma- 
tion. The Association thus formed continued twenty one 
years. By virtue of his ordination, Mr. Floyd became a 
member of said Association, and a Congregational min- 
ister, and so continued the remainder of his life. After a 
service of two years at Waynesborough, he removed to 
South Carolina, where he supplied the Presbyterian 
church at Bethel of Pon Pon till his death, which occurred 
April 1822. At that time he was Moderator, and the oldest 
minister of the Association, "And as an affectionate trib- 
ute to his memory, Dr. Palmer was requested by that body 
to preach a suitable discourse in the church their de- 
ceased brother had occupied." (Howe. II. 337.) 

It is worthy of further remark, that he was the only 
Congregational minister the church has ever had, unless 
it be the Rev. Henry G. Caldwell, mentioned above, of 
whose ecclesiastical relations we know nothing, but who 
we suppose was Independent, as we have been able no 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 85 

where to find his name on the Rolls of the General As- 
sembly. 

Being on the borders of two Presbyteries, the eclesias- 
tical affiliations of the church became varied. First in the 
bounds of South Carolina Presbytery till 1796; then in the 
territory of Hopewell till 1809; then in that of Georgia 
till 1831; then again in the bounds of Hopewell till 1840; 
First Independent till 1831, when received under the care 
of Hopewell Presbytery; then independent again, when it 
withdrew with its pastor. Rev. T. M. Dwight, in 1840; 
then again Presbyterian in 1853, when received back under 
the care of Hopewell (now Augitsta) Presbytery, upon 
whose roll it still stands. 

Below we give, as far as we have been able to gather 
them, the names of those who have served the church: 

The first supply was the Rev. Josiah Lewis, a Licen- 
tiate of New Castle Presbtyery, who visited the church at 
different times from 1766-1770, on Missionary tours to 
the South. So Rev. Messrs. C. T. Smith, David Caldwell, 
and others were also sent out on missionary tours, Geor- 
gia being specified as part of the field. (Min. Gen. Ass. 
360-1, 367, 375.) How much time was thus given to the 
Brier Creek community we are unable to say. Nor have 
we any means of finding out, if it was supplied, and 
by whom, through the years preceding and during the 
Revolution. The church, no doubt, through that period, like 
others was scattered, if not entirely broken up by the 
casualties of war. The first regular supply after the war 
of which we know anything was that of Rev. Henry G. 
Caldwell, who ministered to them from 1790 to 1794, as 
appears from their petition above cited. 

After Mr. Caldwell there was a period of four years 
destitution. Hence their declaration, that "Since Mr. Cald- 
well's time, we have had no established minister or reg- 
ular performance of divine worship." This vacancy con- 
tinued till 1800, when Floyd took charge and continued pas- 
tor for two years till 1802. Rev. John Boggs supplied them 
in 1810 and perhaps a few years before. 

In 1818, Rev. E. B. Caldwell, a licentiate of Salem As- 



86 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

sociation, was ordained by Harmony Presbytery at 
Waynesborough, July 3rd of that year, and settled as pas- 
tor, but whose ministery was very brief, as he died the 
Fall of the next year. Min. Har. Pres. I. 323.) 

Who then supplied the church for the next six years, 
we cannot say. 

In 1827 Rev. S. K. Talmage, Rector of the Academy 
at Augusta, and who conjointly with Rev. S. S. Davis, 
Agent for Princeton Theological Seminary, was supplying 
the church at Augusta, also supplied them. 

He was followed by Rev. Lawton Clinton, who had 
been licensed by Georgia Presbytery at its meeting at that 
place, Nov. 13. 1824, and ordained the next year. Mr. 
Clinton supplied them from 1828 till 1832. Rev. Henry 
Reid then supplied them for one year (1833), after whicli 
Rev. Theodore M. Dwight took charge in 1835, and contin- 
ued pastor for five years till 1840, when he withdrew with 
the church from the Presbytery, but continued pastor for 
five years more till 1845, when he removed to Tennessee, 
joined the New School Presl^ytery of 'Shiloh, and became 
pastor of the church at Gallatin for four years till 1849 and 
where he died. 

Rev. T. M. Dwight was succeeded by Rev. F. R. Mould- 
ing for nine years 1843-1852; then Rev. R. K. Porter for 
fourteen years, 1853 — 1867; Rev. Ferdinand Jacobs, 1867 — 
1868; then a vacancy, (1869); Rev. J. B. Dunwody, teach- 
er at Berzelia, and stated supply, 1870—1872; Rev. Paul C. 
Morton, pastor and teacher 1873 — 1877; Rev. Donald Mc- 
Queen for a short while; vacant, 1879; Rev. Paul C. Mor- 
ton again, 1880—1881; Rev. N. Keff Smith, Domestic Mis- 
sionary, a part of 1885; Rev. Robert Adams, 1886—1888; 
Rev. J. D. A. Brown, 1889—1890; Messrs. Boggs and 
Doggett, Evangelists, part of 1892; Rev. J. W. Quarter- 
m'an, 1893; Rev. Thos. D. Cartledge, eight years, 1894 — 
1902; Rev. C. I. Stacy, 1902-1905; Rev. J. L. Martin, D. 
D., 1907. 

What a number and variety of laborers! How many 
witnesses for or against that people at the last day of 
accounts! 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 87 

MIDWAY CHURCH. 

No history of the Presbyterian Church in Georgia, 
would be complete without a distinct mention of the old 
Midway church, Liberty County. Though Congregational 
In form, it was as truly and substantially Presbyterian, as 
she was a regular supporter of that church, her ministers 
all being Presbyterian, with the exception of the first. Rev. 
Mr. Osgood, who came from South Carolina, and Mr. 
Abiel Holmes, giving also so many of her sons and also 
daughters, to that church, and in her very throes of disso- 
lution giving birth to three white and three colored 
churches of that faith and order. 

In the early part of 1630, a company of Puritans, gath- 
ered principally from Devon, Dorset' and 'Sommersetshire 
counties, England, embarked for the new world, and 
bringing with them as their ministers, Rev. John Warham, 
of Exeter, and Rev. John Maverick. They landed at Nan- 
tucket, and after a few days reconnoisance, they settled 
at Mattapan, and laid the foundation of the town they 
named Dorchester, in honor of the old town from whence 
so many of them had come. 

After a residence of five years, the colony became dis- 
satisfied, when the greater portion of them removed in 
1635, to Connecticut, to Mattaneang, near Windsor, their 
places at Dorchester, however, soon being filled with other 
emigrants. 

In 1695, sixty years afterwards, the Puritan element 
having reached the shores of Carolina and being destitute 
of the Word, they sent an invitation to Dorchester, to 
send up to them one who would go and minister to them in 
holy things. In response to the call they laid hands on Mr. 
Joseph Lord, of Charleston, Mass., a graduate of Harvard, 
and then teaching school at Dorchester, and studying the- 
ology, and ordained him to the work. 

In December, 1895, Mr. Lord and nine members all 
males, sailed for Charleston, which place they reached in 
about fourteen days, after experiencing stormy weather. 
After examining different locations, they settled upon the 
northern banks of the Ashley river, some eighteen miles 



88 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

above Charl-eston, and at a place they likewise named 
Dorchester. 

After a residence of fifty-six years the colony deter- 
mined to remove on account of the want of room, as they 
were mostly farmers, and as Georgia offered every facility 
and inducement, they commenced moving in December 
1752, to St. John's Parish, now Liberty County, and in a 
few years were established in their new home^ bringing 
their Pastor, Rev. John Osgood, with them. It was simply 
the removal of the church, for we have no account of a 
new organization. 

REV. JOHN OSGOOD. 

Rev. John Osgood, the first pastor, was a native of 
South Carolina, a graduate of Cambridge, and, as Dr. 
Ramsay asserts, "one of the four natives, who obtained a 
degree from a College for the first ninety years which fol- 
lowed the settlement of South Carolina," and who together 
with Rev. Josiah Smith, the "only native of the Province, 
as recollected, who were ordained ministers prior to the 
Revolution" (History Sou. Car. II. '524.) He was pastor 
nineteen years in Carolina, and nineteen in Georgia. He 
died August 2, 1773. 

He was assisted for two years, 1767 — 1769, 'by Rev. 
James Edmonds, of South Carolina, who preached at Sun- 
bury and the Altamaha, about Darien, we presume, where 
some of the Scottish Highlanders still remained. 
REV. MOSES ALLEN. 

After the death of Mr. Osgood, the church was with- 
out a regular pastor. They, however, kept up services 
every Sabbath, either by sermons read, or conducted by 
visiting ministers. Among these we find the names of 'Dr. 
Zubly, from Savannah, Messrs. Gillis, Wm. Tennent, 
Piercy, Eccles, Joseph Cook, Daniel Roberts, and Thos. 
Hill. After repeated but unsuccessful efforts to obtain a 
minister, a call was presented to 'Rev. Moses Allen, a na- 
tive of Northampton, Mass., and graduate of the College 
of New Jersey, a Presbyterian minister, who was then sup- 
plying the Church at Wappetaw% near Charleston, S. C, and 
who accepted the call and removed to Midway, and preach- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 89 

ed his first sermon June 22, 1777. Mr. Allen's pastorate 
was very short. Being a zealous advocate of independ- 
ence, when the county was overrun by the British, Jan- 
uary, 1779, he was taken a prisoner and put on board of a 
prison ship. Tired of confinement in such loathesome 
quarters, on the evening of February 8, 1779, he sought 
to escape by throwing himself into the river, and swim- 
ming to the shore; but was drowned in the attempt. 

It was during his pastorate, and a little while before, 
during the raid of Col. Provost, the Meeting House, as well 
as many of the residences, were burned and the commun- 
ity entirely broken up. The Dorchester House, S. C, was 
also afterwards burned, both being used by the Americans 
ior military purposes, and doubtless the reason for the 
burning. 

REV. ABIEL HOLMES, D. D. 

For five years after this and until the close of the rev- 
olution, supreme desolation reigned. At the end of this 
period, and during the year, a number of the citizens re- 
turned to their old homes and began to rebuild their deso- 
lated houses. The next year they erected a coarse house 
of worship, near the spot where the old one stood that was 
burned. The next year, a call was extended to Mr. Abiel 
Holmes, a native of Woodstock, Conn., and graduate of 
Yale College, and at that time teaching school in South 
Carolina, who accepted the call and was ordained at Yale 
College September 5, 1785 and became pastor and con- 
tinued pastor for six years, at the end of which time he 
resigned and accepted a call to the church at Cambridge, 
Mass., where he labored till his death June 4, 1837. 
REV. CYRUS GILDERSLEEVE. 

He was succeeded by Rev. Cyrus Gildersleeve, a na 
five of New Brunswick, and member of the Presbytery 
New Brunswick, and who continued pastor for twe 
years, till Feburary 27, 1811, when he relinquishec' 
charge and removed to New Jersey, where he becan^ 
tor of the church at Bloomfield, and died at Elzab 
in 1838. 



90 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

REV. MURDOCH MURPHY. 

The next pastor was the Rev. Murdoch Murphy, who 
was a native of Scotland, who could speak the Gaelic 
language, and member of the Presbytery of South Caro- 
lina, and who remained with them for twelve years, after 
which he resigned his pastorate and removed to Spring 
Hill, near Mobile, Ala., where he died February 8, 1833. 
REV. ROBERT QUARTERMAN. 

He was followed by Rev. Robert Quarterman, a native 
of Liberty county, who was installed pastor by the Presby- 
tery of Georgia May 27, 1823, and continued regular pas- 
tor for twenty-six years, and pastor Emeritus for two 
years, and died April 19, 1849. 

REV. I. S. K. AXSON, D. D. 

The church increasing in numbers, and on account of 
the establishment of the summer retreats, it became neces- 
sary that there should be an assistant or co-pastor. Accord- 
ingly, in March, 1836, the Rev. I. S. K. Axson of the Pres< 
bytery of Charleston, was elected colleague and so con- 
tinued for seventeen years, till 1853, when, on account of 
declining health, he tendered his resignation and after 
wards became president of Greensboro Female College, 
and later pastor of the Independent Presbyterian Church, 
Savannah, where he remained pastor for 34 years, till his 
death March 31, 1891. 

REV. THOS. S. WINN. 

After the failure of Mr. Axson's health in 1847, Rev, 
Thomas S. Winn, regular descendent of Rev. Mr, Osgood 
was Elected co-pastor with Mr. Axson and entered upon his 
duties in February, 1848, and continued co-pastor till Feb- 
ruary, 18'55, when he resigned and removed to Hale Coun- 
ty, Ala., where he became pastor of a group of churches 
which he continued to serve for forty years, till he re* 
tired from services on account of his advanced age. 
REV, D. L. BUTTOLPH, D. D. 

In 1859 the church elected, as colleague to Mr. Winn, 
Rev. D. L. Buttolph, a native of Norwich, New York, and 
graduate of Columbia Seminary, and at the time assisting 
Dr. Thos. &myth, pastor of the Second Church, Charleston, 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 91 

S. C, Dr. Buttolph continued pastor till 1867, when he ac- 
cepted a call to the Marietta church, which he served for 
nineteen years, when his health 'became impaired and he 
resigned charge of the church. 

REV. JOHN F. BAKER. 

After the resignation of Mr. Winn, Rev. John F, Bak- 
er, a native of Liberty County and son of Mr, John O. Bak« 
er, a former deacon in Midway Church, was elected pas- 
tor with Mr. Buttolph. He remained but six months, and 
removed to Virginia. 

REV. F. H. BOWMAN. 

After Mr. Baker's resignation. Rev. Francis H. Bow 
man, D. D., a native of Charlottesville, and son of Rev 
Francis Bowman, D. D., was chosen co-pastor with Dr. 
Buttolph and continued for three years 1856 — 1859, when 
he tendered his resignation and removed jto Alabama. 

After the departure of Dr. Buttolph and on account of 
the establishment of separate churches at the retreats, 
and the general desolation and ruin resulting from the 
war, services ceased to be held in the old building, which 
was turned over to the colored people, who used it for 
twenty years. Thus after 113 years of active life, the old 
church ceased to exist. 

Although the old church ceased to exist after the war, 
yet her life is still perpetuated in the three Presbyterian 
churches, Walthourville, Flemington, and Dorchester, and 
also several colored churches. 

The Walthourville Church was organized by the Pres- 
bytery of Georgia July 27, 1855 with thirty-three members, 
and two Ruling Elders and two deacons. 

The Flemington Church was organized by the same 
body April 6, 1866, with seventy members, three Ruling 
Elders and two Deacons. 

The Dorchester Church was organized by the 
Presbytery of Savannah, formerly Georgia, January 6, 
'1871, with fourteen members with one Ruling Elder. 

The pastors of the Walthourville Church were, first, 
Rev. John Jones who served it for the balance of the year 
after its organization. After him was Dr. R. Q. Mallard, 



92 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

who was pastor for s-even years, 1856 — 1863, until he was 
called to the pastorate of the Central church, Atlanta. Af- 
ter a short supply by Rev. R. Q. Way, Rev. N. P. Quarter- 
man became pastor and continued supplying them in connec- 
tion with Flemington and Dorchester churches for four 
years 1866 — 1870, when he was called to the Anderson 
Street Church, Savannah. He was succeeded by Rev. J. 
"W. Montgomery, who at the same time supplied Fleming- 
ton and Dorchester from 1871 — 1890. 

Mr. Montgomery was succeeded by Rev. E. W. Way, 
from 1891 to 1895, when he resigned and removed to 
Gainesville, Florida. 

After Mr. Way, the church was supplied by several 
ministers for short periods of time, and is now served by 
Rev. Henry Rankin. 

After the removal of Mr. Montgomery, the Flemington 
church was supplied by Rev. C. C. Carson, a licentiate of 
the Presbytery of Holston, and native of Tennessee, who, 
in 1893, was ordained and installed pastor of the two as- 
sociated churches of Flemington and Blackshear, which 
field he continued to occupy till his removal to Valdosta 
in 1899. 

He was succeeded by Rev. A. S. Allen, of Tennessee, 
who supplied Flemington, Dorchester and Walthourville 
churches from 1900—1904. 

He was followed by Rev. W. W. Edge, of Morganton, 
N. C, who was pastor of these churches from 1904 to 
1906, and then by Rev. Henry Rankin. 

COLORED CHURCHES. 

In addition to these churches, there were also four 
colored churches growing out of the colored membership, 
which at the time of the dissolution amounted to about 
700, viz., Midway, Riceboro, Ebenezer, and St. Stephen's 
church, and the Grove Congregational church, which are 
still in existence. The Midway church, after occupying 
the building for 20 years, erected one of their own, near 
by, the old building being returned to the whites, which 
has been repaired and used for their annual reunions. 

The Midway church, in many respects, is one of the 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 93 

most remarkable we know anything of, not only of the 
State and of the southern country, but of the whole 
world, with a membership, including Walthourville, Flem- 
ington, Jonesville and Dorchester the four retreats, of 
more than 300 whites, and 700 blacks, and yet with a 
record, and achievements wholly unparallelled in the his- 
tory of any religious community. The number of Gover- 
nors, signers of the Delclaration of Independence, and 
counties named after her great men, the number of minis- 
ters, and ministers wives, missionaries, presidents and pro- 
fessors in institutions of learning — men and women of in- 
fluence furnished by this little colony, is truly marvellous. 

Among the Governors we mention Button Gwinnett, a 
signer of the Declaration of Independence, who though re- 
siding upon St. Catherine Island had all his associations at 
Sunbury; Richard Howley, born near Savannah but after- 
wards a citizen of Liberty county; Nathan Brownson, a 
member of the Provincial Congress of 1775, and Continen- 
tal Congress of 1776; Dr. Lyman Hall, member of the Con- 
tinental Congress and signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. 

Among the Counties named: Liberty after her own 
prowess and zeal in the cause of independence; Screven, 
after General James Screven, who fell in her defence; 
Hall after Dr. Lyman Hall, one of the singers of the 
Declaration of Independence; Gwinnett, named after Gov- 
ernor Gwinnett; Baker, named after Col. John Baker, one 
of her sons of Revolutionary fame; Stewart, named after 
General Daniel Stewart, one of her members. 

Among her public men, we mention: Hon, Benjamin 
Andrew, Senators, Hon, John Elliott, Alfred Iverson, A, O. 
Bacon, whose father and mother lie sleeping side by side 
in the cemetery, J, A. Cuthbert member of Congress, Hons. 
W. E. Law, W. B. Fleming, John E. Ward, minister plen- 
ipotentiary to China; among her scientific men: Profs. 
John and Joseph LeConte, world renowned historians and 
writers, C. C. Jones, Jr., author of the history of Georgia, 
and Rev. F. R. Goulding, the author of "Young Maroon- 
ers;" among her Theological Profeeeors: Drs, Thos, Gould* 



94 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

ing, and C. C. Jones, Professors at Columbia Seminary; 
among her Chancellors, Rev. P. H. Mell, D. D., Chancellor 
of State University, and baptized in infancy at her altars, 
and R. B. Fulton, Chancellor of University of Mississippi, 
and grandson of Paul Fulton one of her members. 

In this connection it is especially worthy of mention 
that the high honor has been put upon her to furnish in 
the person of one of her regular descendents, the Presi- 
dent of the United States, Hon. Theodore Roosevelt being 
the great grandson of General Daniel and Mrs. Susannah 
Stewart, who were both members on her roll, and whose 
sleeping dust lie side by side in her cemetery. 
MINISTERS AND MISSIONARIES. 

But her chief glory consists in the number and charac- 
ter of the ministers of the Gospel that have gone out from 
her bosom; either directly, or the regular descendents of 
her children. These are eighty-six in all; fifty-one Pres- 
byterians; nineteen Baptists; thirteen Methodists, and 
three Episcopalians. She has also sent out nine Mission- 
aires to foreign fields. 

Presbyterian Ministers: Thomas Goulding, Robert 
Quarterman, Daniel Baker, Chas. C. Jones, Samuel 
J. Cassels, F. R. Goulding, John W. Baker, John Winn, 
John Jones, J. B. Dunwody, R. Q. Way, T. S. Winn, Jno. 
Winn Quarterman, Daniel Sumner Baker, W. M. Baker, 
Donald Eraser, Joseph M. Quarterman, John F. Baker, W. 
E. Baker, John Baker, James Stacy, G. W. Ladson, R. Q. 
Mallard, S. E. Axson, J. S. Cosby, R. Q. Baker, J. G. Law, 
N. P. Quarterman, C. A. Baker, Jno. Way Quarterman, B. 
L Baker, William LeConte, Thos. Clay Winn, Chalmers 
Eraser, D. F. Sheppard, A. L. R. Waite, L. T. Way, E. W. 
Way, T. D. Witherspoon, W. D. Hedleston, W. M. Frierson, 
M. V. Frierson, Jno. C. McMuHen, Robert Iverson, W. S. 
Baker, W. E. Screven, L. Walthour Curtis, A. E. Spencer. 

Baptist Ministers: Samuel Spry Law, Thos. S. Winn, 
Joseph S. Baker, P. H. Mell, Edward A. Stevens, A. O. 
Bacon, A. T. Holmes, Jacob H. Dunham, C. O. Screven, 
Jesse H. Campbell, Carlos Stevens, H. J. Stevens, W. B 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 95 

Bennett, John Lake, Chas. A. Gaulden, William Butler, 
Jere Baker. 

Methodist Ministers: John Andrew, Bishop J. O. An- 
drew, W. H. Cassels, Dan M. Stewart, Joseph Andrews, E. 
G. Andrews, R. Q. Andrews, Hansford Andrews, W. M. 
Quarterman, Moses W. Way, Joseph Law, J. L. Hendry, 
John Shepard. 

Episcopal Ministers: Thos. Goulding Pond, Henry K. 
Rees, W. R. McConnell. 

That so many ministers should go out from one 
church and community, is simply unprecedented. And 
what is still more remarkable, is the fact that twenty- 
three of the above ministers are the regular descendants 
of one man, John Quarterman, Sr. Their names are as fol- 
lows: John Winn, Peter Winn, Thos. Sumner Winn, Thos. 
Clay Winn, Robert Quarterman, Wm. Quarterman, John 
Winn Quarterman, Joseph M. Quarterman, N. P. Quarter- 
man, John Way Quarterman, C. A. Baker, B. L. Baker, R. 
Q. Baker, R. Q. Way, L. T. Way, James Stacy, Louis Le- 
Conte, Joseph Andrews, E. Q. Andrews, R. Q. Andrews, 
Hansford Andrews, Chalmers Eraser, Thomas Goulding 
Pond. 

It is also worthy of note that seven foreign mission- 
airies, the descendents of this man, have gone out from 
this Church, viz., J. W. Quarterman, R. Q. Way, Louis Le- 
Conte, T. Clay Winn, Miss Susan Way, Miss Harriet Louisa 
Winn and Miss Leila Way. What a wonderful man! And 
how wonderfully blessed. 

Among other things for which the church was remark- 
able was the deep and abiding interest taken in the relig- 
ious instruction of the colored people. Dr. C. C. Jones de- 
voted his entire life to this work, with the exception of 
the few years spent as Professor in the Columbia semi- 
nary, and as the Assembly's Secretary of Home Missions 
at Philadelphia. A great and good wo^rk was done among 
them, which eternity alone will reveal. The large member- 
ship, among this class, as well as the succeeding churches, 
are the fruits of this zeal and labor. 

We conclude this sketch of this wonderful people with 



96 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

the bare additional remark that they were a patriotic peo- 
ple also, as appears from the name of the county, Liberty, 
secured to themselves by their devotion to the cause of 
independence, and the additional fact that they were the 
only people who wrote a letter of congratulation to Pres- 
ident Washington, when on his visit to Georgia in 1789. 

Now should the question be raised, what is the secret 
of all this, and wherein consists the sources of this 
church's power? Apart from the sovereign prerogative of 
the Head of the Church, who sets one up and puts another 
down without giving a reason to any one for the same, we 
point to certain facts as secondary agencies, which the 
reader may judge whether of sufficient weight or not. 
There are certain things this people greatly emphasized. 

1. They had great respect for the services of the 
Sanctuary, going from one to fourteen miles to be present 
at every service. No lounging at home on the Lord's Day; 
no children left at home to roam the fields or to engage in 
sport; neither at Church were they allowed to sit any 
where else than in the pew with their parents. 

And in this connection it should be stated that there 
were always two services, before the adjournment of the 
congregation. And furthermore the fact must be em- 
phasized, that it mattered little whether there was a min- 
ister present or not; for in his absence it was understood 
that one of the Deacons would fill his place. This custom 
is still kept up to this day, by the Churches that have come 
jout of her; nor does there seem to be any diminution in 
interest or size of congregation. 

2. Family Worship. It was almost the universal cus- 
tom of all the leading families to hold family worship. 
And in many instances, in the absence of the father, or in 
case of widowhood, the mother would gather the children 
around the family altar and conduct the services. 

3. Another thing greatly emphasized, was the com- 
mon and almost universal practice of Infant Baptism. The 
records will show that the list of births and of baptisms, 
making due allowance for the omissions of baptisms, 
through deaths, is about the same. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 97 

4. We mention one other thing and that was this, that 
the church looked with extreme suspicion upon what are 
known as "protracted, or revival meetings," the few of 
these protracting themselves, and the result of intense 
feeling in the congregation. They depended mainly upon 
the regular weekly service and every day means of grace. 

5. Nor should it be omitted that they paid liberally 
to the support of the Gospel. Though not a people of any 
great wealth, they employed two ministers to whom they 
paid what at that time were considered large salaries and 
to whom in their early history, they gave a Legal Bond in 
which they "bound their heirs and attorneys and assigns, 
etc." 

For a more extensive account of this wonderful church 
see the History of the same written by the Author. 
SMYRNA AND BETHANY. 

I know of no two churches, in any of the rural dis- 
tricts of the State more worthy of special mention than 
those of Smyrna and Bethany, which, for a number of 
years, were united under the pastorate of Rev. Dr. Quigg, 
until the withdrawal of Bethany in 1874. 

Of the two, the older is Smyrna, being organized with 
fifteen members, December 1827, by Dr. John S. Wilson, 
then under care of the old Hopewell Presbytery. It is re- 
markable for several things: 

1st. For its long pastorate being the third in the 
Synod; that of Rev. G. H. Cartledge at Hebron and Homer, 
continuing for forty-seven years; being the first; 
Rev. James Stacy, the second, being forty-three years at 
Newnan; and Dr. H. Quigg the third, being pastor at 
Smyrna for forty-one years, beginning soon after his recep- 
tion from the Associate Presbyterian Church in 1867, and 
continuing till his death in 1907; the last three years, pas- 
tor Emeritus. 

2nd. For the fact already stated, that it is the only 
Presbyterian church in the state keeping up its annual 
campmeetings. They commenced these meetings early in 
their history, and have kept them up till the present; and 
not simply as seasons of recreation and social enjoyment, 



98 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

but as a "solemn convocation unto the Lord," set up for 
worship and spiritual improvement. The writer well re- 
members the delightful services, pleasant scenes, and 
Christian fellowship, enjoyed by him at those meetings it 
was his privilege to attend. Never has he seen better 
order at such gatherings, there being no necessity for any 
police arrangements. The high tone of public sentiment 
pervading the community was always a guarantee for good 
order and behavior. . 

3rd. But the thing for which the church is chiefly 
noted is the fact that it embraces in its membership and 
congregation the Hollingsworth family, a family alike re- 
markable for their number, piety and devotion to their 
Presbyterian principles, no name occurring more frequent- 
ly on the minutes of Presbytery and Synod, the church 
being represented in the church courts with wonderful reg- 
ularity, and usually by one of that name. 

About 1830 there were six brothers of th-em, who came 
from Laurens county, S. C, and settled in Newton, now 
Rockdale County, their names being: William, Moses, 
Aaron, John, Joseph and George. Four of these were, or 
became. Ruling Elders, viz., William, Moses, Aaron and 
Joseph. Of their sons the following numbers were elders: 
Three out of the four sons of William; two out of the four 
sons of Moses; three out of the four of Aaron; and two out 
of the four sons of Joseph. Thus each of the four elders 
had four sons, and of the sixteen sons, ten became elders. 

They have likewise furnished the church with the fol- 
lowing ministers: (1) Rev. W. T., son of George and 
grandson of Aaron, pastor at Lafayette, Ala; (2) Rev. W. 
F., son of Jas. F. and grandson of William, formerly pas- 
tor at Brunswick, now at Morganton, N. C; (3) Rev. D. 
W., son of Rev. W. T., and grandson of Aaron, and pastor 
at Hinton, W. Va.; (4) Rev. Geo. M., son of Jas. H. and 
great grandson of George, and pastor at 'Cross Hill, S. C. 

And besides these, among the descendants, now num- 
bering over five hundred, and being scattered every where 
as precious seed, are numbers of active Christian workers, 
and entering into the membership of different churches, 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 99 

and contributing to their strength and influence. Eternity 
alone will reveal the result of such a planting. 

While thus speaking of the Smyrna congregation, it 
likewise affords us pleasure to make honorable mention 
of the Bethany people, their neighbors, and possessing 
very much the same spirit, and who have always united 
with them in their campmeetings, being only about 
twelve miles distant. 

The Bethany church was organized in 1843 by Messrs. 
Dickson and Patterson, and made up of members chiefly 
from Covington and McDonough churches, and is one of 
the best country churches in the Synod, alike remarkable 
for their intelligent Presbyterianism and fidelity to duty 
and obligation. As far as the writer knows to them be- 
longs the honor of giving the best and true definition of 
the Sabbath School as illustrated in their own history, 
viz., that it was not a society outside the church, but the 
church itself gathered together for the study of God's 
word. Quite a number of years ago one of the elders made 
the remark in my hearing that "In the Bethany church all 
the members were also members of the Sabbath School." 
If a tree is to be judged by its fruits, the character of the 
Bethany people shows the correctness of the definition. 

I would add, that the church has always been re- 
markable for the intelligent character of its eldership. 
Seldom have we ever found two such men associated in 
the eldership of any one church as Henry P. Richards and 
Alfred Livingston, the latter the father of the Congress- 
man from that District. Honorable, faithful, liberal and 
watchful, the influence of their lives will be felt for many 
years to come. Mr. Livingston, though ninety years of 
age, was the constant attendant upon the services of the 
sanctuary, and also of the Sabbath School of which he was 
the superintendent till his death. No one can tell the in- 
fluence of such lives in a community. Would that the 
land was full of such men and such churches. 
CHURCHES IN THE COUNTRY. 

Did time and space and the general scope of this work 
not forbid, we would take pleasure in giving sketches of 



100 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

other country churches, the history of which would be 
intensely interesting. But we must leave this for other 
hands to do. Lest our silence, however, should be con- 
strued into a want of interest, or our depreciation of this 
part of Christian work, we would offer words of special 
commendation in their behalf. Instead of belittling, we 
would magnify their importance; and for the reason, the 
country is the supporter of the town. That church that 
has no country to draw from must ever labor under a great 
disadvantage. The country is the home of virtue and re- 
ligion, and as a general rule, the best city members are 
those imported therefrom. So, statistics carefully pre- 
pared by our Executive Committee of Education show that 
fully one half of our ministers are from the country and 
are farmers' sons. (Leaflet No. 4.) This is one thing that 
has added greatly to the success of our Methodist and 
Baptist brethren. We have no hesitation in saying that 
the Presbyterian church will never attain to the full meas- 
ure of her strength or fully accomplish the purpose of her 
mission until she attaches more importance and opens up 
wider fields in her work in the country. 
CAMPMEETINGS. 
As early as 1825 the Presytery of Hopewell establish- 
ed a system of meetings known as campmeetings, where 
the people would meet at some church or central place for 
religious services, and where they would, for convenience, 
camp for several days. At first cloth tents were used but 
later on rough houses covered with boards. These meet- 
ings were first started in Tennessee, during the great re- 
vival of 1800, but soon spread into 'Georgia, As the minis- 
ters were few, and the churches were scattered, two or 
three congregations w^ould unite together, to which sev- 
eral ministers would be invited. There were several of 
these camps in different parts of the country, as at Beth- 
any, New Hope, Concord, Thyatira, and White Oak, near 
Newnan, Philadelphia and Smyrna. Great good was done 
by them, the hundreds of newly made converts, together 
with the hundreds of professing Christians, coming from 
far and near, and obtaining a fresh baptism of the Spirit 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 101 

and returning and spreading the influence and power of 
the truth. Dr. Wilson, who frequently attended them, 
thus writes in his Necrology concerning them (P. 40) : 

"Thousands ofttimes assembled at these meetings and 
spent usually four or five days in prayer and praise, and 
preaching and hearing. The occasions furnished thous- 
ands an opportunity of learning what Presbyterianism 
was, who otherwise would never have possessed any in- 
telligent idea of its doctrines or polity. Presbyterians, 
from a long distance in the surrounding country, came to- 
gether and formed a personal acquaintance, which other- 
wise had never existed. They learned to love each other. 
They entertained for each other afterwards an undying 
affection. It rendered the churches more homogeneous, 
and cemented them in bonds of Christian friendship. 
Christians were not in that day as in ours, cold and formal, 
neither knowing nor caring for each other's welfare. In 
the spirit of the Apostle's injunction, they "looked not 
every man on his own things, but every man also on the 
things of others." They sympathized with and prayed for 
each other. That selfish iceberg, coldness, which per- 
vades Christian society in this day, was then unknown. 
Soul mingled with soul like kindred drops of water. Well 
do we remember the closing scenes of many of these holy 
convocations. When the parting hour came what tender 
farewells were uttered. What warm expressions of 
Christian love and esteem were exchanged between those 
who had come together as utter strangers. With what 
spirit and deep emotion have we heard the great congre- 
gation unite with one heart and one voice in singing the 
parting song: 

"Blest be the tie that binds 

Our hearts in Christian love; 
The fellowship of kindred minds 
Is like to that above." 
Campmee'tings were well adapted to the early condi- 
tion of the country, but their necessity has now past. 
Though still kept up in several places by the Methodists, 
they have been discontinued by Presbyterians. The only 



102 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

one at present in the State, is the one at Smyrna near 
Conyers, which has been in successful operation for the 
past seventy-five years, with the exception of five years in- 
terruption during the war. 



CHAPTER VI. 



EDUCATION. 

To say that Presbyterians have always believed in an 
educated ministry is but to utter the merest truism. Not 
th'at they regarded this as the best means of securing the 
greatest number, but the only way of doing the most thor- 
ough and efficient work. Her first five ministers in the 
State were all classical scholars, and several of them teach- 
ers of high rank, and had their school room in connection 
with the Church and rendered very efficient service in that 
way. Newton had been an usher or assistant teacher at 
Mt. Clio, N. C. Springer had a school near Washington. 
and Waddel at Carmel. So also afterwards Dr. Cummins 
had a school at Bethany, near Greensboro. This they did 
for two reasons: first, like Paul, in his tent mak* 
ing, that they might not be burdensome to the Churches in 
their poverty and weakness; but second, that it might 
assist them in their work; for at that time there were few 
men in the country capable of filling a position of that 
kind. Whether from necessity or choice, it is a fact that 
a large proportion of the Presbyterian ministers in this 
State have been school teachers. The number was much 
greater formerly than now; since the Churches are taking 
better care of their pastors and doubtless when she comes 
fully to apprehend the full meaning of the apostle when 
he says, "that they who preach the gospel should live by 
the gospel," the ministers will more generally give them- 
selves wholly to the ministry. 

That it is the duty of the Church to provide for the 
education of her indigent candidates for the ministry is 
generally admitted. But it has always been a question how 
far that help should extend? Whether It should be con- 
fined to the Theological training only, or likewise extended 
to the literary course? And not only for the training of her 
candidates, but still further, whether it be right for her to 
establish schools and colleges for the promiscuous training 



104 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

oi the youth of the country generally. The Synod spoke with 
no uncertain sound on this subject at its meeting at Colum- 
bus in 1848, when it said, "we believe that it is the imper- 
ative duty of the Church of Christ to provide the means 
of religious education for the youth of the land." And 
again, "let Parochial Schools and Religious Colleges then 
be sustained by our Churches." Minutes page 29. 

On the other hand there have always been in the 
Presbyterian Church, more formerly than now, some who 
have doubted this right of ecclesiastical control. This was 
clearly the views of Dr. Thornwell, who held that secular 
education was the work of the State and not the province 
of the Church. (See his letter to Gov. Manning 1853). Dr. 
R. J. Breckinridge held to the same views. (South Pres. 
Rev. Vol. II, July No). So Drs. Stuart Robinson and J. C. 
Peck and other prominent ministers. (See Pres. Critic 
1855-6). 

But there has been a wonderful reaction in sentiment 
on this subject of late. Denominational education seems 
now to be the established policy of all the different branch- 
es of the Christian Churches. Note. 

There were two things that led to this reaction: 

1st. The first was the infidel sentiments held and open- 
ly expressed by Dr. Thomas Cooper, President of the College 
of South Carolina. Dr. Cooper was a native of London and 
educated at Oxford, and afterwards settled in Pennsylva- 
nia. He was first elected as Professor of Chemistry, Geol- 
ogy and Minerology in South Carolina College, and after- 
wards, in 1821, upon the death of the celebrated Dr. Maxcy, 
the first President, was elected his successor, and contin- 
ued to fill the oflice of President till 1834, when public sen- 
timent became so outraged at his open avowal of infidel 



Note. We raise the question, whether the truth be not 
midway betwetm these extremes: If the true Scripture 
view be that colleges and schools should be built and man- 
aged by (Jhrhsl'an men, as individuals, and not by the 
Church in its organic capacity. We shall have occasion 
to allude to this matter further on. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 105 

sentiments as to demand a change. Says Laborde, in his 
history of the college, "the close of the year 1834 found the 
College in a most deplorable condition. It was almost 
deserted. Parents for the last several years had either 
kept their sons at home, or sought an education for them 
in other and distant colleges. The whole number in col- 
lege November 24 was twenty, only, (page 189). Yield- 
ing, therefore to the pressure, and with a view of reorgan- 
izing the entire faculty, the Board of Trustees requested 
the resignation of all the Professors, which was done, and 
in the election which followed Dr. Cooper was left out, but 
he continued to live in Columbia till his death, which 
occurred May 11th, 1840. 

Thus the history of South Carolina showed the people 
of the country that there were no safeguards thrown 
around State Colleges, and that a similar result might at 
any time occur in any of the State Institutions, and that 
their only safety would be in having schools of their own 
and under their control, for the education of their sons. 

2d. Another reason, and one every way less worthy 
was denominational rivalry. It so happened that at first 
for quite a long period the University was under the con- 
trol of Presbyterians. The first President, Josiah Meigs, 
L. L. D., a graduate and an instructor in Yale College, 
whose term of office extended through a period of nine 
years, had neither religious preferences nor pretentions. 
The Board of Trustees, however, being largely Presbyte- 
rian, placed the Institution largely under Presbyterian 
influence and control. In 1810 Rev. Dr. Henry Kollock, 
pastor of the Independent Presbyterian Church in Savan- 
nah, was elected President, but declined. The Presidency 
of Dr. John Brown, a Presbyterian minister, then followed. 
He was succeeded in 1827 by Rev. Dr. Robert Finley, a 
Presbyterian minister from Baskingridge, N. J., whose 
term of office continued but a few months, from April to 
August, he dying the same year. The fourth President 
was the Rev. Dr. Moses Waddel, another Presbyterian 
minister, whose term of office extended through ten years, 
from 1819 to 1829. He was succeeded by Dr. Alonzo 



106 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Church, another Presbyterian minister, who had been a 
teacher at Eatonton, who was first elected a Professor of 
Mathematics and Astronomy, and whose incumbency as 
President continued through the next decade, till 1859, 
when the Rev. Andrew A. Lipscomb, a Methodist minister, 
was elevated to the Chancellorship. Thus for a period of 
59 years the Institution was under Presbyterian control. 

This was not the result of the denomination being so 
much larger than the others, or of any special scheming on 
their part, but simply upon the ground that the Presbyte- 
rian Church always believed in, and had, an educated min- 
istry, and because up to that time the most suited and best 
educated men were to be found in the ranks oi the min- 
istry. 

After so many years of continuous supply, and after 
the other denominations, began to educate their ministry, 
notes of dissatisfaction were heard, complaining of injus- 
tice being done them in not allowing some of the chairs, at 
least, to be filled by their men, especially as those denom- 
inations so far outnumbered the Presbyterians. This clam- 
or so increased that in 1830, when Rev. J. P. Waddel, a son 
of the President was elected to the chair of Ancient Lan- 
guages, he declined to accept the position and the Senatus 
Academicus found it necessary to reconsider the action of 
the Board and to allay the dissatisfaction by the selection 
of Rev. James Shannon, a Baptist minister and pastor of 
the Church at Augusta, Ga., who was chosen in his stead, 
and which position he filled till 1835, when he resigned to 
accept the Presidency of the Missouri University, and 
when Professor Waddel was again elected to the place, 
and which he held for twenty years, till 1856. (Academic 
Mem'orials page 88). 

For these reasons the different Churches felt that they 
would be better satisfied with Colleges of their own, and 
proceeded to establish and equip the same. In 1826 Emory 
College was chartered by the Methodists and commenced 
operations the next year under the Presidency of Ignatius 
A. Few, L. L. D. So the Baptists in December 1837 
obtained a charter and laid the foundation of their Col- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 107 

lege, which they named Mercer, after Rev. Jesse Mercer, 
their leading minister, and located it in Greene county, at 
a place they named Penfield, after Josiah Penfield, a Dea- 
con in their Church in Savannah and a liberal patron, and 
where they already had a school in successful operation. 

About the same time, and even as early as December 
1835, a charter was obtained by the Presbyterians for a 
College to be located at Midway, a village near Milledge- 
ville, which they named Oglethorpe, after the founder and 
first governor of Georgia. They commenced building March 
1837, and opened the Institution January of the next year. 
The three Institutions were all alike first projected upon 
the Manual Labor plan, which, however, was soon aban- 
doned. 

From the early advantages, as well as splendid start, 
the Presbyterian Church had made in the race of educa- 
tion, it Would seem that they would easily outstrip the 
other denominations; but sad to say, that was not the case. 
For a while they did seem to run well, but in the end, have 
been far outstripped by them. 

Before the late civil war there were under the care of 
the Synod of Georgia three female Institutions and one 
prosperous male College, and which in some way, whether 
from culpable negligence or through sheer mismanagement 
she has suffered to slip through her fingers. The his- 
tory is indeed a sad one, and the experience bitter, and 
we would gladly draw a veil over the whole, but no true 
history can T^e given of the Church in Georgia without an 
honest recital of the facts. 



CHAPTER VII. 



OGLETHORPE UNIVERSITY. 

Being an alumnus of the late Oglethorpe University, 
and more recently one of its directors, "De Bonis Non," 
and knowing something of its life's work and death strug- 
gles, I proceed to tell the wondrous story of its achieve- 
ments and disastrous ending. To those at all posted, I 
need to say, that its career, though brilliant in many re- 
spects, was nevertheless tinged with the deepest sadness. 
No institution perhaps ever passed through such checkered 
and trying scenes. None ever rose with greater promise 
and hope. None ever went down under greater darkness 
and gloom. Ephemeral as the opening flower, it was, "A 
thing of beauty," only for a season, for like the burning 
meteor, it blazed for a time only, and then went out in the 
darkness of night. 

ITS ORIGIN. 

In the early history of the State, there were few min- 
isters, especially educated ones. The Presbytery oi Hope- 
well feeling the necessity of doing sometning towards 
remedying the evil, invited in 1823, the ministers and 
churches of Georgia Presbytery, the only other at that 
time in the state, to unite with them in an effort looking 
to a greater supply. As a result, a convention was called, 
and a society organized at Athens, Aug 7, 1824, which was 
known as the Georgia Education Society, its object being to 
assist all indigent pious young men, who had the ministry in 
view, in obtaining an education. Though chiefly under the 
direction and control of the Presbyterians, it was non- 
sectarian. It had a president, seven vice presidents, a 
corresponding secretary, a recording secretary, a treasu- 
rer and fourteen directors. Of these seven vice presidents 
two were Baptists, and one a Methodist. These denomi- 
nations, however, did not co-operate to any great extent. 
This association did a great deal of good in assisting 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 109 

worthy m-en in obtaining an education. Under its auspices 
and in accordance with the trend of puolic sentiment at 
that time, was organized what was termed a Manual Labor 
School. 

MANUAL LABOR SCHOOL. 

The object of this school, was not only to train the mind 
but also to develop the bodj^ and at the same time, lessen 
the expense of the students, by the products of the farm 
and work shop. This school was located in the vicinity of 
Athens, but never proved successful, and for the reason as 
some thought, of its too close proximity to the city, the 
boys of the country school failing to receive the same at- 
tention as that given the more fashionable, and genteel 
students of the town. In 1835, the school was disbanded, 
and two others of the same kind established; one at Mid- 
way, near Milledgeville, known as the "Midway Seminary," 
and placed under the care of Hopewell Presbytery; and the 
other, at Lawrenceville, and known as the "Gwinnett High 
School." This school was placed under the care of Flint 
River Presbytery, and lingered until 1845, when it was dis- 
continued, and the enterprise abandoned. * 

About the time of the removal of the school to Mid- 
way, the Presbytery of Hopewell, feeling the need of bet- 
ter facilities for a higher christian education, resolved to 
have a college, and decided to locate it at Midway, merg- 
ing it into the other, but still retaining the Manual Labor 
feature. A charter was obtained. A Board of Trustees 
of twenty-four of the most prominent and influential men 
in the church was appointed, to whom the enterprise was 
committed. They held their first meeting at Milledgeville, 
Oct. 21, 1835, and after organizing by the election of Dr. 
Thomas Goulding as President, and R. K. Hines, Secretary, 
began at once to take steps, looking to the establishment 
of a College, which they decided should be named OGLE- 

* Baptists and Methodists had similar Institution, one at 
Penfield and the other at Covington 



110 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

THORPE UNIVERSITY, thus attesting alike the height of 
their aim and extent of their enthusiasm. 

Their first step was to resolve: 

"Whereas, the Midway Seminary lately under the di- 
rection of the Presbyterian Society, has been placed under 
the control of Hopewell Presbytery, and it being under- 
stood by the Presbytery that this institution shall be con- 
nected with the college, therefore, resolved: that the 
Board of Trustees do take the guardianship and care of 
said Institution as connected with the College." (Min. of 
Board) 

A committee was appointed to send a circular letter 
to the neighboring states to show the object of the insti- 
tution. Messrs. Howard and Talmage were appointed 
agents to solicit subscriptions. An Executive Committee, 
consisting of Messrs. S. Rockwell, J. A. Cuthbert, C. C. 
Mills, J. H. Howard and T. Fort, were appointed, to whom 
were entrusted the planning of the buildings, and also the 
entire management and control of the Manual Lator 
School, they being authorized to buy adjoining lands, if 
necessary. 

It was also resolved that when $75,000 were subscrib* 
ed, the first instalment should be demanded. Thus was 
laid the foundation for the Institution afterwards known 
as 

OGLETHORPE UNIVERSITY. 

At the next meeting of the Board, November, 1836, 
after discussing the question of change of location, and 
deciding to retain the present one, it was resolved that 
the University be organized with a president, salary 
$:i,500, and house; three professors, $2,500 each, and a 
house. The President in addition to usual duties, was to 
instruct in Chemistry and Natural Philosophy. The of- 
fice of Vice President was also created, it being his duty 
to teach in Belles Lettres and Mental Philosophy. 

It was also determined that in the organization of the 
Faculty, there must l)e a professorship of Geology, Mine- 
ralogy, and Botany. The office of Chaplain was also es- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 111 

tablished, whose duty also was to lecture on Moral Philos- 
ophy and Evidences of Christianity. 

The Board then proceeded to elect a Faculty, which re- 
sulted as follows: 

Rev. C. P. Benian — President. 

E. A. Nisbet — ^Vice President, 

Rev. S. K. Talmage — Prof. Ancient Languages. 

N. Macon Crawford — Prof. Mathematics and Astronomy. 

Rev. C. W. Howard — Chaplain and Lecturer. 

All of whom afterwards signified their acceptance, ex- 
cept the Vice President, of whom we find nothing further 
said, the office no doubt being discontinued. 

The Executive Committee was instructed, as far as 
practicable- to "provide for the system of Manual Labor, 
especially so far as to lay out the grounds for an exten- 
sive garden and workshop." (a) note. 

(a) Note. This is the last mention of the Manual 
Labor School. The scheme being found unpopular, was 
abandoned February of next year. During that year also, 
the Steward's hall that had been previously built at a cost 
01 $15,000 including the furniture, was burned. 

At the next meeting of the Board, the corner stone 
was laid, and the rules and regulations adopted for the 
government of the college. 

LAYING THE CORNER STONE. 

On Saturday, March 31st, 1837, the corner stone of the 
main building was laid. The Presbytery of Hopewell be- 
ing in Session, and holding their Spring meeting at Mil- 
ledgeville at that time, and by special request of the board, 
Hon. J. H. Lumpkin delivered the address; a copy of whijii 
was secured for publication.* (note.) 

*(Note) The laying of the Corner Stone was perform- 
ed by the Masons, which was a matter of surprise to many, 
as the Presbytery was in session at the time, and they 
could not see why that could not have been done by them, 
as well; the only part taken by them being their joining 
in the march and the opening prayer being made by one 
of their number. . 



112 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

The procession started at "Steward Hall," and halted 
at the appointed place, when, after the prayer, the stone 
was placed in position by the order, according to their rites, 
among other things pouring oil and wine upon it, and con- 
cluding with an ode, in which there was more of the 
praises of Masonry, than the worth of learning and scholas- 
tic training, as appears from the opening stanza-' 

Hail Masonry divine! 

Glory of ages, shine, 

Long mayest thou reign. 

Where'er thy lodges stand. 

Thou art divine! 
The rain prevented the address of Judge Lumpkin at 
that time it being announced however, that said address 
would be delivered in one the churches in Milledgeville, at 
three o'clock that afternoon, which was done. (Cor, 
Charleston Observer, April, 23, 1837.) 

The Executive and Building Committees being merged 
into one, and afterwards known as the "Prudential Com- 
mittee," were instructed to secure the services of Mr, Mc- 
Cluskey in drawing a plan and specification of the col- 
lege buildings and to proceed at once, to the erection of 
the North-East building. 

Thus equipped with a president and three professors 
and a rector in charge of the academy; Mr, R. H. Ramsey 
having been previously elected, and with the adoption of a 
curriculum of high grade, the University began its work 
in both its departments, academic and collegiate. 
UNIVERSITY OPENS. 
It opened the first Monday in January, 1838, with 
three classes, and under most favorable auspices. 

The report of the prudential committee showed that 
by that time twelve dormitories had been erected. These 
were one story wooden buildings, with two rooms each, 
18 by 1§ feet, placed in rows on either side of the campus, 
in front of the main building; also two boarding houses 
on the college grounds. The main building fifty feet front, 
eighty-nine feet deep, thre stories high, including the base- 
ment, with two wings, thirty feet front, and thirty feet 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 113 

deep, had been contracted for, and to be completed by 
June 1st, 1840. The amount contracted for being $38,800 
one tenth to be paid at the completion of each story, one 
tenth when the roof was put on, and the balance when the 
whole was completed; the first instalment having already 
been paid. 

The report also showed that the whole amount of sub- 
scriptions, up to that time, was $72,190, whole amount paid 
in, $18,516; lands belonging to the University 500 acres, 
volumes in the library 300, number of students in attend- 
ance, 125. Several lots had been sold to Messrs. Tucker, 
Hall, Rockwell and Talmage, at $100 each, amounting to 
several thousand dollars. Mr. Mead had been acting as 
agent and added several thousands more to the subscrip- 
tions. Mr. Howard was authorized to purchase in Europe, 
some philosophical Apparatus for $1,500, this amount to 
be taken out of Northern subscriptions, which he might 
collect on his way. The Espirit de Corps was excel- 
lent, the health of the students fine, the discipline firm. 
The zeal, fidelity and ability of the faculty were highly 
complimented. The influence of the institution was ele- 
vating. In fine, it was a matter of general congratulation 
that the outlook was so bright and encouraging. Indeed, 
the committee seemed so hopeful, that they suggested the 
raising and endowing of a new professorship to be known 
as the "Beman professorship," to be raised by the payment 
of $500 each, by fifty gentlemen, and which, some of whom 
had already expressed their willingness to do. 
INDEBTEDNESS. 

Although the outlook seemed so bright and encourag- 
ing, yet the condition after all was not so good as might 
be desired, nor even thought to be. A little cloud, at first 
the size of a man's hand, had already grown so large, as 
to begin to cast its gloomy shadow athwart the sky. A 
growing indebtedness, unnoticed, and perhaps disregarded 
at first, destined soon to become unmanageable, had al- 
ready as a cancerous ulcer, fixed itself upon the finances 
of the Institution. All this might easily have been fore- 
seen. With only eighteen thousand dollars, as reported 



114 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

collected out of a subscription of seventy-two thousand, 
the rest scattered all over the country, with the liberal 
salaries promised the president, and three professors, with 
fifteen hundred dollars appropriated for an apparatus, and 
the same amount promised the rector of the academy, 
with the salaries and expenses of agents, and with the con- 
stant outlay of money on a building under contract for 
nearly forty thousand dollars, how could it have be^n other- 
wise. 

Hence at their next meeting May, 1839, beginning now 
to realize their true condition, the Board was compelled to 
make the humiliating confession of great financial embar- 
rassment. Said they, "We are well assured that a crisis 
has arrived, in which the fate of the institution turns on 
the conduct of its friends." They resolved however, that 
notwithstanding the pecuniary difficulties which now em- 
barrass the university, they would expiess it as their opin- 
ion, that the friends would not falter. They also resolved, 
that inasmuch as the University "was the creature of the 
Presbyterian church, it is the high duty of that church, 
in view of what sister denominations are doing, and of the 
deep and lasting blot which a failure of this enterprise 
would fix upon it, to come forward cordially and promptly, 
to the utmost of its ability, to its support." 

They further recommend the organization of a suitable 
set of efficient agents under the superintendence of the 
Prudential committee; and in order to discharge the lia- 
bilities and carry on the Institution, "The whole of the as- 
sets of the Trustees, whether of money, property, or claims 
0. any kind, be, and hereby are placed in the hands of the 
Prudential committee with the recommendation of the 
Board that they pay 1st, the current .expenses of the 
school, including the salaries of the officers. 2nd. All lia- 
bility on which they have given security, or for which in- 
viduals are pledged, or bound. 3rd. All other debts, all of 
which to be paid in equal proportion as funds are raised, 
provided, settlements may be made at the discretion of the 
committee, by a transfer of property or other available 
assets. (57). 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 115 

Accordingly, in addition to Rev. Mr. Chamberlain, Rev. 
S. S. Davis was appointed agent for South Carolina, sev- 
eral other ministers also acting as agents. 

It was at this particular juncture, that the Board, at 
their meeting November, 1839, in view of the crisis upon 
them, and with a hope of dividing responsibility, and also 
of securing a larger circle of supporters, recommended the 
Presbytery of Hopewell, under whose care the College was, 
to transfer the management of the same to the Synod of 
South Carolina and Georgia, and which the Presbytery was 
glad to do. 

At this meeting also, the President, Dr. Beman, and 
two of the professors, Messrs. Crawford and Howard, ten- 
dered their resignation. The Board at first declined all 
three, but afterwards accepted the resignation of Prof 
Howard. What was the cause of this? How much owing 
to the financial condition of the college, and how much to 
the difference of sentiment on the New and Old theology 
controversy, growing out of the rescinding act of 1837, 
which was then distui'bing the church, we are unable 
to say. No matter what the difliculty, it shows that the 
sea on which the Institution was sailing was by no means 
a smooth one. 

In the reorganization of the Faculty for the coming 
year. Prof. Talmage was appointed for the time, to ofll- 
ciate in the professorship vacated by Prof. Howard, and 
Mr. O. B. Arnold, to instruct in the Ancient Languages. 
UNDER THE SYNOD OF SOUTH CAROLINA AND 
GEORGIA. 

Backed by the influence of the Synod, and through 
the exertions of so many agents, appointed and voluntary, 
the year 1840 opened seemingly under more favorable aus- 
pices. Indeed the Board even congratulated itself, and the 
friends of the Institution, on the great success of the gen- 
eral agent, in relieving it of its pecuniary embarrassments, 
and expressed their utmost confidence in the final success 
of the enterprise. The relief, however, was only temporary. 
The Institution was not relieved of its indebtedness, but 
only of the direct pressure of it. Messrs. R. J. Nicols and 



116 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Miller Grieve, and other friends had come to the rescue, 
and advanced large sums of money, towards the erection 
of the Buildings, which were now complete, and for which 
the property and notes of the Collefre had been given for 
security. Thus the evil day was not overcome, but only 
put off a little farther. Instead of being relieved of its 
financial straits, there were not funds enough to meet cur- 
rent expenses, and the Prudential committee were actual- 
ly compelled to borrow money to pay the salaries of the 
professors, and to replace the same from the first monies 
in the hands of the treasurer. 

During this year there were two changes in the 
Faculty; one was the election of Rev. S. S. Davis to the 
chair of Ancient Languages, and the other, the resigna- 
tion of Rev. C. P. Beman, and the election of Rev. John 
Breckinridge, as president, which position, however, he de- 
clined, and which left the Institution without a president 
for one whole year. 

A rumor having reached the Board concerning the 
dissatisfaction of the friends of the Theological Seminary 
at Columbia, S. C, about its location, a committee v^as ap- 
pointed to visit them and invite them to Midway, offer- 
ing the use of their buildings. 

At the meeting in 1841, they were confronted with an 
"injurious report," circulated in Alabama, "Representing 
our condition as desperate, and our conduct reckless, in 
sustaining the University," which they found it necessary 
to deny, at least to relieve their financial agent, who had 
been working in said state, of all suspicion of being its 
author. 

Desirous of increasing the efficiency and usefulness of 
the Institution, and securing aid and patronage from 
abroad, the Board offered the privelege to the churches 
and Christian people of the states of South Carolina, Ala- 
bama, Mississippi, and territory of Florida, of nominating 
the incumbent, if they would endow professorships, and 
with the privilege of withdrawing their professorship, in 
case the school should ever cease to be Presbyterian. 

Rev. John Breckinridge having declined the Presidency 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 117 

to which he had been €l€cted, at their last meeting, a year 
before, a committe-e was appointed to visit the Synod at 
Charleston, to confer with Dr. Church, with relation to his 
appointment as president, and to present the claims of the 
College. They also adjourned to meet at Charleston, at 
which place they met, and el-ected Rev. S. K. Talmage, 
President. They also at the same time elected John W. 
Fitten, Teacher of Mathematics, Mr. John B. Mallard hav- 
ing been appointed Tutor, a short time before. 

The Board met early the next year (1840) in April, at 
the call of the President, the main business being the 
financial condition of the Institution. In as much as Messrs 
Nichols and Grieve had advanced large sums of money, 
as already stated, and thus to secure them they had agreed 
that after withdrawing from the treasurer such notes and 
negotiable assets as to meet the claims that might have 
legal preference, to turn over to Messrs. Nichols and 
Grieve of the property of the Institution, real and personal, 
for their protection, and to execute a mortgage upon the 
same; which was accordingly done, but which yet brought 
no permanent relief, but only had the effect to put off still 
further the time of reckoning; as the debts of the Institu- 
tion were only growing larger and larger. 

We leave the indebtedness for a while to consider still 
further, some internal changes. At a later meeting in No- 
vember, Mr. J. H. Fitten was elected Professor of Mathe- 
matics, and Mr. J. B. Mallard, of Natural Philosophy. A 
professorship of Law was also established; Hon. C. B. 
Cole being appointed professor, and a room assigned him 
in the building; the law students, however, not being sub- 
ject to the laws of the University. 

For the next four years, (1843-7) the affairs of the col- 
lege moved on apparently without much trouble. The 
creditors being secured to the extent of a mortgage upon 
all the property of the Institution, the main work of the 
Board being the completion of the South Carolina and Ala- 
bama Professorships, commenced some time before. 

During those years there were several changes in the 
Faculty. In December (1843) Professor J. B. Mallard re- 



118 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

signed the chair of Natural Philosophy, and Mr. W. P. 
Finley was elected Professor of Belles Lettres and Mental 
Philosophy. In 1844 Rev. Thos. S. Witherspoon was elect- 
ed to, and accepted the Alabama Professorship, to take ef- 
fect upon his completion of the endowment he was get- 
ting up. He having died the next year before his inaugura- 
tion, the Rev. J. L. Kirkpatrick, first, and afterwards 
Rev. A. A. Porter, were elected to the position; which 
both having declined, the chair continued vaeant until 
1847, when it was filled by the election of Rev. R. C. Smith. 

In 1844 Professor Fitten resigned his position as As- 
sistent teacher of Mathematics, and Rev. J. W. Baker was 
elected Professor of Ancient Languages. In 1845 Rev. Ferdi- 
nand Jacobs was elected Professor of Astronomy and in 
1846, Rev. C. W. Lane was elected Professor of Natural 
Philosophy and Chemistry. 

With the advent of the year 1847 came the removal of 
the financial difficulty. Under the quieting influence of the 
mortgage, and through the activity of a number of agents, 
and with the contributions of churches, and gifts of friends 
as well as patience of creditors, the Institution was kept 
afloat. But they had now reached the crisis. Ine evil day 
could be put off no longer. The indebtedness of the Insti- 
tution had been slowly but surely increasing. In addition 
to the claims of Messrs. Nichols and Grieve, there was the 
debt of Joseph Lane the contractor, the Central Bank, the 
Penitentiary, and others, besides the salaries of Profess- 
ors, about $70,000 in all, which must be met. The Board 
saw at a glance, that further dalliance was out of the 
question, that something must be done and something rad- 
ical. They saw too that their only hope was a compro- 
mise. 

COMPROMISE. 

They passed a resolution, saying that it was their 
opinion that, "By an appeal to the liberality of the friends 
of Oglethorpe University an amount of money can be rais- 
ed by voluntary contribution, sufficient to pay the credi- 
tors twenty-five per cent on their respective claims," and 
they appointed a committee to see what the indebtedness 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 119 

was, and to tender the respective creditors twenty-five per 
cent on their respective demands, and to be made payable 
in one, two and three years. And if the creditors will not 
agree to the twenty-five per cent, to see the least they will 
take, i^nd furthermore, if they agreed to the compromise, 
at once to put one or more efficient agents in the fi^ld to 
raise the money. 

The following are the compromises effected: 

1. The claims of heirs of Joseph Lane $17,464.8* 

Compromised for $5,000.00 

2. Abner Cragins' claims 3,714.98 

Compromised for 928.75 

3. R. J. Nichols' Claims 20,724.49 

Compromised for 5,181.12 

4. M. Grieves' Claims 14,966.83 

Compromised for 4,176.55 

5. B. T. Bethune's Claims 4,170.13 

Compromised for 600.00 

6. Central Bank's Claims 6,507.38 

Compromised for 650.74 

7. Claims Ga. Penetentiary, (Settled in full) 713.60 

8. Prof. Crawford's Claims 1,576.75 

Compromised for 1,096.75 



$17,633.91 $69,739.01 

Thus in round numbers, SEVENTY THOUSAND DOL- 
LARS compromised for EIGHTEEN, and at the same time, 
accompanied with the understanding that from one to 
three years would be allowed to pay it in. The whole show- 
ing the very great straits to which the Institution had been 
reduced. 

UNDER THREE SYNODS. 

While projecting this compromise, the two controlling 
Synods of South Carolina and Georgia, upon the suggestion 
of the Board, invited the Synod of Alabama, to unite with 
them in the management of the Institution and thus it con- 
tinued under the joint control of the three Synods until the 
close of the war. 



120 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

SCHOLARSHIP PLAN. 

In addition to the compromise measure there was an- 
other scheme of relief, which though seemingly promising 
good, in the end worked disastrously, as it cut off one of 
the main sources of supply, and that too at a time when 
most needed. Although the outstanding indebtedness was 
now reduced to about seventeen thousand dollars, the 
Board still lacked the money to cancel even this small 
sum, and pay running expenses, and even if it were paid, 
what was there to prevent their falling again, in the fu- 
ture, into a similar indebtedness, as in the past? It was 
therefore thought that if they could only raise sixty thous- 
and dollars more, they would then be able to pay all their 
indebtedness and complete the endowment of their Pro- 
fessorships, pay all current expenses, and place them in au 
independent position. But how was this sum to be raised? 
They had already raised seventy-two thousand and more, 
by direct subscriptions. It was almost quite certain, that 
the churches would not submit to a similar taxation for a 
like sum. It was thought best to adopt a more popular 
method, of raising the money. So they adopted what was 
known as the "Scholarship Plan," which was simply this: 
That every one upon the payment of one hundred dollars, 
would be entitled to educate all his sons free. Upon the 
payment of five hundred dollars by an individual or an 
association, the donor would receive "A perpetual Scrip," 
which would entitle them, either individual or Association 
to educate free any one they might designate; this certifi- 
cate being a matter of devise by will, like any other piece 
of property. It was understood that no subscription was 
binding until the whole was secured. 

Soon after the adoption of the scheme, agents were put 
in the field. As the plan was simple and promised so 
much to the Presbyterians, who had a number of sons to 
educate, and furthermore as it was understood that this 
was to be the last appeal, as the Institution was now to be 
placed upon a sure footing, the friends of the college ral- 
lied once more to its support; so much that at the 
meeting of the Board, in Feb., 1851 it was announced that 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 121 

the entire sum of sixty thousand dollars had been sub- 
scribed. The Board therefore orderea the issuing and 
signing of the certificates. 

ERA OF PROSPERITY. 

Things now began to brighten. The Milledgeville and 
Gordon railroad was in process of construction, and would 
pass in front of the buildings, and through their grounds. 
The Thalian and Phi Delta Societies had obtained permis- 
sion to erect separate and independent haus, on the schol- 
arship plan, they assuming ..he labor of raising the money. 
A plan was on foot for the endowment of a Professorship 
in Louisiana. Prof. R. C. Smith had been added to the 
Faculty a few years 'before. Dr. Joseph Le Conte was made 
Professor of Chemistry, Geology, and Natural History. The 
number of students reported, was ninety-five, in the Col- 
lege proper, a larger number than ever before, with thirty 
in the Preparatory department. 

In the report of the Board to the Synod of Georgia, 
they speak of a great and favorable change in the pecun- 
iary condition of the Institution. They say: 

"Three years ago a debt of more than $70,000 rested 
upon it with overwhelming power, not a single Professor- 
ship was adequately endowed. The number, of students was 
small; darkness, doubt and fear surrounded the institution. 
But such is not the present history of its condition. With 
the means furnished by the recent effort to raise $60,000 
the entire indebtedness of the Institution for buildings, 
lands, and including a considerable portion of the amount 
due the Faculty, has been extinguished, and the entire 
property originally costing nearly $70,000, is relieved from 
all encumbrance. By the aid of this effort, the endowment 
of the Alabama Professorship has been completed; that of 
South Carolina founded, and the means now remain for 
the endowment of a third Professoriship connected with 
this Synod. So that the actual assets of the Institution 
may be stated, as its real estate, buildings, library, appa- 
ratus and endowment for three Profe'ssorships. This is 
indeed a far different state of things from what has here- 
tofore marked the history of the College. And we have 



122 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

occasion to exercise sincere and humble gratitude to God 
"Who hath done great things for us whereof we are glad." 
Thus relieved of its financial embarrassment, and 
with confidence restored, Oglethorpe University started 
again on its high Mission, and for the next decade achieved 
a splendid success, graduating every year large classes of 
students; many of these men of ability, and attaining un- 
to eminence. During that period the three Professorships 
of South Carolina, Georgia 'and Florida, and Alabama, were 
fully endowed, and steps taken for the endowment of 
a fourth, by assessment on the churches. Additional 
dormitories were erected — steps taken to erect two sub- 
stantial brick buildings, one on either side of the main 
building, one of which was about completed, enough so at 
least to be used. In one word the prospect was exceeding- 
ly flattering; and Presbyterians began to look with pride, 
at the degree of eminence their beloved institution had at- 
tained, and the still higher heights they marked out for it 
During this year we note the following changes in the 
''faculty. The election and subsequent resignation of Rev. 
J"no. L. Kenneday to the chair of Mathematics and Natural 
^Philosophy, in 1851. The retirement of Prof. J. W. Baker, 
Rafter seven years service. The resignation of Prof. Le- 
/fconte in 1852, and the election of Prof. James Woodrow 
*^ to .succeed him. The resignation of Prof. Woodrow in 
''TS&O.'aiid the election of Professor N. A. Pratt to succeed 



V- •"' 



im. 

000,09$ e5i>.. 

,asnib!i.d . ™E WAR PERIOD. 

,QyQ^We aj-e now approaching the saddest period in the hls- 

9-tef^ of, ^th,^, Institution. For she is destined soon to en- 

^^.coy^^c^^.^ypj^^^^^s from which she can never recover. Like 

^^.the ship, amid breakers, doomed after a few ineffectual 

.^^struggies, to, right itself, to go down, to rise no more. 

- , The w^r coming on, amid the general excitement of the 
^j country, and the. tread of contending armies, the exercises 
^^ of tlie College Avere ,nece'ssarily interfered with. Those ex- 
_^ercises. were reguilp,rly carried on till 1862 when the last 
^.cl^.sj,gra^uated, the,. young men being all called awa> by 
-di&i tSa^¥lxlP^a?3n^S^fi' ^^^ receiving their diplomas by 
€fV£d ^w bnA .9291 foO si. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 123 

consent of the Board as they were so near through their 
studie's. From that time to th-e end of the war, the col- 
lege was only nominally kept open, being placed under 
the care of Professors Lane and Smith; the President, Dr. 
Talmage, being excused on account of declining health. 
REORGANIZATION. 

After the war was over, and the smoke of battle clear- 
ed away, the Board met Sept. 6th, 1865, for the purpose of 
reorganizing the University, but found very littJ^ with 
which to organize. There were the buildings, by this time 
badly in need of repairs. There were but two Professors, 
Messrs. Lane and Smith, President Talmage having but re- 
cently died, and Prof. Pratt having resigned some time be- 
fore. The larger portion of the assets were lost, being 
in Confederate Securities. Under the good management 
of Col. . J. Gresham, Treasurer for Georgia and Florida 
the funds in his hands were well preserved, amounting to 
$28,000. The assets of the other two Synods of South Car- 
olina and Alabama, being in Confederate notes and bonds 
were nearly all swept away. Part of the Chemical Appa- 
ratus, loaned by the Prudential Committee to Prof. N. A 
Pratt, who was in the Confederate service, part of the 
time, Was burned in the great fire in Augu'sta, the loss 
however being amply repaid by the generous transfer of 
his entire mineral Cabinet to the University. In addition 
to all this, the tuition fees would be materially lessened by 
the scholarship scrip, with which the country was flooded. 

In the face of these discouragements, the Board re 
solved to reopen the College in the coming October, but 
the Synod of Georgia having ordered the closing of th« 
College for the present, they, in accordance with this ac- 
tion suspended the exercises. At a subsequent meeting, 
fearing injury to the college by further suspension, they 
resolved to resume the exercises January 16th of the next 
year, (1866), In the mean while a committee was appoint- 
ed to communicate with one or more similar institutionsf 
with a view of making one institution of high order, but 
not finding this plan to be feasible they resolved to pro- 
ceed at once with the reorganization at its present site. 



124 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA . 

Thinking that Dr. J. C. Stil€s, on account of his wide 
acquaintance, and commanding influence might be able to 
do more for them than any one else, they elected him 
President, upon the condition, that he act as Agent till 
sufficient sums be raised to authorize his withdrawal from 
the agency. Prof. Smith in the meanwhile presiding till 
the President be installed. They also nominated Rev. Wm 
Flinn as a suitable person for the chair of Mathematics 
and cognate Sciences, but neither of these accepted. 

In view of the scarcity of available funds, they also 
resolved that the privilege of the scholarship should be 
suspended for thj present. 

Upon the declination of Dr. Stiles, Dr. Samuel J. Baird 
was at their next meeting in March, 1867, elecced to the 
Presidency, and upon the same condition, as Dr. Stiles, of 
acting as agent. 

Samuel G. White, M. D., was elected Professor of 
Chemistry, to lecture at such times as suits him, the stu- 
dents attending, being required to buy tickets, in addition 
t'o the regular tuition. 

Dr. Baird, having agreed to accepc the Presidency upon 
the condition of removal, and that question being indefi- 
nitely postponed, the Board proceeded with the work of 
re'organization of the Faculty. Believing that the Synod of 
Alabama would sustain their professor, they proceeded to 
elect Sylvanus Bates professor of Languages, Mr. F. A. 
Tufts, Tutor; upon this condition, however, that if the 
Synod failed, then the election of these two men would be 
null and void, and they would indefinitely suspend the Col- 
lege after December next. 

Dr. Baird having declined, the B'oard at their fall meet- 
ing, in next year (1868) elected Judge A. J. Ingles, to the 
presidency. Prof. Lane was reelected Professor of Mathe- 
matics and Chaplain; Prof. Bates continued in the chair of 
Ancient Languages, Rev. W. M. Cunningham appointed as 
agent. 

We have already considered the proposi'tion from the 
Board to unite Oglethorpe with one or more Southern Col- 
leges, and locate in some eligible place, and build up a 



THE PRESBYTERIAN^ CHURCH IN GEORGIA 125 

University of high order. Now the proposition comes from 
the Synod of Georgia and upon tlie suggestion of two of 
the controlling Presbyteries of Davidson College. At their 
meeting at Rome, Dec. 10, 1868, the Synod agreed to the 
transfer of the remaining funds of the institution to David- 
son, and to endow with the same, a chair in that institu- 
tion, and for the support of a professor. But the Board 
declined to act upon the suggestion, as they regarded this 
as unconstitutional, as it was the act of but one of the 
controlling Synods; and as Judge Ingles had declined the 
Presidency, they left the College as heretofore, under the 
care of Professors Lane and Smith. 

At their next meeting in 1869, they reaffirmed that the 
Institution must be sustained, and reorganized. A Commis 
sion consisting of Messrs. Cunningham, Petr^e and Lane 
was appointed to visit the Synods' of Alabama, Georgia and 
South Carolina and present the claims of the institution. 
They then proceeded to complete the Faculty by the elec- 
tion of Dr. W. M. Cunningham to the presidency, Rev. G^o. 
L. Petrie, Professor of Mathematics, and Sylvanus Bates 
Professor of Languages, Rev. Mr. Lane having withdrawn, 
after so many years of faithful service. 

REMOVAL TO ATLANTA. 

After so many unsuccessful efforts to reorganize, and 
to get the Institution once more upon its feet, the feeling 
began generally to obtain that the Institution could never 
be rebuilt at its old location, especially as the State Capi- 
tol had been removed. Indeed the Synod of Alabama had 
even gone so far as to affirm that it would withhold further 
support unless removed. At their meeting above men- 
tioned the Board discussed the question of removal. It 
being soon discovered that they were evenly divided on 
the question they agreed to leave the decision to the three 
controlling Synods, the action of the majority to be their 
own. The Synods of South Carolina and Alabama, feeling 
that they had so little pecuniary interest in the School, and 
so remote from the scene, agreed to leave the whole ques- 
tion of removal entirely with the Synod of Georgia. 

Accordingly the Synod of Georgia at its meeting at 



126 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Tallahassee, in 1869, took up the question, and after dis- 
cussion decided by a vote of 26 to 22, to remove and accept 
a proposition from the city of Atlanta, which as under- 
stood by them at that time was, to furnish ten acres of 
land for a site and a subscription of $40,000. The discus- 
sion was 'animated and protracted to a considerable length. 
The writer was present and voted in the negative, as 
appears from the Ayes and Noes. He so voted from the 
deep conviction that removal would only sound the death 
knell of the Institution, as to his mind, it was a question 
of endowment, and not of location simply, which seemed 
to be entirely overlooked by so many of the leading dis- 
putants on both sides. 

At the meeting of the Board Dec. 1, 1869, the action of 
the Synod was confirmed. Dr. Cunningham, having signi- 
fied his acceptance of the presidency, was urged, as soon 
as practicable to visit as many points as possible, and 
awaken interest in the Institution. The Trustees resident 
in the vicinity of the College were made the custodians 
of the Midway property, books, and apparatus, and allowed 
to use the same for scholastic purposes. A committee, con- 
sisting of Messrs. E. A. Nesbit, J. J. Gresham and Clifford 
Anderson, were appointed to communicate with the author- 
ities of the city of Atlanta, with reference to their com- 
pliance with the conditions of removal. 

The Board held their next meeting at Macon, March 
31, 1870. In addition to the members present were Cols. 
L. P. Grant and E. Y. Clark as a commission on behalf of 
the citizens of Atlanta. These gentlemen submitted a 
paper in writing with their signatures affixed, addressed 
to Hon. E. A. Nesbit, president of the Board, setting forth 
the fact that the requisite $40,000 was subscribed and in 
this manner, viz: 10 acres known as the "Fair Ground," 
valued at $12,000. were given by the City; $12,000 were 
given by the citizens of the southern section of the city 
upon condition of the selection of the site of the 10 acres 
located on McDonough street offered by them. The general 
subscriptions of the citizens amounted to within a fraction 
of $16,000, which Col. Grant assured the Board would be 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 127 

raised. In a postscript it was stated that it was not the 
intention of the Committee to embarrass the Board with 
a donation of any lands as part of the $40,000, but to con- 
vert the lands into moneyed subscriptions, that is, the 
lands donated by the city and citizens, to make the aggre- 
gate of $40,000. 

A note was also presented, signed by eleven leading 
citizens of Atlanta, Col. L. P. Grant, Chairman, stating that 
their belief was that the city had now substantially com- 
plied with the requirement of raising $40,000 and supply- 
ing a site. 

Also accompanied with a certificate of Wm. Ezzard, 
Mayor of the City, that through their Finance Committee 
they had examined the subscriptions, and feel authorized 
to state officially, that in their judgment, said subscrip- 
tions were good for $40,000. 

These papers were submitted to a committee, consist- 
ing of Messrs. Willis, Ramsay and Anderson, who after- 
wards reported favorably, recommending the acceptance 
of the offer, as thus explained, and as soon as titles could 
be made and one-third of the subscription paid, work to 
begin; to all of which the Board agreed, however, with this 
interpretation attached, that the ten acres of land was to 
be included in and form a part of the $40,000 and thus the 
site was never furnished. 

That the Synod, and the Board, at first, clearly under- 
stood the proposition to be, ten acres of land in addition 
to the $40,000 was too obvious to be questioned. (See Min. 
Board p. 275, and Min. of Synod, 1874 p. 18). Why the 
Board should change the conditions of the Synod, anu 
accept the interpretation of the Atlanta Committee, with- 
out referring it back to the Synod for its approval will 
always be a mystery, as well as a matter of inquiry. This 
new propositon was never submitted to the Synod for its 
consideration. As it was the measure of removal was car- 
ried by a majority of only four; had it been known that 
the interpretation was to be attached, we feel assured that 
resolution would never have passed that body. 

The Board having accepted the proposition of the com- 



128 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

mittee, with the •explanation given, proceeded to take steps 
for the removal of the College to Atlanta. The first step 
was to reorganize the Faculty. The death of Dr. Cunning- 
ham being announced, Rev. David Wills was elected pres- 
ident; Gustavus J. Orr was elected Professor of Mathe- 
matics and Astronomy in the place of the Rev. Geo. L, 
Petrie, who had declined; Benj. T. Hunter, Professor of 
Physical Science and W. Le Conte Stevens, of Chemistry 
and Modern Languages. 

A new chair of Belles Lettres was formed and Prof. 
R. C. Smith elected to fill it, but the studies afterwards so 
changed that the president was made professor of Belles 
Lettres and Sacred Literature, and Prof. Smith transferred 
to the chair of Moral Science and Political Economy. 

Rev. S. S. Gaillard was elec'ted Financial Agent, Sylva- 
nus Bates was deputed to go to Midway and collect the 
Library, Apparatus and other property of the College, and 
send the same to Atlanta. 

Messrs. Wilson, Whitner, Leyden, Wallace and Clarke 
were appointed a local committee to whom all questions 
touching a permanent site were to be submitted with 
authority to choose, purchase or to accept in case of a 
donation, and to arrange and engage to open in the pres- 
ent or any other building, first Tuesday in October next. 

Tuition was fixed at $75.00. 

The permanent Fund was pledged for the payment of 
all salaries. Tuition of candidates for the ministry of all 
denominations to be free. 

A University High School was also established, in con- 
nection with the College, with the following corps of teach- 
ers, viz: 

W. M. Janes, Professor of English and Greek; E. J. 
Moore, Professor of Latin; J. A. Richardson, Professor of 
Mathematics. 

Arrangements were made with the following gentle- 
men, with no expense to the College, to give instruction in 
the following departments: 

LAW DEPARTMENT. 

Richard H. Clark, Professor International and Consti- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 129 

tutional Law; L. J. Gartrell, Professor Criminal Law; A. C. 
Garlington, Professor Equity, Jurisprudence, Pleadings and 
Practice; L. E. Bleckley, S. B. Hoyt and N. J. Hammond, 
Common Law, General Principles, Pleadings, Practice and 
all Special subjects not taught by the other professors. 
COMMERCIAL SCHOOL. 

B. T. Moore, Principal; J. F. Woodward and T. H, 
Corkill Assistants. 

(Note) The establishment of the High School, and 
the choice of Teachers for the Law and Commercial 
Schools were not made until after the opening of the term. 

Having selected the Faculty, the next thing was to 
arrange about the building. A committee of seven had 
been appointed to which the whole question of location 
had been submitted. It was soon seen that the site offered 
on McDonough street was wholly unsuitable, if for no 
other reason, its distance, being one and three-quarter miles 
from the center of the city, and thereby shut off from all 
local patronage. The committee then bargained for the 
residence of Mr. John Neal for $12,000 and for which sum 
the Board gave their note. 

Thus equipped the University opened October 4, 1870. 
We are not told where, as the records are silent on the 
subject. Not in the Neal House, for the Secretary at the 
meeting Nov. 7, was directed to inform the tenants that 
the University would need the building Jan. 1, if not 
sooner. But no matter where, it seemed to have opened 
under most flattering auspices. The Synod, in its action 
upon the report of the Trustees congratulated itself that 
every thing was so prosperous and encouraging, that the 
Trustees by a special act of the Legislature, had reverted 
the University charter to its original feature, and in order 
to carry out the design of the enactment, Legal, Medical, 
and Commercial departments had been organized, by the 
election of men of distincHon, to fill these various 
chairs; and that a University High School had been estab- 
lished in immediate connection with the College, and is now 
in successful operation, and that now the number of stu- 
dents is about 120, and it is believed by the first of the 



130 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

opening year, would be 150; and then would be upon a self- 
sustaining basis. They were bound, however, to express re- 
gret that no financial statement accompanied the report, 
which omission, however, they seemed willing, in the ex- 
uberance of their joy, not only to overlook, but even con- 
done. 

But alas the sky that seemed so bright was destined 
soon to be obscured with clouds. The Managers, for they 
seem to be many, soon found out that the Neal Building, 
originally a private residence, on a small lot in the heart 
of the city, was entirely too small, and wholly unsuited to 
the purpose. They also soon began to see that it required 
more money to run a University than could be expected 
from the limited resources within their reach. With a 
President with a salary of $3,000 and a house; with four 
professors, averaging $1,500 and a house each; with three 
teachers in the preparatory school with $2,000 each; with 
a note drawing $1,000 interest per year, with liberal appro- 
priations for Apparatus, for contingent expenses; and to 
the architect; amounting in all to about $17,000, and to 
meet this, with only one endowment of $28,000, yielding 
an income of $1,500. With a large part of the $40,000 sub- 
scribed, forfeited and uncollected, on account of change 
of location, and what was collected, was done by different 
parties, paid in small amounts, and at different times, and 
yielding no interest having never been invested; and the 
tuition of about 120 pupils, yielding say $5,000, thus 
amounting in all to about $6,000 income, with which to 
meet an annual outlay of $17,000. The bed obviously was 
far too short, "for a man to stretch himself on it, and the 
covering entirely too narrow for a man to wrap himself 
in it," and yet the Board seemed not to see it, or if they did, 
were not deterred by the sight thereof, from their purpose 
to go forward. No matter what our opinion of the judg- 
ment thus displayed, we certainly cannot withhold our ad- 
miration for the marvellous courage exhibited in the ven- 
ture. Another instance, and even worse, of a king with ten 
thousand, going to battle against another king that Com- 
eth to meet him with twenty thousand. $6,000 to meet and 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 131 

cover $17,000. Surely it did not require the prophet, or 
even the son of a prophet to forecast what the result would 
be. The only plan, under the circumstances would be first 
to appropriate the subscriptions, as fast as collected. And 
this was done. So we find that the treasurer was ordered 
to "pay drafts upon him, with any monies in his hands.** 
With the great demands upon the treasurer, the available 
portions of the subscriptions were soon absorbed, and then, 
as the devouring locusts march from exhausted to fresher 
fields,- the next step was to fall upon the permanent fund. 
Hence we find the resolution that the "treasurer be author- 
ized to sell enough of the bonds of the S. W. Railroad, to 
meet present deficit for salaries." And at another time, 
$3,000 worth to repay borrowed subscription money paid on 
the Neal house, although the Synod at three different 
times distinctly forbade the use of said funds, "for anj' 
purpose whatever." But what else could be done? Debts 
had been contracted, and this was the last resort. Begin- 
ning to realize the scantiness of their resources, the Board 
appointed a committee, "to memorialize the city of Atlanta 
for a larger donation." But it was soon apparent that no 
help would be obtainable from that source; for though in 
sympathy with the movement, the outlook had become so 
uncertain, as to forbid any further alliance or entangle- 
ment. The outside world too, and the church, taking in 
the situation at a glance, had lost all heart, and likewise 
turned a deaf ear to every appeal. Mr. Gillard, their 
agent, returned with the statement that he was able to 
collect only $280.00, which the Board generously 
begged him 'to retain for his services, at the same time 
abolishing the agency, on account of "the stringency of the 
times," as they expressed it, and which they had now com- 
menced so keenly to feel. 

In the mean while some changes were made in the 
Faculty. Prof. Hunter resigned the chair of Sciences, and 
Prof. Stevens, elected in his place. Prof. Richardson 
was made Principal of the High School and also Profes- 
sor at a salary of $2,000. A change was made in the 
Professorships, so as to make Mental and Moral Science a 



13'2 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

separate chair, and Rev. T. A. Hoyt elected professor, and 
at same time made Financial Agent. Mr. Hoyt accepted 
neither position. 

With the available portion of the $40,000 subscription 
used up, and with the Neal house yet unpaid for, and with 
the daily inroads upon the remainder of the invested funds, 
the Trustees seemed still to indulge the fond, though now 
forlorn hope of yet resuscitating the institution. Bent on 
this purpose, and bouyed with this firm resolve they ap- 
pointed Rev. De Witt Burkhead, as their "General Finan- 
cial Agent," to raise funds to endow the University." But 
like a "wise man, who foreseeth the evil and hideth him- 
self," Mr. Burkhead courteously declined the position ten- 
dered him. 

The end was now drawing near. The ship was already 
in the midst of the breakers. The Trustees resolved to call 
a halt "before the last pea was consumed from the dish,' 
as Col. Gresham so forcibly put it in his speech before the 
Synod. They therefore appointed a committee of three, 
to hold a consultation with the oflBcers of the College, "to 
see what reduction, if any, could be made in salaries," so 
as to reduce the expenses within the means of the Board." 
But this also proved but the straw at which the drowning 
man was catching. 

Hitherto baffled in all their efforts at obtaining relief, 
at their last meeting Feb. 2, 1872, and as their last meas- 
ure they resolved: 

1st. "That the Board of Trustees will continue to pay 
the salaries of the President and Professors up to the end 
oi this current Collegiate year. Atfer that time the Board 
of Trustees will not be responsible for the salaries of the 
President, Professors or teachers, and there shall be no 
charge upon the funds, or property of the Board, except 
the income of permanent fund; and it is understood that 
any fund raised 'by any agent shall first go to the payment 
of salaries." 

2d. "Resolved that the Professors shall have the use 
of the buildings, apparatus, and all tuition paid." 

With the resignation of Prof. Orr, the increase of Prof. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 133 

Stevens' salary to $1,800, under the above provision, the 
election of Rev. R. C. Ketchum as principal of the Prepar- 
atory School, his salary likewise to be paid from tuition ; 
with an order to the treasurer for the past installment on 
the Neal note, and the appointment of a committee to se- 
lect a suitable man for a financial agent, the minutes of the 
Board abruptly close. 

The seeming abruptness, however, is somewhat ra 
lieved by the concluding words, "Adjourned subject to the 
call of the Moderator." But it seemed the Moderator never 
issued his call, for seeing the obstruction in the way, and 
realizing the impending doom awaiting the Institution he 
wisely ignored his official investiture with any such au- 
thority. 

The last recorded meeting, as above stated, was Feb. 
2, 1872. Who then managed the affairs of the institution 
from that time till the closing in November; who kept the 
funds, and how much on hand; what collected and what 
paid out; who ordered the payment of the drafts, and es- 
pecially the selling of the bonds of the permanent invest- 
ment? Nobody perhaps will ever know. Like a crazy en- 
gine on the track, or a shii at sea, without master or 
helmsman, the University seemed now wildly to be run- 
ning itself. Or like the Israelities in the time of the Judges, 
every man did that which "was right in his own eyes," 
there being no one to whom any special responsibility was 
due. 

The records of the Board are exceedingly scanty. In 
their extreme meagerness, they say nothing definite con- 
cerning the purchase of the Neal house, nothing about the 
price paid for it. Nothing definite about the site offered 
by (the city, how large, how small, how valuable; no re- 
ports of any itemized statements of monies received, only 
"Verbal Statements," seemed to have been made. "By 
special request," thirty days were allowed the chairman 
of the collecting committee to prepare such an itemized 
statement. No evidence appears this was ever done. In- 
deed, neither the records of the Board, or the Synod, show 
that any itemized statement of funds was ever presented to 



134 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

tli€ Synod after the removal to Atlanta. All this may 
be according to business rules, but the common mind will 
ever fail to see it! If Presbyterians are to allow their 
business to be conducted in this loose slipshod manner, 
they may expect similar disasters to overtake their enter- 
prises in the future, as in the past. 

The Synod of Georgia met in November following. In 
their report on the situation we meet with the following: 
"Your committee finds that the entire permanent fund of 
the university has been spent in the payment of Professors 
salaries and incidental expenses, except the sum of $2,- 
608.88 and this amount may be further reduced by payment 
of salaries for the present year." 

With the Neal House, and nothing left but the little 
pittance above named, without a site, without subscription, 
and without endowment, the Synod had no other alterna* 
tive left, but to order the closing of the Institution. 

And then and there Oglethorpe University, one of the 
most promising institutions of our Southland, upon which 
so much wealth had been lavished, and upon which sc 
many fond hopes had been centered, and for which so 
many earnest prayers had been offered, went down, and 
tne cause of Christian education in the Presbyterian 
Church in G-eorgia was set back one whole generation. 
THE REMNANiS. 

Sad enough would it be for us to stop just here; but 
there are still other scenes in this mournful drama. Like 
Job's messengers, one is hardly through with his tale of 
woe, ere the footstep of another is heard. After death 
comes the parting of the raiments. There were three 
claimants: the Trustees, the citizens, and the city. There 
was no report from the Trustees in 1873. Having done 
nothing, they had none to make. The Synod, therefore, 
did nothing more than urge the Board to guard its claims. 

In 1874 the Synod appointed a new set of Trustees, 
with instructions to look into its holdings, to sell the Neal 
House, and to make a settlement with the claimants. Un- 
der a decree of the Court, the house was sold for $13,566.88 
and an amicable adjustment made. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 135 

In the distribution, the city received, $5,752.15; the 
citizens received, $4,558.30; the trustees received, $3,255.- 
93. Including the $1,610 rent and making $4,865.93, which 
was all the Trustees received out of the wreck. 
ANOTHER CHAPTER. 

This amount, being the last of the funds, was left in 
the hands of Mr. S. D. McConnell, then Secretary and 
Treasurer of the Board. According to a standing rule of 
the Synod, Mr. McConnell reported this amount from year 
to year, as invested in State and City bonds, each year 
adding in the accruing interest, all of which were kept in 
his safe under combination lock until 1879, when the Board 
ordered funds and papers put into a tin box and deposited 
in the Merchant's Bank, Atlanta. The box was made but 
when called upon for the bonds and papers Mr. McConnell 
candidly confessed that he had applied them to his own 
use, expecting, las he said, to replace them, which, however, 
he acknowledged himself then unable to do. The facts 
being reported to the Synod, that body instructed the 
Board to make the best settlement possible. 

For the $5,941.24, he acknowledged in his possession, 
he gave five notes payable in five years, endorsed by A. L. 
Eichelbereg of Ocala, Fla., and as collateral, lands and a 
lot in Ocala and Liberty County, Ga. Of this amount only 
$2,700 were realized and that not until 1895, when the 
lands given as security were sold and final settlement 
made. The $2,700 were then placed in the hands of Col. 
M. A. Candler, who was elected Secretary and Treasurer 
of the Board, in the place of Mr. McConnell, and under 
v/^hose judicious mianagement had in 1898 amounted to $3,- 
115.60, which by the order of the Synod was turned over 
to the Donald Eraser School of Decatur, and is there held 
as stock, the authorities of said institution issuing certifi- 
cate for the same. What other complfcation, if any, may 
yet arise over this ill-fated remnant, will 'be left with the 
future alone to reveal. 

MIDWAY HIGH SCHOOL. 

Upon the removal of the College to Atlanta, in 1870, 
the question arose what was to be done with the Midway 



136 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

property? The Board at their meeting, June 2nd, adopted 
the report of their committee to whom the matter was re- 
ferred for consideration. In their report they stated that 
the College owned fifty acres of land, including the campus 
in which stands the dilapidated college buildings, the mark- 
et value of which is a mere trifle, that it would be wrong to 
the church at large to throw away, for a trifling sum, what 
cost so much; wrong to generous local contributors, and 
descendants in the immediate vicinity, whose contribu- 
tions amounted to seventy or more thousand dollars; 
wrong to purchasers of property in the vicinity to make no 
reparation; wrong to the invalid widow of President Tal- 
mage, to dispose of such property to such uses, at her 
door and compel her to leave her home. They therefore 
recommended that the entire real estate of the College be 
conveyed to T. T. Windsor, Elder in th Miliedgeville 
Church, upon trust, that he will execute a deed to seven 
persons as a Board of Trustees when incorporated, as may 
be elected by the Presbyterian Church of Miliedgeville, 
for the purpose of sustaining a Presbyterian High School 
upon the premises; and upon the condition, that said prop- 
erty is to revert to the Trustees of Oglethorpe College, 
upon the non usage thereof, or the failure of the Miliedge- 
ville Church to sustain a school thereon, for the contin- 
uous space of two years ; which was done and the property 
conveyed under the condition aforesaid. . 

At the meeting of the Synod in 1872 at Albany that 
body resolved: 

"Whereas the want of the country was a school like 
Rugby, or Eton in England, between a Common School 
and College; and whereas the Trustees of the Midway 
school would be willing to surrender back the property 
for such a purpose. Resolved that a committee be appoint- 
ed to consider and perfect the scheme and report to next 
Synod." 

The Committee reported at the next Synod: 

"That whereas so many of the Synods were opposed 
to Ecclesiastical control of educational Institutions, they 
had shaped a plan whereby the school at Midway would be 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 137 

placed entirely in the hands of a Board of Trustees. The 
only power to be retained by the Synod was that to ap- 
point a new Board of Trustees should the Board at any 
time become extinct." The name of the School was to be 
"The Talmage High School." They also named the eleven 
Trustees. To all of which the Synod agreed. 

A school was organized and continued for a while at 
Midway, and known as "The Talmage School," but not un- 
der the management of this Board of Trustees. The prop- 
erty was never transferred to them, but continued in the 
hands of the Milledgeville Board, and claimed by them un- 
der the deed of 1870. The Talmage School soon proved a 
failure and was abandoned. 

In the mean while the people of Walhalla, S. C, see- 
ing the situation, and having established an institution 
known as the "Adger College," sent a petition to the 
Synod of Georgia, for the loan of the library and Philos- 
ophical and Chemical Apparatus, then lying idle, and to be 
returned when required. To this the Synod agreed, with 
the consent of the Board. They were not removed, how- 
ever. 

The rest of the story is soon told. The buildings 
abandoned and neglected, were hastening to decay. Then 
commenced the work of disintegration. Portion after 
portion was taken down and carried off, by whom and by 
whose authority, we are not informed. The Trustees of the 
Milledgeville church, to prevent further depredation, ob- 
tained an order of the court -by which all the property re- 
maining, was sold for the benefit of said church. This 
property was deeded for the sole purpose of establishing 
a school at Midway, and for no other purpose, and upon 
the express condition, in case of failure or misuse, to re- 
vert to the Trustees of the Synod. Upon what principle 
then of law, was this judgment of the court based, in thus 
selling the same, and turning over the proceeds to an or- 
ganization that did not have even the shadow of a title to 
it is something the uninitiated will never understand. 
Perhaps those better versed in methods of legal casuistry, 
can explain. 



138 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

The mineral cabinet, which had been carried to At- 
lanta, and about to be cast into the streets as useless 
plunder, was kindly cared for by friends, who took it upon 
themselves to send the same to Davidson College, where it 
still remains. In 1882, the remnants of the Philosophical 
apparatus were gathered up and placed in possession of 
the Georgia Midland Agricultural School, and in 1893 the 
library, or what was left of it, was removed to the Georgia 
State Normal School. 

Thus scattered to the four winds of heaven, this insti- 
tution, the growing pride of the Presbyterian Church, fin- 
ishes her career in disintegration and ruin, and now lies 
leveled in the dust, her halls deserted, her altars broken 
down, her fires gone out, and not a single vestige left; 
only her sons, to tell of her former greatness, and shed 
bitter tears over her manifold miseries! 

CLAIMS OF HEIRS OF JOSEPH LANE. 

There is still one other scene ere the drama closes, 
and which is necessary to complete this wonderful his- 
tory. The contract for the erection of the buildings was 
given to Mr. Joseph Lane. In the great compromise made 
m 1849, with the different creditors of the institution, the 
heirs of Mr. Lane, then deceased, received only $5,000, for 
their claim of $17,464. In 1879, two of the daughters, their 
husbands ministers and members of the Synod of Georgia, 
presented a memorial to the Synod, asking that their 
wrong might be redressed by a sufficient portion of the 
property being turned over to them, the ground of the 
claim being, that at the time of the compromise, one of 
the claimants was under age, and the other under coverture 
of marriage and therefore barred from the courts of the 
country. The memorial was referred to the board for ac- 
tion; the Synod declaring that no legal right of the mem- 
orial should be barred on account of delay. 

The Board at their meeting considered the matter, 
Messrs. Cartledge and Milner presenting the claims of 
their wives, the heirs of Mr. Lane. After hearing the case, 
the Board decided the claims of the petitioners neither 
legal nor equitable. Whereupon Messrs. Cartledge and 



THE PRESBYTEHIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 139 

Milner, upon presentation to Synod of the action of the 
Board entered their protest against the action of Synod, in 
refusing to consider and settle the matter itself, instead of 
referring it to the Board. 

At the next meeting of the Board in 1900, the petition- 
ers again appeared with this proposition, that the adjudi- 
cation of the matter be left in the hand of three referees, 
the Synod appointing one, the Board one, and these two 
the third. The Synod agreed to the proposal, and selected 
Rev. W. E. Boggs, D. D. The Board at its meeting select- 
ed Col. L. P. Mynatt. 

At the meeting of the Synod in 1881, two of the ref- 
erees reported that they, through unforseen circumstances, 
had been prevented from forming an organization, and re- 
quested the Synod to take up the matter, and give the 
heirs a hearing during the present sessions. This was done. 
Elder L. F. Livingston offered a resolution authorizing the 
Board to turn over enough of the assets, as shall settle the 
claim. After various amendments and substitutes the res- 
olution was lost on a division of 16 Ayes and 28 Noes. 
Thus ended the matter. But it will always be a question 
in the minds of many, whether under all tlie crcumstances, 
it would not have been better to have surrendered tlie 
whole, if necessary, and thus far at least, wipe out a part of 
the miserp ble stigma that must ever rest upon the com- 
promise of 1849. 

THE FRUITS. 

In striking contrast with all these blunders and mis- 
haps, this wreck and ruin, stands out the noble work of this 
Institution, like "apples of gold in pictures of silver." 
Oglethorpe was indeed a failure from a business or world- 
ly standpoint, but from a spiritual and Heavenly, a Grand 
Success. It did a splendid work, and which as far as I 
know, stands unparalleled in the history of similar insti- 
tutions. Out of its 317 graduates, we count 72 ministers. 
Where was the like ever known? What other purely lit- 
erary Institution has such a record? Nearly one fourth of 
her graduates ministers of the gospel. Upon her roll also 
stands a number of college professors, and a host of teach- 



140 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

ers, physicians, attorneys, and men of distinction. To her 
also belongs the honor of furnishing the poet Laureate of 
Georgia, Hon. Sidney C. Lanier, who went out of her halls 
in 1860. 

But the crowning glory of the Institution, was the fre- 
quent outpourings of the Spirit, and precious seasons of 
grace. Year after year these seasons returned with 
almost unvarying constancy, thus in an eminent degree be- 
most unvarying constancy. Thus in an eminent degree be- 
tokening the Divine favor. It would be impossible to tell 
the number of precious souls who were thus born into the 
kingdom of heaven through her instrumentality. Of multi- 
tudes it will be said at the last day, when God shall write 
up his people, that "this and that man was born in her." 

Oglethorpe was anything else than a failure in her 
work, and though the expenditure seemed enormous, the 
church was amply repaid for the outlay. But what would 
have been her record by this time, and what her career in 
the future, if, with such beginnings, and such prophetic 
foreshadowings, those who were at the helm had only 
possessed skill enough to have kept the Institution off the 
many destructive reefs that so effectually wrought her 
ruin. 

CONCLUSION. 

I have now finished my story. I am fully aware that 
what I have written will bring a pang of sorrow to the 
heart, as well as a blush of shame to the cheek, of every 
Pres'byterian who reads it. I wish it were otherwise. But 
tne historian is not expected to make history, but simply 
write it. I have covered up nothing, but sought to give an 
impartial statement of the facts in the case, just as I find 
them on the Records which are before me. And I have writ- 
ten with no other spirit, but that our people might know, 
nnd knowing them might learn wisdom from some of the 
blunders and follies of the past. If I have at times written 
with seeming sharpness, it is because of my interest in, 
and the great love I bear to my Alma Mater, doomed ever 
to bear the reproach of an inglorious death, with her bones 
yet unbleached, lying scattered in every direction, the 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 141 

sport of the jester, as well as the wonder of every passer 
by. False to every instinct of humanity and untrue to 
every noble impulse, would that heart 'be that could stand 
unmoved in the midst of such a scene. I have gazed upon 
the old Coliseum of Rome, one of the seven wonders of 
the world, now grandly eloquent in its ruins; I have saun- 
tered pensively along the buried streets of Pompeii, once 
the scene of life and activity, but now the silent mauso- 
leum of her dead; I have visited the fields of Waterloo, the 
theatre of such carnage and 'blood, where the sun of Na- 
poleon, which shone so resplendantly on other fields, went 
down in darkness to rise no more, but upon none of these 
have I looked with deeper and sadder emotion, than the 
complete destruction, of an institution, so redolent with 
prayer, so fruitful in works, so prophetic with hope, and 
withal so deeply rooted in the hearts of God's people. 

Let the Presbyterians of Georgia awake; and like 
Jews of old, after their return from captivity, and viewing 
their beautiful Temple in ruins, stop not simply with the 
shedding of bitter tears, now wholly unavailing; but like 
them go to work to rebuild and with firm resolve to make 
tneir latter house even more glorious than the former. 

* Editor's Note — Since the above was written the call 
and prophecy therein seem about to be answered and ful- 
filled, for a movement is now on foot to revive Oglethorpe 
University in Atlanta, and it has every prospect of suc- 
cess at this time. 



142 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 
PRESIDENTS OF OGLETHORPE UNIVERSITY. 



Rev. C. P. B€man— 1836-1840. 

Rev. John Breckinridge — 1840 (Declined). 

Rev. S. K. Talmage— 1841-1865. 

Rev. J. C. Stiles, D. D.— 1866 (Declined). 

Rev. Samuel J. Baird, D. D.— 1867 (Declined), 

Judge A. J. Ingles— 1868 (Declined). 

Rev. Wm. M. Cunningham, D. D.— 1868-1870. 

Rev. David Wills, D. D.— 1870-1872. 



VICE PRESIDENT. 



Hon. Eugenius A. Nisbet— 1836 (Declined), 



PROFESSORS. 



Rev. S. K. Talmage, Ancient Languages— 1836-1840. 

Rev. C. W. Howard, Chaplain, Moral Philosophy, — 
1836-1839. 

N. Macon Crawford, Mathematics and Astronomy — 
1836-1839. 

Rev. S. K. Talmage, Belles Lettres, Mental Philos- 
ophy— 1840-1842. 

O. B. Arnold (Temp), Ancient Languages — 1840. 

Rev. S. S. Davis, Ancient Languages — 1840-1842. 

J. H. Fitten, Mathematics— 1842-1844. 

J. B. Mallard, Natural Philosophy— 1842-1843. 

Judge C. B. Cole, Law— 1842. 

Rev. D. McN. Turner, Ancient Languages — 1842 (De- 
clined.) 

W. P. Finley, Belles Lettres and Mental Philosophy— 
1843. 

Rev. Thos. S. Witherspoon, Ala. Professor— 1844 (Died 
1845). 

Rev. J. L. Kirkpatrick,Ala. Professor — 1845 ^ Declined). 

Rev. J. W. Baker, Ancient Languages — 1844-1851. 

Rev. F. Jacobs, Mathematics and Astronomy — 1845- 
1849. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 143 

Rev. C. W. Lane, Natural Philosophy and Chemistry — 
1846-1869. 

Rev. R. C. Smith, Mental and Moral Philosophy — 1847- 
1869. 

J. B. Lym.an (Temp), Mathematics and Astronomy — 
1849. 

Joseph LeConte M. D., Chemical Geology and Natural 
History— 1851-1852. 

Rev. Jno. L. Kennedy, Mathematics and Astronomy — 
1850-1851. 

James Woodrow Ph. D., Chemistry, Natural Philos- 
ophy, Botany and Geology— 1853-1860. 

N. A. Pratt, M. D., Chemistry, Natural Philosophy, Bot- 
any and Geology— 1860-1863. 

Rev. Wm. Flinn, Mathematics— 186^ (Declined). 

Samuel G. White, M. D., Chemistry and Lecturer — 
1867. 

Sylvanus Bates, Languages — 1867-1870. 

Rev. Geo. L. Petrie, Mathematics — 1869 (Declined). 

Gustavus J. Orr, Mathematics and Astronomy — 1870- 
1872. 

Rev. Donald Eraser, Languages — 1870-1872. 

Benj. T. Hunter, Physilogy and Sciences — 1870-1871. 

W. LeConte Stevens, Chemistry and Modern Lang- 
uages— 1870-1872. 

Richardson— 1871-1872. 



TUTORS. 



J. H. Fitten, Mathematics— 1840-1842. 

J. B. Mallard, Natural Philosophy— 1841-1842. 

S. L. Knox— 1859. 

S. C. Lanier— 1860. 

TEACHERS IN HIGH SCHOOL. 
R. H. Ramsay. 
W. M. Janes. 
E. G. Moore. 
J. A. Richardson. 
The schools of Janes, Richardson and Moore were 



144 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORaiA 

never actually a part of Oglethorpe University. The princi- 
pals may have consented to be nominally considered as a 
part of the institution. 

Prof. Hunter was in charge of the Oglethorpe High 
School, while Janes, Richardson and Moore, were Princi- 
pals of The Atlanta High School, a private institu:tion. 
When Prof. Hunter resigned, Prof. Richardson was elected 
to take his place. When Prof. Orr resigned to accept State 
School Commissioners' position by appointment from Gov- 
ernor, Prof. Richardson was elected to succeed him. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 145 
ALUMNI. 



John H. Fitten 
Thomas E. Lroyd 

John Bilbo 
Fleming G. Davies 
Wm. C. Davies 
Greo. W. Hardwick 



1839 



1840 



Wm. J. Sasnett 
John B. Whitehead 

Robert W. Jemmison 
B. F. McDonald 
Chas. S. Rockwell 
Chas. J. Williams 



1841 
Homer Hendee Chas. A. Stillman 

Randolph Spaulding 



1842 



James F. Bozeman 
Francis T. Cullens 



Theodosius B. Davies 
George W. Fish 



Abner H. Bowen 
Wm. L. Franks 
Jas. A. Hall 
James M. King 



John C. Daniel 
William Ivey 
George R. Ramsay- 
Henry Safford 



Chas. W. Lane 

1843 

Joseph H. Nisbet 
Geo. W. Owens 
Robert A. Smith 
Daniel H. B. Troup 
James J. Neely 



1844 



Chas. E. Nisbet 
James T. Nisbet 
J. W. A Sanford 
Robert Tucker 



Thomas H. King 



1845 



Virgilius M. Barnes 
Joel E. Barnett 
G. H. Cartledge 
Andrew J. Ford 
Benjamin Fort 



Jno. B. Habersham 
Ellsworth Park 
Phocion Ramsey 
Elliott J. Smith 
Chas. E. Tefft 



Mo.ses Fort 



146 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 



Benj. L. Beall 
Hines H. Goode 



Samuel Carter 
Levi Gallimore 
Joseph S. Merrill 



1846 



1847 



Hansen Hall 
Americus Lewis 



Joseph M. Quarterman 
Francis P. Stubbs 
Richard L. Warthen 



Thos. F. Wells 



1848 



Benjamin F. Carter 
G. R. Foster 
Donald Fraser 
Algernon S. Hartridge 



L. Stuart Quarterman 
John B. Ragland 
John M. Smith 
Samuel B. Spencer 



Leander L. Varnedoe 



1849 



James H. Alexander 
James S. Bivins 
Charles G. Campbell 
A, Walker Sassels 
John D. Holmes 
R. A. Houston 



Thos. J. Adams 
John W. Duncan 
James W. Hardee 
Samuel McClary 



Chas. T. Bannerman 
Andrew Bowie 
Francis H. Bowman 
S. A. Calhc'm 
Samuel Y. Carte:' 



Robert W. Milner 
Francis C. Morris 
Wm H. Roane 
James Stacy 
Wm. M. Tucker 
Henry M. Weed 



Henry C. King 



1850 



1851 



W. J. McCormick 
John G. Richards 
Charlton H. Wilson 
Clinton Wright 



John McLeod 
Samuel Orr 
Henry B. Pratt 
Joseph J. West 
Wm. D. Witherspoon 



Sam'?el Hunter 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 147 



John E. Baker 
Wm. H. Baker 
Samuel J. Bingham 
Wm. K. Blake 
John Cassels 
James A. Cousar 
J. A. Danforth 

W. A. Barron 
James W. Bones 
James W. Boyd 
James D. Clark 
B. L. Cochran 
W. W. Cochran 
J. L. Cunning 
Thos. J. Davidson 
I. L. Ellington 
W. S. Frierson 
James S. Gamble 



Isaac W. Avery 
Thos. M. Beaty 
David C. Boggs 
W. E. Boggs 
C. L. R. Boyd 
M. B. Boyd 
Wm. D. Boyd 
Joel C. Briscoe 

S. E, Axson 
T. Q. Cassels 
A. M. C. Duncan 
John Ferguson 
E. O. Frierson 
James H. Hamilton 



1852 

Chas. H. Hall 
Nathaniel Pratt 
C. J. Silliman 
L. A, Simonton 
Arthur Small 
Robert R. Small 
Thos. L. Taylor 

1853 

William Hall 
Emmet R, Johnson 
R, A. Jones 
Elmore Kinder 
A. R. Liddell 
A. McLeod 
John McLeod 
John C. Moore 
Walker D. Newell 
C. Whitfield Smith. 
Levi Wilcoxon 
Myron D. Wood 

1854 

Wm. T. M. Dickson 
Z. C. Fort 
Roger L. Gamble 
Andrew F. Hill 
A. Fort Hunter 
J. B. Parr 
A. Pickens Smith 
Wm. A. Williamson 

1855 

H. L. Harvey 
J. C. Patterson 
M. M. Slaughter 
Theodore E. Smith 
W. S. Smith 
Jno. L. Underwood 
Thos. O. Wicker 



148 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 



Ro'bert Bradley 
E. Calhoun 
W. A. Carter 
B. H. Craig 
H. K. Daniels 



R. Q. Baker 
G. S. Barnsley 
G. A. Bivins 
F. A. Borden 
James H. Bryan 
A. Buchanan 
S. J. Cassels 
W. W. W. Clay 
R. H. Buchanan 
J. S. Cozby 
W. T. Daniel 
R. H. Fleming 
Tomlinson Fort 



1856 



1857 



W. H. Harris 
R. W. McCormick 
W. McPherson 
A. W. Millican 
Geo. S. Thomas 



D. G. Fulton 
\V. A. Gregg 
B. T. Hunter 
H. E. Martin 
Jno. B. McDowell 
D. J-. Mclntyre 
J. M. Oliver 
L. W. Phillips 
\V. S. Ramsay 
J. M. Reid 
W. G. Robson 
W. E. Sherrill 
R. L. Wiggins 



L. B. Wilson 



185J 



C. B. Adams 

D. S. Bethune 

E. J. Bower 
A. P. Calhoun 
Allen Crosby 
Jno. E. DuBose 
A. W. Fleming 
Thos F. Fleming 
John Hardeman 
Theo. Hunter 

W. L. LeConte 
W. A. Little 
D. M. McClure 



D. McDuffie 
A. W. Morrison 
J. H. Nail 
Henry S. Orme 
Jas. A. Shingler 
G. W. Smith 
D. N. Speer 
J. F. Stinson 
John M. Tarver 
C. Toxey 
W. S. Toxey 
Jas. F. White 
C. J. Williamson 



H. J. Winn 




FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, COLUMBUS, GA. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 149 



1859 



C. A. Baker 
W. B. Bingham 
S. Dowse Bradwell 
J. D. A. Brown 
L. M. Cassels 
Edwin K. Fulton 
E. M. Green 
G. F. Johnson 
W. P. Johnson 
S. L. Knox 
Geo. W. Ladson 



Jas. W. Law 
H. S. Little 
W. J. Martin 
A. P. Miller 
T. Newell 
William Pelham 
Geo. L. Petrie 
Sam H. Spencer 
W. W. Spencer 
F. Tufts 
W. A. Wilson 



1860 



C. T. Bayne 
J. W. Burroughs 
Wm. Craig 
W. H. Fay 
R. W. Flournoy 
Jno. P. Fort 
J. E. Fulton 
J. M. Geotchius 
■T. L. Oreer 
Thos. Hardeman 



E. F. Hoge 

J. W. Kendrick 

J. W. King 

S. C. Lanier 

Harrison Millican 

S. A. Pressly 

N. P. Quarterman 

J. T. Roberts 

J. G. Spencer 

W. R. Slaughter 



1861 

John W. Baker J. F. Green 

J A. Beall Anthony W. Hale 

Chas. M. Boyd John J. James 

J. G. Brown W. E. James 

E. P. Cater Jno. G. Lane 

J. P. D. Cooper James A. McCaw 

Geo. P. Crichton J. S McDowell 

S. T. Dean Hugh W. Montgomery 

Jno. Ditmars John Montgomery 

M. Li, Frierson Chas. Phillips 

Thos. J. Shine 



150 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 



J. J. Boyd 
Chas. Coleman 



Joseph M. Brown 
B. P. Gaillard 
Chas. Gaskill 
Clinton Gaskill 



A. C. Briscoe 

W. A. McDowell 

I. M. Ginn 

W. T. Hollinfcs worth 

J. J. Johnson 



1862 



1871 



1872 



James G. Lane 
R. H. Nail 



R. A. Massey 
William Spencer 
R. Neal Smith 
J. T. Wills 



John Jones 
W. W. Killough 
W. T. Moyers 
W. A. Taylor 
B. K. Thrower 



Willis Venable 



Total— 317 



THE PRESBYTERIAN OHUROH IN GEORGIA 151 
LIST OF MINISTERS 



W. J. Sasnett 


1839 




Homer Hendee 


1841 


Charles A. StillE 


0. W. Lane 


1843 




G. H. Cartledge 


1845 




B. L. Beall 


1846 


Hansen Hall 


Jos. M. Quarterman 


1847 




G. R. Foster 


1848 


Donald Fraser 


J. H. Alexander 
R. A. Houston 
R. W. Milner 


1849 


F. C. Morris 
W. H. Roane 
James Stacy 


W. J. McCormick 
J. G Richards 


1850 


C. H. Wilson 


F. H. Bowman 
Samuel Orr 


1851 


H. B. Pratt 


• 
S. J. Bingham 
S. A, Ooasar 
J. A. Danforth 
C. J. Stillman 


1852 


L. A. Simonton 
Arthur Small 
Robt. R. Small 


Thomas J. Davidson 
William Hall 
Elmore Kinder 


1853 


A. R. Liddell 
M. D. Wood 


David Cj Bosgs 
W. L. Boggs 


1854 


A. Pickens Smit 



152 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 


[ IN GEORGIA 




1855 




S. E. Axson 
E. O. Frierson 
H. L. Harvey 




T. E. Smith 

J. L. Underwood 


Robert Bradley 
W. A. Carter 


1856 


R. W. McCormick 


R. Q. Baker 
J. S. Cosbv 
W. A. Gregg 


1857 


B. T. Hunter 
D. E Mclutvre 
L. B. Wilson 


Jno. E. DuBose 
Theo. Hunter 
S. D. McLure 


1858 


D. M. McDuffie 
J. H. Nail 


C. A. Baker 
J. D. A. Brown 
E. M. Green 


1859 


Gpo. W. Ladson 
Geo. L. Petrie 


W. H. Fay 


1860 


N. P. Quarterman 


John Ditmars 


1861 


B. L. Baker 


James G. Lane 


1862 


R. H. Nail 


R. Neal Smith 


1871 




I. M. Ginn 

W. T. Hollingsworth 


1872 
Total 72 


J. J Johnson 
W. W. Killough 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 153 
HONORARY DEGREE OF D. D. 



Rev. Richard B. Cater 1847 

Rev. Mr. Houston, Knockbrecken, Ireland 1848 

Rev. John Stoughton, London 1850 

Rev. B. M. Palmer 1852 

Rev. John S. Wilson 1852 

Rev. Robert H. Nail 1852 

Rev. Remembrance Chamberlain (Declined) 1852 

Rev. C. P. Beman 1853 

Rev. E. P. Rogers 1853 

Rev. N. A. Pratt 1854 

Rev. Sylvester Woodbridge 1855 

Rev. J. C. Patterson 1856 

Rev. E. T. Buist 1857 

Rev. Joseph R. Wilson 1857 

Rev. J. L. Girardeau 1866 

Rev. J. R. Burgett 1866 

Rev. David Wills 1866 

Rev. Jas. E. Evans 1866 

Rev. Donald McQueen 1871 

Rev. R. C. Mclnnis 1871 

HONORARY DEGREE OF L. L. D. 

Hon. William Law 1852 

Rev. J. H. Thornwell, D. D 1855 

Hon Washington Poe 1869. 

Hon. A. Ingles 1871 

Rev. George Howe, D. D 1873 



CHAPTER VIII. 



UNIVERSITY SCHEME. 

After the demise of the Oglethorpe School, the idea of 
a southern institution of high order still lingered in the 
minds of several leading educators of the church. In 1889 
a communication was received from the Synod of North 
Carolina upon the subject of establishing such an insti- 
tution, which was to be under the patronage of the four 
Synods of North and South Carolina, Georgia and South 
Georgia and Florida, and to bear the pleasing and sug- 
gestive sobriquet, "The South Atlantic University." After 
due consideration of the matter, and an address by Dr. 
J. B. Shearer, a corresponding delegate from the Synod of 
North Carolina, and who might justly be regarded as the 
father of the scheme, it was resolved by the Synod that 
"they appoint three commissioners, who shall meet with 
similar commissioners from the other Synods, to confer 
with them, and report to the Synods such measures as 
may seem best and most practicable, for the accomplish- 
ment of this object." Under this resolution, Rev. Messrs. 
G. B. Strickler and G. T. Goetchius and Elder Clifford 
Anderson were appointed such Commissioners. Indeed it 
appears that action had been taken upon the subject even 
before this, for a communication had been sent to the Syn- 
od in 1888, and by a convention that had been held in At- 
lanta sometime in July before, by whom called, or bv 
whom attended, the records do not show. A Commission 
was appointed by said Convention, co bring the matter of 
establishing a university to the attention of the Synod. 
In response, the Synod expressed its gratification at the 
paper presented by the Commission, and cordially en- 
dorsed the object set forth, and the work it had done. It 
further authorized the Commission to formulate a plan 
for the proposed university, or college, to receive sub- 
scriptions for the same, to determine the location, etc 
And furthermore, that as the Commission declared the be- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 155 

lief that the city of Atlanta would give $75,000 and a loca- 
tion, to go forward and see if a similar amount might not 
be obtained outside of the same." Min. 1890. Pages, 9, 15. 

At the same meeting, an Overture was sent from the 
Presbytery of Athens, asking the Synod to use its in- 
fluence to secure the removal of the Theological Semi- 
nary from Columbia, to some point in Georgia, the reason 
of the overture being the embarrassed condition of the 
Institution, growing out of the evolution controversy. An- 
other consideration was the idea of ultimately incorporat- 
ing it as the "Theological Department of the proposed 
Presbyterian University, contemplated In the measures 
adopted at the late Centennial Convention held in Atlan- 
ta." The Synod, however, declined acting in accordance 
with the suggestion. 

The above named Commissioners, appointed under 
the first act, reported for a number of years nothing defi- 
nite, however. They generally reportjeid, ^"Progress," 
sometimes adding that the "prospect was encouraging" but 
failing to state wherein. 

This state of things continued till 1901, when the 
Synod met in Valdosta. The brethren of Southern Geor- 
gia, and especially of the Presbytery of Savannah, feeling 
more and more the importance of a school for the hig'her 
education of their sons, had commenced agitating the 
question of establishing such a school of their own; and 
the people of Valdosta became so solicitous that they 
were ready and willing to contribute largely to its erec- 
tion especially if located in their place. After quite an an- 
imated and protracted discussion, Synod resolved to pro- 
ceed to establish a college for boys. A Board of Trustees 
were appointed with power to proceed at once, in taking 
all the preliminary steps of location, receiving offer of 
bids, etc. They were to enlist the co-operation of the 
Synods of Alabama and Florida; but if they failed in this, 
to proceed alone. All this, of course, took the place of the 
South Atlantic University, which scheme soon gravitated 
out of sight. 

The Board had one or two meetings and were pro- 



156 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

ce€ding with the work in hand. In the mean while, it be- 
gan to be whispered around that as neither Clarkesville 
nor Columbia seamed to be doing much where they were, 
that they might be induced to remove and unite with the 
new College at Atlanta and thus form the nucleus of a 
grand Presbyterian University. At a called meeting of the 
Synod of Georgia at Atlanta in 1902 (the only one ever 
held), the following resolution was adopted: 

"Resolved, That this Board rest its action at this 
point until information touching the consolidation of two 
important institutions can be ascertained, whether feas- 
ible or not. If not the Board shall proceed under their 
original instructions, with permission to make the amount 
$200,000, instead of $50,000, as first determined." 

The city of Atlanta had agreed to give $200,000 and a 
suitable location provided Clarkesville and the Seminary 
would consent to the consolidation and location in her 
borders. The citizens went to work with quite a zeal and 
soon secured the subscription promised. But when the 
proposition was submitted at Clarkesville, they refused to 
enter the compact, as might easily have been forseen. And 
no doubt as serious difficulties would have arisen at Co- 
lumbia. So it soon became apparent to all concerned 
that the scheme was a failure and the idea of a grand 
University abandoned. (And after all, whether there was 
any necessity for any such institution, and what the rela- 
tive proportion of sentiment, and real necessity, entering 
into the scheme, w^e leave the reader to decide for him- 
self.) 

RECENT EFFORTS. 

After the abandonment of the University idea, the 
Synod returned to its original plan of having an institution 
of its own. Hence at its meeting at Macon in 1907 it adopt- 
ed the recommendations of its Board in "renewing its al- 
legiance to the college idea," in continuing its Board, and 
in proceeding at once to raise the amount of $50,000 over 
and above what is given by the community securing its 
location, at the same time giving the March collection 
to this cause, a part of which was to go to defraying the 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 157 

expenses of the Board. A great deal of enthusiasm was 
awakened at the meeting, there being present a large 
delegation from the city of Dublin to urge the claims of 
that place. But with the increasing opposition on the 
part of many, and beginning to feel the financial pressure 
on the country, Synod felt constrained to suspend all op- 
eration for the present, as appears from the following 
resolution adopted at Athens, 1909, commending the dili- 
gence of the Board, and asserting that "in view of the 
prevailing financial stringency, the project be abandoned." 
Thus the matter now stands. What will be done in the fu- 
ture, if anything, we are unable to say. 



CHAPTER IX. 



FEMALE COLLEGES. 

For a long time the matter of female education was 
entirely in the background in the state, but recently it has 
come to the front, and equal, if not even greater, promi- 
nence given it than the education of the males. 

The first female college in the state was that established 
by the Methodists at Macon and first known as "The Geor- 
gia Female College," and first opened for pupils January 
7, 1839; but changed its name to "Wesleyan Female Col- 
lege" in 1850. 

The first Baptist Female College in Georgia, was the 
"Southern Female College," a school of high order estab- 
lished at LaGrange by Dr. J. E. Dawson in 1843, and in 
1845 converted into a college, under the control of Mr. Mil- 
ton E. Bacon, of Liberty county. 

The first Presbyterian College was that established at 
Rome by Rev. J. M. M. Caldwell, as a high school in 1845, 
but chartered as a college in 184 — 

The first effort at a Synodical Female School was in 
1848, at its meeting at Columbus. An informal proposition 
had reached the ears of Synod that the people of For- 
syth had held a meeting and expressed a willingness to 
furnish a suitable lot and building, if the Synod would es- 
tablish and maintain a school at that place, for the educa- 
tion of females. The Synod most heartily entered into 
the suggestion and even went so far as to elect a board to 
confer with the people of Forsyth. Nothing, however, 
seems to have come of the project, as the measure doubt- 
less fell through for a want of satisfactory arrangements 
to both parties. 

The next year, 1849, at its meeting at Greensboro, still 
feeling a deep interest in the matter, only quickened by the 
Forsyth effort, Synod appointed a committee to consider 
the feasibility of establishing one or more female colleges. 
The Committee having reported favorably, another was ap- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 159 

pointed to notify the churches, and to solicit proposals 
from different localities and to report to the next Synod. 

The following points were covered by this report: 

That "We need at least one institution which shall 
combine the following features: 

1st. A thorough religious training. 

2nd. A course of studies in the solid sciences and in 
Literature and ornamental branches, which shall compare 
favorably with any other denominational Seminary in the 
State or in the North. 

3rd. Terms so moderate that the daughters of ordi- 
nary farmers can afford the expense. 

4th. A location pleasant, healthy and easy of access, 
and where a salutary religious influence will be thrown 
around them *' 

With this explanation of the object and aim, the com- 
mittee recommended to Synod: 

To issue a proposition to the churches for the estab- 
lishment of such an Institution on the following condi- 
tions: 

1st. The Synod shall not be expected to incur any 
pecuniary responsibilities. 

2nd. That is shall not be considered as exclusively 
pledged to one institution. 

3rd. That the institution, if established, shall be un- 
der the control of Synod, and that the moral and religious 
instruction given in it shall be in accordance with our 
views of the word of God; and 

4th. That if circumstances ever render it expedient. 
In the opinion of Synod, to discontinue the arrangement, 
the property shall revert to the control of the original 
donors. 

The following committee were appointed under this 
resolution: Rev. S. K. Talmage, D. D., Rev. W. M. Cun- 
ningham, Rev. N. A. Pratt, Rev. J. B. Ross and Rev. Joshua 
Phelps. 

At the next meeting of Synod at Augusta, November, 
1850, the committee reported that the following places had 
sent up proposals, viz: Madison, Greensboro, Decatur, 



160 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Griffin, and Canton. After due consideration of the sub- 
ject, Synod resolved to establish two "Female High 
Schools," one within the l)Ounds ot the Presbytery of Hope- 
well, and the other within the bounds of the Pres'bytery of 
Flint River. On going into an election, Greensboro and 
Griffin were chosen, the first in the bounds of Hopewell, 
and the other of Flint River, in different parts of the 
Synod. 

A committee was appointed to draft a constitution for 
their government and the following Trustees were chosen: 

Trustees for Greensboro — Ministers: Messrs. F. Bow- 
man, S. K. Talmage, D. D., N. Hoyt, D. D., W. Baird, J. W. 
Reid; Laymen: John Cunningham, Henry Merrill, R. Hub- 
bard, W. B. JohnsojQ, Dr. T. N. Poullain, Hon. W. C. Daw- 
son, Josiah Davis, Col. Y. P. King, F. H. Cone, Esq., Wm. 
H. D. Weaver, James L. Brown, Esq. 

Trustees for Griffin — Ministers: W. J. Keith, J. B. 
Stevens, W. M. Cunningham, R. T. Marks, J. Y. Alexander, 
A. G. Peden; Laymen: John B. Reid, Esq., H. P. Kirkpat- 
rick, Curtis Lewis, Esq., Hon. James K. Stark, Gen, E. P. 
Daniel, Wm. W. Chapman, Esq., Dr. Jas. S. Long, Jas. S. 
Jones, Esq., Col. A. R. Moore, Washington Poe, Esq., Cy- 
rus Sharp, Wm. Markham. 

Reports were received at the next meeting of Synod 
which met at Griffin the next yar, (1851), from the trus- 
tees of both these institutions showing that progress had 
been made in carrying out the instruction of the Synod. 
The Trustees of Greensboro stated that their building, a 
handsome brick structure, was nearly completed and would 
be ready by the first of January of the coming year. Synod 
encouraged them to go forward in the enterprise with 
greater zest, insisting however upon two things, in the 
conduct of the school when in operation: 1st, to eschew 
the system of dormitories, but the placing of the pupils, 
not in crowds, 'but in private families of refinement and re- 
ligious influence, that they might not lose the benefit of 
home training. 2nd, The exclusion from the institution of 
all exhibitions "In Modo Theatri." * 

(Remark) We cannot suppress our hearty endorse- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 161 

m€iit of a sentiment so pertinent, and so eminently scrip- 
tural withal! How cheap and common is woman becoming 
in our Southland, since the overthrow of the old regime, 
and the importation of foreign ideas. Paradoxical as it may 
seem, the very effort to elevate, has only tended to de- 
grade, by robbing her of that innate modesty, which con- 
stitutes her crowning virtue and glory! 

The report from the Griffin School showed that th€y 
had secured an elegant site, and had adopted a plan for 
the building, which was submitted for inspection, both of 
which the Synod highly approved. They also reported a 
plan for raising funds for the creation of ten scholarships, 
which was also approved, and which for the present, in- 
stead of being limited to one pupil, might be extended to 
all the daughters of any one family. They also recom- 
mend that the Board go forward vigorously to carry the 
enterprise into full effect. 

The report of the next year (1852,) showed fhe com- 
pletion of the building at Greensboro, the selection of Rev. 
Robert Logan, as president, with a competent corps of 
teachers, and a successful beginning and operation during 
the year. The Synod commended th-e work of the Trus- 
tees, and especially the rule adopted by the Board in re- 
quiring th€ pupils "to lodge in private families" of re- 
spectability, and in abolishing sucli public exhibitions as 
are adapted to blunt those sentiments of delicacy and 
modesty, which are as valuable and ornamental to the fe- 
male character as education itself. 

The report of the Trustees of the Griffin School show- 
ed that said school was not yet in operation. Synod ex- 
pressed its gratification, however, at the advanced stage 
of the building, and selection of President and suitable 
corps of teachers, and expressed the hope th&it the amount 
still needed for the completion of the building would soon 
be obtained. 

The next annual reports (1853) showed the Greensboro 
institution in a flourishing condition, and the institution 
growing in favor, the number of pupils being 107. The 
financial condition also reported good; the debt having 



162 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

been materially reduced. The resignation of Rev. Robert 
Logan and election of Rev. I. S. K. Axson as prsident was 
reported and approved and the election confirmed. 

The Trustees of the Griffin School reported the com- 
pletion of the building and election of Rev. C. P. B, Mar- 
tin as Principal which was confirmd. The Synod also ap- 
pointed a committee of visitation to attend the next com- 
mencement and closing exercises. 

The reports for the year 1854 were both very encour- 
aging. The board of visitors to Griffin reported every 
thing satisfactory, "the course of instruction being thor- 
ough and practical." So the Greensboro College was re- 
ported "in a highly prosperous condition," and "meeting 
the highest expectation of its founders," the only shadow 
being the anticipated loss of Dr. Axson from the presidency, 
he having been called to the pastorate of the Independent 
Presbyterian Church of Savannah. 

The next reports were still more flattering. The Grif- 
fin College showed "a degree of prosperity fully equal to 
the expectations of its friends;" and the Synod could even 
see the hand of Providence in the choice of Dr. J. C. Pat- 
terson in the place of Rev. Mr. Martin, who had resigned, 
which they thought prophetic of still greater prosperity in 
the future. 

So of the Greensboro School, which they declared not 
only a success, but as even "surpassing our most sanguine 
expectations;" the graduation class numbering nineteen 
with one hundred in attendance. 

From this time on we find somewhat of a change ill 
the tone of the reports. Concerning the Greensboro School 
the Synod asserts that its affairs "Have been judiciously 
managed by the Board, and successfully conducted in its 
educational departments, by the Faculty." Concerning the 
Griffin School, that whilst greatly "pleased at the contin- 
ued success of the educational department" at the same 
time, "they had heard with painful regret of the pecuniary 
embarrassment now in the College." 

The next year (1857) Synod expressed its approval at 
the manner in which the affairs of the College at Griffin 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 163 

have been conducted, but also expressed its regret that 
"its financial affairs were still in an embarrassed condi- 
tion." 

Touching the Greensboro School, Synod declared 
that there were things, both to dampen the ardor and dis- 
courage the hearts of the friends of the institution, as well 
as other things to awaken gratitude and inspire fresh 
courage." Among the former, the frequent changes in the 
Faculty and the pressing indebtedness of the institution; 
among the latter, the election of Rev. Homer Hendee to 
the presidency, under whose management much was ex- 
pected. 

The Synod again the next year (1858), repeats its' en- 
dorsements of these institutions and again calls attention 
to the indebtedness resting upon each, and especially in 
the case of the Griffin school, and urging the importance of 
liquidation. 

In the next year (1859,) we find no report or any men- 
tion made of Griffin. Concerning the Greensboro school 
we find the following allusion to its indebtedness. After 
asserting that the Instittuion was selfsustaining, the com- 
mittee goes on to say that "we regret to state that the 
institution still labors under the burden of its old debt." 
All of its liabilities are now concentrated in the hands of 
one of its oldest, and noblest friends, (Mr, John Cunning- 
ham) whose devotion to the institution, especially in the 
matter of pecuniary indulgence, we feel deserves our 
warmest commendation. We recommend to the Synod the 
adoption of any wise measure which promises relief from 
this pecuniary em'barrassment. 

The tone of the reports to the Synod the next year 
(1860) continue as heretofore, after the most commenda- 
tory statements, calling attention to their continued indebt- 
edness. The committee on the Greensboro school, begins its 
report with the statement. "It is with deep regret that we 
learn from the official source, that it is not in a more pros- 
perous condition, than it is. * * * * It still lies under the 
burden of a crushing debt * * * * and unless something ef- 



164 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

ficient is speedily done, we are assured that the institu- 
tion must be abandoned and its prosperity sacrificed." 

So with regard to the Griflin College: "Synod deeply 
regrets to learn that the comparatively small amount hang- 
ing over this institution, is still an embarrassment in the 
way of its complete success and prosperity." 

We find no mention in the minutes of Synod of Greens- 
boro College for the next year (1861), and the only men- 
tion of the Griffin school, that, "Dr. J. C. Patterson made 
a statement concerning the condition of Griffin College." 

As the cry of indebtedness and appeal for aid was 
coming up year after year, although distinctly asserted at 
the outset that the Synod would not assume any indebted- 
ness; and as the great struggle between the states was be- 
ginning to loom up; the Synod began to show a little rest- 
lessness under the situation, as appears from the follow- 
ing resolution which it adopted: 

Resolved, "That all these reports on Synodical col- 
leges be transmitted to the presidents of the respective 
colleges, to be published in their respective catalogues, if 
they see fit;" thus relieving the minutes of Synod of any 
further burden in that direction. 

Before giving the final disposition of these institutions 
it will be necessary for us to retrace our steps a little, and 
go back to the year 1856, when another claimant appeared, 
for the patronage of the Synod. 

ROME FEMALE COLLEOE. 

At the meeting of the Synod of Georgia at Atlanta No- 
vember, 1856, an overture was sent up from the Presby- 
tery of Cherokee touching the establishment of a Female 
College. The following was the answer: 

"'The Synod having considered the overture of Cher- 
okee Presbytery in regard to the establishment of a Synod- 
ical Female College at the city of Rome, decide that in 
their opinion, the matter is one of vital importance to the 
cause of religious education, and do by the following Board 
of Trustees, take incipient measures for the inauguration 
of said college; it being understood that the Synod is to as- 
sume no pecuniary responsibility." 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 165 

Trustees as follows — Ministers: A. Y. Lrockridge, W. B. 
Telford, T. C. Crawford, J. M. M. Caldwell, J. F. Lanneau, 
Geo. W. H. Petrie; Laymen: W. C. Cothran, N. J. Om-berg, 
A. M. Sloan, C. H. Smith, C. T. Cunningham, R. C. Word, 
J. A. Scott, James Sproul, H. V. M. Miller, J. Smith, R. J. 
Johnson, Gabriel Jones, and their successors in office. 

"That the trustees shall report annually as to the va- 
cancies which may be filled; that their appointment of 
teac'hers and all their acts, shall be subject to the review 
and control of Synod." 

We have already mentioned the fact that the Rev. J 
M. M. Caldwell had a high school for females, established 
at Rome in 1845, Feeling that it would add to its influence 
and patronage by its becoming a Synodical school, he had 
tendered it to the Synod to be taken under its care and 
nominal ownership. The committee to whom the whole 
question of a female college was referred, was directed to 
visit the school, and examine it and report. They after- 
wards reported as follows: 

"On yesteday (Friday 19th), your committee made a 
Visit to the Institution where they were politely and hos- 
pitably reecived by the Rev. J. M. M. Caldwell, President, 
and his excellent fedy. They were conducted through the 
rooms of the college edifice and were shown the arrange- 
ments for the accommodation of both instructors and pupils 
all of which appear in good taste, and well adapted to the 
T urpose for which they are designed. 

After a careful examination, so far as time would per- 
mit, of the premises, study and recitation rooms, philoso- 
phical and chemical apparatus, your committee beg leave 
to say they were particularly pleased with the location of 
the Institution, which commands a wide and beautiful pros- 
pect — with the system and order pervading the establish- 
ment — the politeness and intelligence of the mem'bers of 
the faculty they met and the decorum which prevailed 
among the pupils in the school room. It is, therefore, the 
opinion of the committee, that the trustees have not in the 
least exaggerated in their statement of the present pros- 
perity and prospective usefulness of this young but grow- 



166 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

ing institution. Under its present Directors, it promises 
to contribute largely to the cause of female education in 
this city and this portion of the State. In conclusion, your 
committee would submit the following resolution: 

Resolved, "That the Synod learn with pleasure, the 
prosperous condition of the Rome Female College, and 
with increasing confidence recommend it to the patronage 
of our Church and the public." 

The Trustees also made an encouraging report of the 
condition and prospects of the Institution. And we find the 
Synod again expressing its gratification, and recommend- 
ing the institution to the patronage of the church, as ap- 
pears from the following action: 

"That it is gratifying to find that the youngest of the 
institutions taken under our Synodical care is conducted 
with admirable vigor and success. They are glad to admit, 
in the soundness and thoroughness of its course of instruc- 
tion and the general efficiency of its management there is 
nothing left to desire. With a competent and devoted Fac- 
ulty, buildings handsomely finished and furnished, an ex- 
cellent philosophical and chemical apparatus, and other 
attractions and facilities, we believe that the trustees are 
fully justified in "confidently recommending this school to 
the cordial support of all friends of sound learning," and 
in their belief, "that it will succeed because it deserves 
success." In view of these pleasing facts, the committee 
believes that the Synod will take the utmost pleasure in 
once more expressing their entire confidence in this excel- 
lent school, and in endorsing the recommendation of it by 
the Board of trustees, with the hope that the meed of pat- 
ronage it deserves will never be withheld." 

The Synod took no action touching the Rome School 
during the next year, except to appoint Mr. A. G. Pitner as 
trustee in the place of Rev. J. F. Lanneau, removed, and 
reducing the number of a quorum from seven to five. 

In the next report for the year 1860, we meet with the 
same old story of indebtedness. In connection with the 
flattering statement about the progress of students and 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORaiA 167 

otherwise prosperous state of the College we find the fol- 
lowing in the report of the committee: 

"We learn with pleasure, that mere has been such a 
transference of the property of the institution to the Rev. 
J. M. M. Caldwell, its president, with its liabilities as ef- 
fectually secures the trustees from the debts which they 
were unable to pay, and which crippled the college. The 
property, although vested in private hands will be perpet- 
uated for the uses and purposes, originally designed." 

As the Synod never did assume any financial respon- 
sibility in the management of this institution, what effect 
this action had upon its relation to the Synod, if any, we 
are unable to say. 

For the year 1861, we find the meager record, "That 
the report of the committee on Rome Female College was 
received and adopted." What that report was we have no 
means of finding out, as it was not recorded; as it was at 
this meeting, that the resolution was passed, turning over 
these reports to the trustees for record. 

The Synod, now having three institutions on its hands, 
viz: Greensboro, * (Note) Griffin and Rome, which if not 
bankrupt, were badly crippled with debt, and being wearied 
with the sad reports, and appeals for help, coming up year 
by year, with the increasing shadow of war upon the coun- 
try and no prospect of immediate relief, felt that it was 
necessary that something should be done to relieve itself 
of the embarrassment, and their meeting at Macon in 1862 
appointed a committee on female colleges to consider the 
whole question and report what action was necessary. The 
Committee made the following report, through their chair- 
man, Rev. J. L. Rogers, wliich was adopted: 

"The committee to whom was referred the report of 



*(Note) In 1859 the Pres-bytery of Hopewell o"ertured 
the Synod that it would turn over to them the fiscal man- 
agement of the Greensboro school that prompt measures 
might be taken for the liquidation of its debts and placing 
the institution upon a firm basis. This was done, but we 
see no further mention of the matter. 



168 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

the Greensboro Female College, together with the general 
subject of our Syuodical female colleges, b€g leave to re- 
port that they find the Greensboro College embarassed by 
a heavy debt, amounting now to about $8,000 and with no 
apparent resources to meet this debt; and we regret to 
know that from the organization of the college to the pres- 
ent time, this embarrassment has been felt, and from time 
to time the Synod has been appealed to to devise some 
means by which this indebtedness could be discharged, 
and the institution placed in a more prosperous condition; 
but so far these appeals for aid have been fruitless of any 
good results. The policy of the Synod appears to have 
been to extend to the female colleges under its care only 
a nominal moral influence, which has consisted only in 
hearing their annual reports and appeals, and passing as 
often a series of resolutions recommending them to the 
favor of the people. Your committee believe that unless 
the Synod is prepared to go farther than they have ever 
yet done, unless they are willing to assume pecuniary ob- 
ligations, and raise the funds necessary to relieve them 
from their pecuniary embarrassment, their nominal control 
is a positive detriment to these institutions. There being 
three of these institutions under our control, your com- 
mittee does not feel authorized to make any recommenda- 
tion for one, which may not apply also to the others. And 
believing that the Synod would not feel authorized in as- 
suming so heavy a pecuniary obligation as would be neces- 
sary to place them all upon a safe and prosperous footing, 
■we therefore believe that the best thing that we could do 
for them would be to relinquish the nominal control that 
we have been exercising over them, and commit them to 
the hands of those more immediately interested in the wel- 
fare of each — either to the Presbyteries within whose 
ibounds they are located or to the resident Board of Trus- 
tees. We would, therefore, submit the following resolu- 
tion: 

Resolved, "That the Synod appoint a committee of six, 
who shall be empowered to remit the entire control of 
these institutions to the local Board of Trustees, to be 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 169 

controlled by them or transferred to the Presbyteries in 
whose bounds they are located, as they may deem ad- 
visable. The committee to consist of Revs. Messrs. J. L. 
'Rogers, E. P. Palmer, William M. Cunningham, J. R. Wil- 
son, D. D., and Ruling Elders Washington Poe and G. E. 
Thomas." 

Wc now come to the final action. On account of the 
condition of national affairs, the country being in the midst 
of the war, the committee did nothing. Hence we find at 
the next meeting of Synod (1863) they took the following 
action: 

Ruling Elder J. H, Lumpkin, from the committee to 
"which was referred the r€lation of the Synod to the Fe- 
male collegese of Rome, GriflBln and Greensboro, reported. 
The Report was adopted, and is as follows: 

The subject of the three female colleges at Rome, 
Griffin, and Greensboro, all under the care and control of 
this body, having been brought before the Synod at Macon, 
that some action might be had in reference to said insti- 
tutions, a report with the following resolutions was adopt- 
ed, to wit: "That the Synod appoint a committee of six 
who shall be empowered to remit the entire control of 
these institutions to the local Board of trustees to be con- 
trolled by them, or transferred to the Presbyteries in 
whose bounds they are located, as they may deem advis- 
able," and it appearing that no action had been taken by 
said committee, it is recommended that the Synod adopf 
the following resolutions, appropriate to each of said 
schools, according to their respective ctarters and cir 
cumstances : 

1. That this Synod relinquishes all rights which it has 
or may be supposed to have, to direct and control the 
Rome Female College, and it advises that an act of the 
Legislature be passed ratifying this proceeding and con- 
firming the title already made to the Rev. J. M. M. Cald- 
well by the local Board of Trustees. 

2. It is inexpedient to take any action in regard to the 
Griffin Female College, formerly known as the Griflan Col- 
legiate Seminary. 



170 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

3. Finding that the Greensboro Female College is 
largely in debt of which debt it cannot be disencumbered 
except by sale; and that Mr. John Cunningham, the prin- 
cipal creditor, has a mortgage on the entire property, we 
deem it best that he proceed at once to foreclose said mort- 
gage, and bring the property to sale in open market, and 
after discharging all the debts of the institution from the 
proceeds, that the balance of the funds, if any, be held sub- 
ject to the future order of the Board of trustees. And in the 
event of Mr. Cunningham declining to pursue this course, 
we advise that the property be sold by the Trustees, and 
after paying all the debts of the institution the overplus, 
ii any, be held as above named, and that an act of the 
Legislature be immediately obtained to authorize such 
sale. 

At any event, this Synod pledges itself, so far as it is 
concerned, that this surplus fund, if any, be solemnly 
pledged to the Presbyterian education of female teachers 
and pupils, or, in failure to accomplish this, that it be 
restored to the donors. 

At the next meeting of Synod at Augusta the infor- 
mation was communicated that the Greensboro College was 
sold in virtue of a permissive act of the Legislature and 
that the purchaser, Mr. John Cunningham, transferred the 
same to three trustees, consisting of Joseph R. Wilson, D. 
D., Rev, James Woodrow, and Rev. R. A. Houston and 
their successors in perpetuity, to be conducted as a Female 
Seminary. And it was so used till 1872, when it was acci- 
dentally burned. 

The Building of the GrifRn School was turned over to 
the city of Griffin, they being the largest contributor in its 
construction, and intended by them to be used as a city 
sc^hool. It was used as a hospital during the war, and like 
its twin sister at Greensboro, became food for the devour- 
ing flames. Upon the site, however, a commodious edifice 
has been erected by the city for a public school, and has 
been used ever since. 

So in accordance with the above action, the Rome 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 171 

institution was turned over to Rev. J. M. M. Caldwell, the 
original and real owner. 

Thus after twelve years of effort (1849-18'63) and varied 
results, the whole scheme of female education n Georgia 
fexi through and the fields abandoned by the Synod. That 
great good had been done, however, there can be no doubt. 
We can but express regret that a beginning which prom- 
ised such great things should have had such an inglorious 
termination, and that such a disaster should befall the 
Synod in so great a measure through sheer mismanage- 
ment. The war may be pleaded in part for the final fail- 
ure, but only in part, as the institutions were all three 
involved financially before the breaking out of the war. 
ROME FEMALE COLLEGE. NO. II. 

In 1884, twenty years after the abandonment of the 
scheme of female colleges, we find the Synod again under- 
taking the work of establishing such an institution. 

The Greensboro and Griffin schools were now things 
of the past. The Rome College was still kept up by its 
proprietor, Rev. J. M. M. Caldwell, but now becoming 
advanced in years, he was desirous of disposing of it. 
'Some of the friends of education in the Synod felt that it 
ought to be secured as a Synodical School. At the meet- 
ing at Marietta (1884), Dr. Bunting, at that time pastor of 
the church, read the following paper: 

"Whereas, this Synod recognizes the importance of a 
female seminary of high rank, in connection with which 
provision is made by adequate endowments to meet the 
expenses of the board and tuition of daughters of indigent 
Presbyterian ministers, in the South, either partially or 
fully, as circumstances may indicate; and 

Whereas, this work has been prosecuted during the 
last eighteen years, by a member of this Synod, and should 
be enlarged and made a permanent element in the aid and 
relief of our Southern ministers who need the help indi- 
cated; therefore it is hereby 

Resolved, 1. That to secure the existence and perma- 
nency of such an institution, we will elect Trustees 

to devise the ways and means of its establishment, and 



172 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

that of their number shall constitute a quorum for 

the transaction of business. 

2. That the Synod, as such shall neither assume or 
have any pecuniary responsibility, or exercise any con- 
trol over the institution except in the election of its trus- 
tees now and in the future, together with the reception 
and review of their annual reports. 

3. That other Synods may be invited and urged to 
unite with this body in this great work by the Board of 
Trustees. 

4. That the proposed institution shall be located in 
Rome, on the basis of the Rome Female College, and shall 
be opened for the reception of pupils at such time and 
with such an organization as the Trustees may determine. 
The name of the institution may be changed by the Trus- 
tees. 

After the reading of this paper, he offered the follow- 
ing resolution, whic'h was adopted: 

Resolved, That a committee composed of ten gentle- 
men, two from each Presbytery, be now appointed to visit 
Rome, to enquire into the propriety and wisdom of estab- 
lishing, on the basis of the Rome Female College, such an 
institution as indicated in the paper just read, and that 
the committee consist of the following gentlemen or their 
alternates : 

Presbytery of Augusta — Rev. W. Adams and W. C. 
Sibley; Presbytery of Athens — Rev. T. P. Cleveland, J. B. 
Estes; Presbytery of Atlanta — 'Rev. J. L. Rogers, Rev, E. 
H. Barnett; Presbytery of Macon — Rev. A. W. Clisby, H. 
H. Jones; Presbytery of Cherokee — Rev. J. E. Jones, W. K. 
Moore. 

This committee made the following report, at the next 
meeting at Lagrange, and which was adopted: 

"The committee appointed to visit Rome for the pur- 
pose of enquiring into the propriety and wisdom of estab- 
lishing, on the basis of the Rome Female College, such an 
institution as indicated in the paper presented to Synod by 
the Rev. Dr. Bunting, and published in the appendix of the 
Minutes, respectfully report; 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 173 

That they met at Rome October 20th, 1885, and after 
prolonged inquiry into the whole matter, they cordially 
and unanimously recommend the adoption of the scheme 
proposed in Dr. Bunting's paper, to-wit: The appointment 
of eighteen Trustees who, if the way be clear, shall pur- 
chase, or otherwise secure the said property, and estab- 
lish a female college for the education of the daug'hters of 
Presbyterian ministers and others, under the auspices of 
the Synod, together with that of any other Synod or Syn- 
ods of our church, desiring to co-operate with us in this 
important enterprise." 

Under this resolution the following were appointed 
Trustees: Rev. G. B. Strickler, D. D., Atlanta; Rev. G. T. 
Goetchius, Rome; Mr. Samuel Inman, Dr. J. W. Rankin,, 
Atlanta; Mr. John Peabody, Columbus; Dr. P. R. Cortel- 
you. Marietta; Rev. J. E. Jones, Cedartown; Gen. Jno. B. 
Gordon, Decatur; Mr. J. W. Harle, Atlanta; Mr. R. G 
Clarke, Dr. John Kincaid, Messrs. J. W. Bones, S. G. 
Hardy, H. C. Norton, John C. Printup, B. I. Hughes, Prof. 
S. C. Caldwell, Rome; W. K. Moore, Dalton. 

This Board reported, through Dr. Strickler, its chair- 
man, to the next Synod, which met at Sparta in 1886, that 
in consequence of the financial pressure, it was found im- 
possible to raise the necessary funds for the purchase of 
the Seminary. But being profoundly impressed with the 
need of such an institution in the bounds of the Synod, 
they recommend that the Synod assume tne moral control 
of the institution as it now exists, and under its present 
management, giving it that support which will tend to 
elevate it to even a higher degree of usefulness, and which 
will commend it to the confidence and patronage of Pres- 
byterians in this and other Synods. The Synod adopted 
the recommendation and proceeded to the election of the 
necessary Trustees, according to previous arrangement. 

The Synod met at Rome, November 188 7. The Trus- 
tees reported the school in a flourishing condition. They 
^Iso stated that Rev. Mr. Caldwell had made an offer of 
sale of the property for the sum of ii)i6,000. The privilege 
of the floor was extended to citizens of Rome who were 



174 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

interested in the purchase of the property. After a discus- 
sion of the whole matter the following resolution was 
adopted: 

"Resolved, That Synod having heard with pleasure the 
letter addressed by a prominent citizen of Rome to th-* 
President of the Board of Trustees of the Rome Female 
College, do now propose to the Trustees of said college 
to endeavor to raise $25,000, or more for the institution, 
so soon as the citizens of Rome shall purchase said prop* 
er'ty and he prepared to deliver proper titles of the same 
to the said Trustees, the title to said property not to be 
conveyed, nor vested in said Trustees until the $25,000 or 
more shall have been raised by them. The Synod prom- 
ises hereby its moral support and encouragement to the 
Board in their endeavor to secure the endowment or fund 
proposed." 

This is the last record on the subject. The effort to 
raise the necessary amount was a failure. Further con- 
sideration of the matter was dropped. Mr. Caldwell after- 
wards otherwise disposed of his property. Thus ended 
the second chapter in the history of Presbyterian female 
colleges in the State. 

AGNES SCOTT COLLEGE. 

It is with pleasure that we turn away from these igno- 
minious failures to a grand success in the line of female 
education in the bounds of the Synod of Georgia. We 
allude to the female institution located at Decatur, Ga, first 
known as the Decatur Female Seminary, but now the 
Agnes Scott College. 

The latter part of December, 1888, the Rev. F. H. 
Gaines arrived in Decatur to assume the duties of the 
pastorate of the Decatur Presbyterian Church. He found 
a congregation of people, intelligent, devoted, capable, 
responsive. Being a firm believer in Christian education 
and seeing no school in the place adequate to the wants 
of the community, and furthermore, that it was a suitable 
location for an institution of that character, he began eariy 
in the summer of the next year to consider and suggest to 
his people the propriety of establishing a high school for 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 175 

girls under the auspices of the Presbyterian Church. The 
proposition met with a hearty response. At a meeting 
of the Session, after a full discussion, where the matter 
was fully considered. Col. G. W. Scott, a member, intro- 
duced the following resolution, which was adopted: 

"Resolved, That we determine to establish at once a 
school of high character." 

At the same meeting it was determined to apply for a 
charter for a minimum stock of $5,000, which was imme- 
diately subscribed. Col. Scott being one of the largest 
subscribers. This amount was afterwards mcreased to 
$25,000. The chartered name of the institution was to be 
"The Decatur Female Seminary." 

Col. Scott was made chairman of the committee to 
secure a suitable building, and rented a frame building 
suitable for the purpose. The school opened Sept. 24, 
1889, with sixty pupils, three being boarders. 

In the spring of 1890, Col. Scott proposed to give 
$40,000 to procure a permanent home for the institution. 
In recognition of his generosity the name was changed to 
Agnes Scott Institute, a memoral to his mother. Col. 
Scott then went North to investigate school buildings and 
upon his return proceeded to have his architects draw the 
plans and proceeded with the erection of the building. On 
this building, grounds and furnishings. Col. Scott paid in 
cash, $112,500. It was dedicated in the presence of the 
Synod of Georgia at their meeting at Decatur, Nov. 12, 1891. 

Owing to the high standard of the institution, and the 
high plane upon which it is conducted, for many years it 
did not pay expenses. In every emergency Col. Scott has 
come to its relief, having paid out $30,000 in deficiencies. 

The institution has steadily grown in its curriculum, 
its faculty, its attendance, and its educational facilities, 
until now it is Agnes Scott College, in reality, as in its 
chartered name which has been so changed. 

The grounds have been enlarged, and a new building, 
making nine in all, has recently been put up (1906) for 
a dormitory, with a commodious auditorium attached, 
named Rebecca Scott, after the wife of the late Col. Scott, 



176 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

at a cost of $80,000, to which his family contributed very 
largely. The aggregated gifts of Col. Scott to the institu- 
tion amount to $170,000. The present value of the plant 
and equipments is approximately $300,000. 

At first the institution was a joint stock corporation, 
in which the Session of the Decatur Church was always 
to have a controlling interest, but for some time the joint 
stock feature has boen abolished, and now the institution 
has been donated to a self perpetuating Board of Trus- 
tees. According to the terms oi the Charter no one can 
be a member of that board unless he be a member in good 
standing in the Presbyterian Church. 

For a number of years the Rev. F. H. Gaines, D. D., 
was president of the institution in connection with the pas- 
torate of the Church, but the duties becoming so onerous 
he resigned the pastorate of the Church in 1896, and 
ever since has been its President. 

The Agnes Scott is emphatically a Christian school, 
the Bible being one of its leading text books. Upon its 
Curriculum is inscribed as its aim: "The Supreme End of 
Agnes Scott Institute is the Glory of God." And this its 
ideal as set forth in its Curriculum: 

1. A liberal curriculum, fully abreast of the best 
institutions of the land. 

2. A sound curriculum, with text books along all 
lines in harmony with the Bible. 

3. The Bible a text book. The Bible course neces- 
sary to graduation. 

4. Thoroughly trained and consecrated teachers. 

5. A high standard of scholarship. 

6. The Institute a model Christian home. 

7. All the influences in the school to be made condu- 
cive to the formation and development of Christian char- 
acter. 



CHAPTER X. 



PRESBYTERIALf HIGH SCHOOLS. 

The Synod, at its meeting at Cartersville, in 1892, 
"Urged the Presbyteries to more earnest efforts towards 
the eqiiipmeut of schools under denominational control, 
and that they might have schools of pronounced Christian 
influence for their sons and daughters," P. 14. Several of 
tihese schools were accordingly set up. 

DONALD ERASER HIGH SCHOOL. 

The first of these was tiie Donald Eraser High School, 
which was established in Decatur in the same year by the 
Presbyterian church in that place and named after a form- 
er pastor, who died in 1887. The Institution was placed in 
the hands of a Board of Trustees of which the pastor was 
an ex-officio member. 

In 1896, a resolution was adopted by the Synod in- 
quiring into the feasibility of utilizing the remnants of the 
funds of the old Oglethorpe College in establishing a High 
School for boys. After a futile effort to establish such a 
school at Rome, the Synod, in 1899, agreed to place said 
remnant, amunting to $3,115.60 (in 1898), in the hands of 
t'he Trustees of Donald Eraser School. 

The following is the action: 

"Whereas, Oglethorpe has not been in successful op- 
eration for more than twenty-five years, its property and 
funds have almost been entirely lost, and there is little 
reason to expect that it will ever be reorganized; and 
whereas, it is the desire of Synod that its remaining prop- 
erty and funds be used as nearly in the direction contem- 
plated by its founders as possible, 1. e., the moral and 
Christian education of boys under Presbyterian care; and 
whereas, the Donald Eraser High School for boys, located 
at Decatur, in Dekalb county, Georgia, has been duly in- 
corporated, is under Presbyterian control, and is now in 
successful operation, with a subscribed capital stock of 



178 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

more than eight thousand dollars, and a property approxi- 
mating that value; therefore: 

Be it resolved, That the consent and authority of 
Synod is given to the Trustees of Oglethorpe University to 
invest in the stock of the Donald Fraser High School lo- 
cated at Decatur, Georgia, the remaining fund of the Uni- 
versity, now In their hands, and to take therefor certificate 
of stock in the corporate name of the University, and that 
the remaining portions of the apparatus, library, etc., be 
put in the custody and care of the school; provided, said 
investment be not made until the dharter of "The Donald 
High School for Boys" shall have been so amended as to 
give to the Synod of Georgia the appointment of two of 
the three trustees, the election of whom by said charter 
is in the stckholders of said school." Min. Synod. 1898. 26. 

The charter was accordingly afterwards amended and 
under its terms Synod elected Rev. Messrs. Geo. T. Goet- 
Ohius and R. O. Flinn trustees, the number of the trustees 
being six; two chosen by the Decatur church, two by the 
Synod, and two by the stockholders. 

The school has been largely patronized, it has a high 
standard and is doing a noble work, especially in training 
and preparing boys for entering college. A military depart- 
ment has recently been added. 

EUHARLEE INSTITUTE. 

The next Denomnational School set up was that at Eu- 
harlee, by the Presbytery of Cherokee, in 1896. This school 
has been growing in interest and rapidly becoming a 
centre of influence and usefulness. It is co-educational. 
BLACKSHEAR INSTITUTE. 

This Institute was established by Savannah Presbytery 
in 1900. The Presbytery feeling the importance of having 
an institution of high grade for the education of the boys 
and girls of the land, appointed a board of trustees to work 
to the end of establishing such a school that would "best 
carry out the idea of the Presbyterian church and furnish 
an ideal blending of secular and Christian education." Al- 
though flattering offers were received from other places. 
Blacks hear was selected as the place for the PresbyteridI 



THE PRHSBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 179 

Institute. Although its conception and management are 
strictly Presbyterian, it is entirely undenominationa' in 
Its policy, it being one of the rules of the school that "no 
proselytism shall go on within its walls." The Bible is one 
of its text books, and its simple truths are taught without 
any denominational bias. 

They have suitable buildings containing class rooms, 
library, with electric lights and heat, and with convenient 
auditorium, the whole valued at $40,000. They also have a 
military department in connection with the school. 

According to the last report there were in attendance 
12'5 pupils, taught by a faculty of ten. 

Not only the Presbytery of Savannah but all the Pres- 
byterians in the eastern and southern portion of the State 
look with commendable pride upon the Institution. In 1906 
the Synod that met at Waycross, adjourned and in a body 
visited the Institution. 

NACOOCHEE INSTITUTE. 

This Institution is also co-educational, and was estab- 
lished by the Presbytery of Athens in 1903. It is located 
in the beautiful and picturesque valley of Nacoocihee, some 
eleven miles from Clarkesville, and growing in impor- 
tance. It has a plant valued at $12,000, and, during the 
past year, had 6 teachers, and 150 pupils. It is receiving 
additional importance from the fact that it is the place 
where the annual Bible School and Conference of the Pres- 
bytery is held. 

ROCHELLB SCHOOL. 

During the Fall of the same year, the Presbytery of 
Macon set up this sOhool for the intellectual, moral and 
religious training of her young people, being like the 
others, co-educational. For some reason this school has 
been discontinued. 

YOUNG FEMALE COLLEGE. 

Macon Presbytery also has under its care the Young 
Female College, located at Thom'asville. This Institution 
is the property of the city of Thomasville, and was for 
thirty years under the management of Professor John Bak- 
er, but after ihis retirement and death, it was, in 1903, put 



180 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

under the care and management of the Presbytery of Ma- 
con, upon the condition that its name be retained, 
and that it be exclusively for young ladies, and that it be 
maintained in Thomas county. It has six teachers. The 
value of the endowment is $20,000. 

From the above it is obvious that there has been con- 
siderable progress in the bounds of the Synod in the mat- 
ter of Christian education, there being schools in all of the 
Presbyteries except that of Augusta. We can but indulge 
the hope that it will not be long ere that Presbytery will 
also have an Institution of its own. 



sm. 






f 







"THE BIG POPLAR" 

at Washington, Ga., under which the first Presbytery in Georgia 

met and ordained the first Presbyterian Minister, 

Rev, John Springer. 



CHAPTER XI. 



DRAWBACKS— WAR AND CONTROVERSY. 
WAR PERIOD. 

That th€ war had a most deleterious influence upon 
the churches, "Goeis without saying." That was a true, but 
very rough speech of General Sherman, when he said, 
"War is hell." Rough as the definition may seem truth 
forbids any softening of its tone. Nothing more harden- 
ing, nothing more brutalizing or generally more demoral- 
izing. Whilst the powers of darkness were, therefore, 
holding their high carnival, in the midst of human butch- 
ery and geneiial vandalism, we could not expect the church 
to be making much progress. The hearts and minds of 
every one would be drawn away to the terrible 'Struggle 
going on, in which the lives of loved ones as well as the 
fate of the country, were involved. 

Services were frequently interrupted by the march 
of moving armies and many of the pastors away serving as 
chaplains in the army. Theological students were required 
to leave off their studies and enter the army as soldiers. 
We know of none of the ministers of the Synod who en- 
tered the army as Captains. The only minister of our 
acquaintance, who commanded a company was the Rev. 
P. McMurray, who had been pastor at LaGrange but who 
had removed to Union Springs, Alabama, and who entered 
the army as Captain, not only from patriotic motives, but 
especially to be with the members of his church, who had 
entered the company of which he was made Captain. 

As the struggle progressed, and the country began to 
be overrun by the enemy, the principal activity of the 
church was directed towards the work among the soldiers 
and support of army missionaries and hospital chaplains 
appointed and supported by the executive committee of 
the church. 

As the state of Georgia, during the latter part of the 



182 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

war, became one of the principal fields of carnage, the 
interruptions increased. The churches were generally 
used as hospitals. The bells in some places, the property 
of the Lord, consecrated to His service, were taken down 
and given the Government to be moulded into cannon with 
which to shoot the invaders of the soil. The Sabbath was 
utterly disregarded. 

So the Soldier's prayer meeting, maintained at a few 
places during the entire war, were broken up in a major- 
ity of instances. 

Briefly stated the results were twofold: 

1st. The almost complete estoppel of ^11 church pro- 
gress as statistics will show. We find that the church 
made little or no progress during the four years of strife. 
In 1869 we had sixty nine ministers, one hundred and six 
churches and 6,274 members. In 1866, five years after- 
wards, 70 ministers, 117 churches and 6279 members, n 
gain of only one minister, eleven churches and five mem- 
bers. 

2nd. Second result: the treading down of the Sab- 
bath. The descent to Avernus is quite easy. It is difficult 
to dispossess the camel of his supposed rights, after once 
his nose is in the tent. At first freight and other trains 
were run on the Sabbath upon the plea of necessity, which 
plea strangely, however, seems still to exist, though the 
war has long since ceased. 

CONTROVERSY. 

Another thing which has greatly militated against the 
progress of the church, were the disputations and con- 
troversies, which at different times sprang up to disturb 
its peace and waste its strength, and of which we now pro' 
ceed to speak. 



CHAPTER XII. 



CONTROVERSY. 

Ever since the days of Paul and Barna^bas, and the 
early Christians the world has been given to disputings 
and divisions. It is only in this way, it seems, that Bible 
dostrines have been evolved and kept pure. The truth, 
like the torch, only shines brighter as it is shaken. It is 
only by the comparison of views that we are able to ar- 
rive at safe and wise conclusions. The result of the great 
ecumenical councils of old, have been the settling of many 
of the great doctrines of the Bible wisely and forever. And 
Presbyterians have had their full share in church disputes; 
and in this they have inherited much of the spirit of their 
Scottish ancestors, and even of Apostolic times, in thus 
earnestly "contending for the faith once delivered to the 
saints." 

Among the controversies that have disturbed the 
peace of the Presbyterian Church, none perhaps will out- 
rank the great controversy of 1837 and 1838 which shook 
the whole church North and South, and resulted in the 
division into Old and New School. Its history is generally 
familiar. It grew out of the plan of union entered into 
between Presbyterians and Congregationalists in the year 
1800, whereby the ministers and churches of the two de- 
nominations could interchangeably constitute the pastoral 
relation, and also whereby Congregational ministers could 
sit in Presbyterian assemblies and Presbyterian ministers 
would likewise be entitled to seats in Congregational as- 
sociations. This union continued till 1837, when it was 
abrogated, not being found satisfactory, the manner of 
the abrogation being simply the cutting off the four Syn- 
ods of Western Reserve, Utica, Geneva, and Gennessee, 
in which the union was in actual operation, by declaring 
the original action unconstitutional and therefore null and 
void. As this action was considered by many as equally 
unconstitutional, it was the means of stirring up a great 



184 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

deal of dissension and strife, and resulting in the great 
division above mentioned. There yet being no Synod 
formed in Georgia, only three Presbyteries being yet con- 
stituted, viz: Hopewell, Georgia and Flint River, this ac- 
tion came up severally before them for review. Two of 
these Presbyteries, viz: Georgia and Flint River heartily 
and unanimously approved the act of the Assembly. In 
the Presbytery of Hopewell, however, were several who 
were displeased with the rescinding act of the Assembly, 
if not in actual sympathy with some of the New School 
doctrines. These withdrew and in 1839 formed themselves 
into an independent Presbytery, which they termed "Eto- 
wah." 

PRESBYTERY OF ETOWAH. 

We find the following record in the minutes of Hope- 
well Presbytery at its sessions at Lincolnton, April 10, 
1840: 

"Whereas, It is known to this Presbytery that three 
of its ministers, viz: Chas. W. Howard, Jas. H. George 
and H. C. Carter, have united in forming a separate and 
independent Presbytery, and have published their declara 
tion of independence ito the world; 

"Resolved, That the names of these brethren b€ 
erased from the roll of members of the Presbytery. 

"And whereas. It is also known to the Presbytery 
that the Rev. Theodore M. Dwight, who has been some 
time in Burke county, the Stated supply to Waynesboro 
church, has with this church renounced his connection 
with this Presbytery, his name also and the name of said 
church be erased from the roll." 

As we have never seen the records of this body we 
are unable to report much of its proceedings, or to say 
with any degree of certainity what churches went with 
them, except Harmony and Hickory Flat. 

From other sources we learn that subsequently to 
their own organization they organized a church in Pick- 
ens county named Little Britian, now known as "Talking 
Rock," that they received Rev. Joseph McKee from th« 
Protestant Methodist Church: and licensed Mr. Jesse Wim- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 185 

pey, a Tennessean and teacher, and father of Mr. John A 
Wimpey, of Atlanta, recently deceased; also licensed Rich- 
ard A. Milner, afterwards one of the original members of 
the Synod of Georgia, and father of the Rev. W. A. Milner. 
It appears that the Presbytery never connected itself 
with the New School Assembly but remained independent. 
Neither did it continue but a few years before it began to 
disintegrate, as Rev. H. C. Carter returned to Hopewell 
Presbytery, Nov., 18, 1842. Harmony Church, which had 
been organized by him in 1838 and withdrew with him 
from the Presbytery, had already returned and was re- 
ceived by that Presbytery only two months before. So 
Salem Church organized by him in 1840 and under care of 
Etowah Presbytery returned in 1842. Their Licentiate, R. 
A. Milner, was received by Cherokee Presbytery and or- 
dained by them in 1844, the first year of their existence. 
Rev. James H. George entered the Episcopal Church, after 
a few years, and died at Marietta in 18 — . Messrs. Wimp«y 
joined the New School Presbytery of Kingston, and Mc- 
Kee that of Union, and afterwards both became charter 
members of the New School Presbytery of Chattahoochee, 
set up in 1844, and into which the remnant of Etowah Pres- 
bytery was merged. Rev. C. W. Howard remained inde- 
pendent till his death, which occurred at his home at Ell- 
erslee Dec. 25, 1876. Rev. T. M. Dwig'ht, though in sym- 
pathy with the New School movement, never connected 
himself with it while in Georgia, but removed to Tennes- 
see, and became a member of the New School Presbytery 
of Shiloh in 1846, and pastor of the New School church at 
Gallatin for three years, 1846 — 9, and there he died. 

The Waynesboro Church, of which mention is made 
above, and as having gone off with Mr. Dwight, in 1840, 
remained independent until 1853, when it was again re 
ceived under the eare of Hopewell Presbytery under the 
style of the "Waynesboro and Bath Church." 

It may here be proper to state, that there were others 
of the ministers of the Synod, and prominent among them, 
Rev. C. P. Beman, who were more or less in sympathy 
with the New School movement, but who being opposed to 



186 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

schism, refused to go off with the new movement. 

Having mentioned the name of Dr. Beman in this con- 
nection, it is but due his memory to state that in later life 
his views were in hearty accord with the principles and 
teachings of the Old School branch of the church in which 
he remained an honored and useful member till his death. 

His brother, Dr. N. S. S. Beman, however, returned 
North and joined the New School Church, oeing a member 
of the Presbytery of Troy, and became a prominent mem- 
ber till his death in 1878. He was Moderator of the Old 
Assembly before the division, in 1831, but afterwards sided 
with the New School Branch and became their leader in 
the division. 

We here give brief sketches of four ministers: 

REV. CHAS. W. HOWARD was a native of Savannah, 
born October 11th, 1811, and received as a licentiate from 
the Presbytery of Philadelphia, April 3, 1834. Ordained 
at the same time at Milledeville as pastor of said church; 
afterwards resigning his pastorate to become agent for 
Oglethorpe University. He was a leading spirit in the es- 
tablishing of said institution, gathering a great deal of its 
funds and suggesting the names and afterwards became 
professor of Belle Lettres. He was a man of great energy 
and force of character. On April 5, 1836, he was com- 
missioned by the state of Georgia to visit England for th? 
purpose of copying some of the early Colonial Records, and 
was absent two years. He was afterwards pastor of the 
Huguenot Church in Charleston for a number of years from 
1845 to 1852. Being a very ardent friend of the South, 
during the late war, he entered the Confederate service 
as captain of Co. I, 63d Georgia Regiment, and was wound- 
ed in battle July 22, 1864, between Atlanta and Decatur, 
and died at his home at Ellerslie Dec. 25, 1876, in the 
66th year of his age. 

REV. JAMES H. GEORGE, was received as a candi- 
date from the membership of Athens Church, Nov. 4, 1833; 
licensed and ordained, and installed pastor of Monticello 
Church in 1836 by Hopewell Presbytery; withdrew in 1840 
and joined Presbytery of Etowah and afterwards entered 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN (GEORGIA 187 

the ministry of the Episcopal Church and died at Mariet- 
ta 18— 

REV. H. C. CARTER, one of the five students of Dr. 
Goulding, at Lexington, and one of the first graduates of 
Columbia Seminary, was received as a candidate of Hope- 
well Presbytery, April 4, 1826, licensed by same April 6, 
1829. Ordained Oct. 9, 1830. Served as a home Mission- 
ary for a number of years in Upper Georgia and was in- 
strumental in gathering up and organizing quite a number 
of Churches. He died near Calhoun, Ga., Dec. 30, 1869. 

REV. THEODORE M. DWIGHT, was a native of Con- 
necticut, and graduate of Franklin College and of Colum- 
bia Seminary in 1832. Licensed by Hopewell Presbytery 
in 1833, and ordained by the same 1834; withdrew from the 
Presbytery in 1840; removed to Tennessee and joined the 
New School Presbytery of Shiloh, and became pastor of 
the New School Church at Gallatin, 1846—1849, where he 
died. 

PRESBYTERY OF ETOWAH 
(Independent) 
Set Up In 1839. 
MINISTERS 
C. W. Howard — Received from Hopewell Presbytery- 
Died Dec. 25, 1876. 

H. C. Carter— Received from Hopewell Presbytery- 
Returned to s^me, 1842. 

Jas. H. George — Joined the Episcopal Church, and died 
at Marietta. 

Jesse Wimpey — Licensed and ordained by the Pres- 
bytery, and joined New School Presbytery of Kingston. 

Joseph McKee — Received from Protestant Methodist 
Church, joined Presbytery of Union N. S. 
LICENTIATE 
Richard A. Milner— Joined Cherokee Presbytery 1844. 

CHURCHES 
Harmony — Received from Hopewell Presbytery, 1839. 
Hickory Flat— Received from Hopewell Presbytery, 
1839. 



188 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Little Britian — Organized by Etowah Presbytery, 

Salem, (Campbell County) organized by Dr. Carter, 
1840. 

Friendship joined Cherokee Presbytery, 

PRESBYTERY OF CHATTAHOOCHFE. 

Upon the dissolution of the Presbytery of Etowah, an- 
other Presbytery was set up in its place, and upon its 
ruins by the New School Synod of Tennessee, and named 
Presbytery of CHATTAHOOCHEE. The following is the 
account of its organization: 

On October 9, 1844, "A communication was received 
from James McLin, J. Wimpy, and J. McKee, ministers, 
and from sundry Elders residing within the limits of the 
state of Georgia, requesting Synod for a separate Pres- 
byterial organization." 

On the following day the committee on the petition of 
the Rev. James McLin and others, reported. The report 
was accepted and approved, and the Synod ordered, "that 
the prayer of the petitioners be granted, and that the Rev. 
James McLin, Jesse Wimpy, and Josepn McKee, be con- 
stituted into a Presbytery, to be known by the name of 
Chattahoochee. The north boundary of that Presbytery 
to be the Tennessee Sate line, and to include the counties 
in the new part of the State of Georgia as far as the 
bounds of the Synod of Tennessee extend, having under 
their care those churches in that region which are now 
under the care of the Kingston Presbytery. They further 
recommend, that the Presbytery of Chattahoochee meet 
In Cassville, Ga., on the first Thursday of April, 1845, at 
11 o'clock A. M., and that the Rev. James McLin preside 
as Moderator." (Min. Syn. Tenn.) We presume the Pres- 
bytery met at the time and place appointed by the Synod, 
though we lack the records to show it. They reported to 
the Synod in the fall four ministers, (The Rev. David H. 
Mason having been received), and seven churches. In 
1846, they reported the same ministers, and eight church- 
es; and supplied as follows: Rev. James McLin, Pine Log 
and Stamp Creek; Jesse Wimpy, Dahlonega, Hightower 
and Hickory Flat; Joseph McKee, Pleasant Valley, Little 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 189 

Britain and Salem. Rev. D. H. Mason without charge. In 
1847, they reported an additional minister, Rev. Henry 
Reid. In 1848 they reported the ordination of Campbell 
Boyd and William Swift and only four churches reported. 
In 1849, the Synod considered the case of Rev, J. Wimpy 
who had been suspended from the gospel ministry by the 
Presbytery, and reversed the action of the Presbytery, 
and restored him to his former standing, when they took 
the following action: 

" Resolved that the Presbytery of Chattahoochee be, 
and is hereby dissolved; That Messrs. H. Reid and Joseph 
McKee be, and hereby are, attached to the Presbytery 
of Union; and that Rev. Messrs. C. Boyd and J. Wimpy, 
with all the churches of the Presbytery of Chattahoochee 
in the State of Georgia and the records of that Presbytery, 
be and hereby are, transferred to the Presbytery of Kings- 
ton." (Min. of Synod). 

The minutes of their General Assembly for 1849, the 
year of the dissolution of the Presbytery, show that there 
were four ministers, eight churches, forty-one additions on 
examination, twenty-five on certificate, whole number 132; 
infants baptized, 36; membership of churches as follows: 
Pine Log, 16; Stamp Creek, 20; Dahlonega, 10; Hightower, 
24; Hickory Flat, 30; Pleasant Valley, 13; Little Britain, 
13; Salem, 6. Rev. Joseph McKee, Stated Clerk. 

Thus it appears that the New School Presbytery of 
Chattahoochee, like that of Etowah, did not long survive 
— not more than four years. 

In 1847 Rev. James McLin connected himself with the 
Presbytery of Cherokee, and at the same time two churches 
were reported as being received, by that Presbytery, "from 
a body not in our connection," and in 1859 Rev. William 
Swift and Concord Church belonging to that Presbytery 
were received by the Presbytery of Cherokee. 

After the dissolution of the Presbytery, Rev. Jesse 
Wimpey returned to the Presbytery of Kingston, Rev. Jos- 
eph McKee joined the Baptist Church and after the war 
forsook them and joined the Northern Methodist Church. 
"About 1868," says Mr. Cartledge in his notes, "Rev. P. C. 



190 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Morton met him at his home in the northern part of Lump- 
kin county, Ga., in extreme old age, and without a hope 
in Christ. What has since been his lot I know not." 

After the dissolution of the Presbytery the New School 
element seemed to have lost the little hold it had in the 
State. The few remaining churches soon became absorbed 
either by our own branch of the Church, or by other denom- 
inations, so that in a few years, after the removal of Rev. 
T. M. Dwight, and the death of Rev. C. W. Howard, every 
trace of it had disappeared from the bounds of the Synod*. 
SYNOD OF TENNESSEE. (New School) 
CHATTAHOOCHEE PRESBYTERY. 

1846 — Ministers: Jas. McLin, S. S., Cassville, Ga.; 
Jesse Wimpy, S. S., Dahlonega, Ga.; Joseph McKee, D. M., 
Cassville, Ga.; D. H. Mason, W. C. 

1847 — Ministers: Henry Raid (additional). 

1848 — Ministers: Campbell Boyd, ordained; William 
Swift, ordained. 

Churches — Pine Log, S. S., Stamp Creek, S. S., Dah- 
lonega, S. S., Hightower, S. S., Hickory Flat, S. S., Pleas- 
ant Valley, S. S., Little Britian, S. S., Salem, S. S. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



BLOCK CONTROVERSY AND DANCING. 

One of the great controversies, and one perhaps that 
stirred the Church more than any other, unless it be that 
of evolution, of which we shall hereafter speak, and one of 
great importance in its bearing upon the matter of disci- 
pline, was that upon the subject of worldly amusements, 
and dancing in particular. 

During, and just after the war of secession, there was 
a tide of worldliness sweeping over the land. There were 
a ^reat many in the Church, ministers and others, who felt 
that something ought to be done to arrest it. 

An overture was sent up to the Assembly that met at 
Macon, in 1865, by Dr. Ross, then pastor of the Huntsville 
Church, propounding three questions and asking answers 
to the same. The three questions were: 

1. Whether every Church Session has the right to 
make it a rule that dancing and other amusements are dis- 
ciplinary? 

2. Whether such rule commonly exists in the Pres- 
byterian Church? 

3. Whether such rule is expedient? Or what should 
be the mind of the whole body, and what its action? 

To these three questions the Assembly made the fol- 
lowing answers : 

To the first: No church judicatory has a right to make 
any new rules of church membership different from those 
contained in the Constitution; but it is the undoubted right 
of the church session and of every other judicatory to make 
a deliverance, affirming its sense of what is an "offense" 
in the meaning of the Book of Discipline, Ch. I, Sec. 3. 

To the second: Probably none of our judicatories are 
as faithful as they ought to be, but it is believed that the 
churches generally do in some form discountenance danc- 
ing. And the Presbyterian Church, through its supreme 



192 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

judicatory, has repeatedly borne its testimony against 
dancing and other worldly amusements. 

To the third: It is the duty of every judicatory to en- 
force the teachings of our standards on this and other 
fashionable amusements, such as theatrical performances, 
card playing, etc. And while the Assembly believes that 
the "lascivious dancings," declared to be forbidden in the 
seventh commandment, by the answer to the 139th ques- 
tion of the Larger Catechism, are not those usual in our 
best society, yet it is our belief that the tenor of the 
teachings of the Scriptures and our standards is in di- 
rect opposition to this social usuage. Christ's kingdom is 
not of this world, and the apostle exhorts Christians not 
to be conformed to this world. Though we do not say that 
all these amusements are "in their own nature sinful," }t 
is clear that they "may tempt" those who engage in them, 
and others, to sin; and moreover the Scriptures condemn 
them as worldliness. If the practice of the dance in mixed 
assemblies be not conforming to the world, it is difficult 
to name any offense against the injunction of the Apostle. 
Nor need the church of Christ have any hesitancy in an- 
nouncing its position on this subject, for the men of the 
world, with one consent, agree that it is inconsistent with 
the nature of the Christian profession, for members of the 
church to engage in the dance. 

In this connection the Assembly would take occasion 
to exhort our Christian people to avoid the excesses into 
which they are in danger of being drawn by the demands 
of fashion. The Scriptures forbid "revellings" and all in- 
temperate self-indulgence; with which teachings the pre- 
valent eustom of protracting social assemblies, with 
music and dancing, to the hours of the morning, but es- 
pecially when accompanied with drinking, or cardplaying, 
is manifestly inconsistent. Moreover the Assembly, ob- 
serving that parties of pleasure are usually composed al- 
most exclusively of unmarried young people, would give it 
as its earnest advice, that the best form of social reunion 
be made to partake, as much as possible of the style and 
tone of the family circle in which youthful enjoyment is 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 193 

tempered by the presence of the older and married mem- 
bers. 

The Assembly expresses itself with the more earnest- 
ness on this whole subject, because of the disposition 
which is observed in all parts of our borders to run into 
the inordinate indulgence of worldliness at this time, in 
forgetfulness of the mighty chastenings of God which are 
even yet upon us, and because we see members of our 
churches, and our beloved baptized youth, in forgetfulness 
of the covenant of God, which is upon them, carried away 
with the world's delusions, to the subversion of the divine 
influences of the sanctuary, and to the neglect of the in- 
terests of their souls. Wherefore, the Assembly would 
urge our people to take the word of exhortation; to ab- 
stain from all forms of evil; and to study and pursue that 
sobriety which becometh the gospel, so that the church 
of Christ shall indeed be "a peculiar people." And we 
hereby exhort our ministers and church Sessions to a dis- 
charge of their duties. Let them proceed by affectionate 
and faithful instruction from the pulpit, as well as in pri- 
vate; by admonition and by such other measures as Christ- 
ian prudence may dictate; but when all other means fail, 
let them proceed to such methods of discipline as shall 
separate from the church those who love the world and 
practice conformity thereto, rather than to the law of 
Christ. (1) 

An overture was sent by Rev. Dr. Dabney, then Pro- 
fessor at Union Seminary, to the Assembly at Mobile in 
May, 1869, the substance of which was an earnest recom* 
mendation to the Assembly, "to direct all its moral and 
spiritual powers, to the points: "First, appealing to educat- 
ed and professional men for an extraordinary recruit to 
the ministry. 

And secondly, effectually causing all church Sessions 
and Presbyteries to enforce the discipline provided in our 
constitution against offenses; and especially aginst con- 
formity to dissipated and lascivious amusements of the 

(l)Min. Assem. Vol. 1. 361, 362. 



194 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

world, intemperance, and relaxed expedients for evading 
pecuniary obligations now permitted by the laws of the 
country." 

To the second of these the Assembly gives the ans- 
wer: 

That the Assembly would, in hearty response to the 
second suggestion of this overture, earnestly and solemn- 
ly enjoin upon all the Sessions and Presbyteries under its 
care, the absolute necessity of enforcing "the discipline 
provided in our constitution against offenses," under the 
word offenses, including attendance by our members upon 
theatrical exhibitions and performances, and promiscuous 
dancings; against intemperance, and against availing 
themselves of the "expedients for evading pecuniary ob- 
ligations, now permitted by the legislation of the country," 
in such manner as cannot be justified by a conscience en- 
lightened by the Spirit and the word of God, and must dis- 
honor the cause of Jesus Christ. (2) 

At the meeting of the Presbytery of Atlanta at Phil- 
adelphia church, April 1877, Rev. P. McMurray introduced 
a resolution to the effect that in view of the pleasure-lov- 
ing disposition of the people in this day of abounding in- 
iquity, that a pastoral letter be prepared and sent down 
to the churches, putting them on their guard, and warning 
them of evil tendencies. It was also resolved that the fol- 
lowing resolution be incorporated in said pastoral letter: 

"Resolved, That the Presbytery of Atlanta hereby en- 
joins the Sessions of the churches under its care to exer- 
cise the discipline, prescribed in our book against the 
guilt of indulging in worldly amusements, condemned by 
our Assembly in its deliverances of 1865 and 1869." 

This pastoral letter was prepared with this resolu- 
tion embodied in it and sent to the churches. Min. Pres. 
1877, pages, 12, 17, and 20. 

At that same meeting of the Presbytery the follow- 
ing overture was prepared and ordered sent to the General 
Assembly: 

(2) Min. Assem. Vol. 11. 390. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 195 

"The Presbytery of Atlanta would respectfully over- 
ture the General Assembly to interpret the law of the 
church against worldly amusements as set forth in the 
deliverances of 1865 and 1869, in the following particul- 
lars: 

1st. Does the law forbid card playing for purposes of 
amusement or for purposes of gambling merely? 

2nd. Does it forbid dancing, or only promiscuous 
dancing? 

3rd. If the latter only, to what accident of the dance 
does the word "promiscuous" refer? Does the law forbid 
the round dances merely as distinguished from the square, 
or dancing at a public hall as distinguished from dancing 
in a private house? Or the mingling of males and females 
in this amusement, for the reason, among others, that in 
such cases the dance has a tendency to inflame the licen- 
tious passions? 

By giving explicit replies to the above questions, Pres. 
bytery is persuaded that the Assembly will perform time- 
ly and important service to the church, and free from 
their present embarrassment many sessions which are 
ready to enforce the law, and yet restrained from acting 
by doubt as to its true construction." (1). 

The following was the answer of the Assembly to 
these questions, rendered at their meeting in May of the 
same year at New Orleans: 

1st. The Assembly has uniformly discouraged and 
condemned the modern dance in all its form, as tending 
to evil, whether practiced in public halls or in private 
parlors. 

2nd. Some forms of this amusement are more mis- 
chievous than others — the round dance than the square, 
the public ball than the private parlor — 'but all are evil 
and should be discontinued. 

3rd. The extent of the mischief done depends largely 
upon circumstances. The Church Session is therefore the 
only court competent to judge what remedy to apply; but 

(1) Min. P. 17. 



196 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

the Assembly being persuaded that in most cases it is the 
result of thoughtlessness or ignorance, recommends great 
patience in dealing with those who offend in this way," 
Vol. IV, P. 411. 

Against this action Rev. J. W. Montgomery offered a 
protest which was allowed to go to record; the ground of 
the protest being twofold: 

1st. Because the Assembly by condemning actions as 
actions which may or may not involve an element of sin, 
weakens the force of its own protest against REAL and AC- 
KNOWDEDGED wrong. 

2nd. Because, in the judgment of your protestant, 
this deliverance contravenes Section 2, Chapter 20, Con- 
fession of Faith, which declares that God alone is Lord of 
the conscience, and hath left it free from the doc- 
trines and commandments of men which are in anything 
CONTRARY TO HIS WORD OR BESIDE IT, etc. P. 429 

In accordance with the above deliverances of the 
General Assembly and their interpretation of the law, the 
Session of the Central Church, Atlanta, Georgia, then un- 
der the pastorate of the Rev. J. T. Leftwich, D. D., pro- 
ceeded to table charges against Mr. Frank E. Block, a 
member and Deacon in said church. The following com- 
posed the Session at that time: Dr. J. P. Logan, A. V. 
Brunby, Moses Cole, S. D. McConnell, William McNaught, 
Campbell Wallace, and J. M. Patton, who was Clerk. 

The Session met Jan. 8, 1878, at which time the fol- 
lowing charge was made out: 

"Whereas, It is reported by common fame, that Mr. 
Frank E. Block, a member and Deacon of this church, has 
been guilty of violating the law of the church, in this: 
1st, that the said Frank E. Block did, on or about the 27th 
of December, last, give an entertainment at his residence 
on McDonough Street, in this city, in which dancing was 
permitted and encouraged. 2nd, that the said Block, by 
his own act, in thus encouraging a violation of the law 
of the church, has tempted others, and younger members 
of the church to sin; Therefore: 

"Resolved, That the clerk be directed to issue a cita* 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 197 

tion requiring the said F. E. Block to appear before the 
Session on Monday, 21st, at 4 o'clock P. M. in the lecture 
room to answer in reference to these matters." 

The citation was issued, Mr. Block appeared before 
the Session, and after a regular trial the Session adopted 
the following sentence: 

"Mr. Frank E. Block, having admitted before the ses- 
sion, that at an entertainment given by him at his resi- 
dence in this city on the 27th of December last, dancing 
both round and square, was permitted; and having de- 
fended and attempted to justify the same, notwithstand- 
ing the deliverances of the Presbytery of Atlanta, and of 
the General Assembly, which have both strongly enjoined 
upon sessions the absolute necessity of enforcing the dis- 
cipline provided in the constitution of the church against 
such conduct; and the said Block having gone further, and 
denied the validity of the said deliverances above referred 
to, as unauthorized by the constitution of the church, and 
the word of God; and having denounced the same as an un- 
warranted usurpation of power on part of the said judica- 
tories. 

"It is, therefore, declared as the sense of this Session, 
that the said F. E. Block be suspended from the priveleges 
of church membership, until he shall give evidence of re- 
pentance for this offense, and make promise of reformation 
in the future." 

From this judgment, Mr. McNaught one of the elders, 
dissented, favoring only admonition. 

From this judgment Mr. Block took an appeal to the 
Presbytery of Atlanta, which was soon to meet. 

The Presbytery of Atlanta met in Lawrenceville, 
April 26, 1878. The case came up by appeal, and being in 
order, was fully considered, three days being consumed 
in its consideration. In this discussion nearly all the mem- 
bers took part. The debate was lively and animated. On 
the third day the vote was taken with the following re- 
sult: 

TO SUSTAIN. 

Ministers — John Jones, D. D., D. Eraser, J. H. Martin. 



198 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Elders— W. P. Inman, M. V. McKibben, L. O. Stevens, 
D. Hoyt, W. L. Shumate— 8 

NOT SUSTAIN. 

Ministers — A. G. Peden, J. N. Bradshaw, F. McMurray, 
Wm. Dimmock, W. A. Dabney, R. F. Taylor, W. T. Hollings- 
worth, S. S. Gaillard, James Stacy, D. D. 

Elders— H. P. Richards, T. W. Dimmock, A. W. Blake, 
D. M. Bird, John Thompson, Winfield Woolf, A. L. Huie, 
Geo. Lyons, John Douglass, J. A. Hollingsworth, D. D. 
Peden— 20. 

SUSTAIN IN PART. 

Ministers — Henry Quigg, J. L. King, J. L. Rogers, M. 
C. Britt. 

Elders— S. D. Night, R. L. Barry, A. C. Russell— 7. 

Wherefore it was "resolved. That it is declared to be 
the judgment of the Presbytery that the appeal of Mr. 
Block be not and is not, sustained." 

From this decision of the Presbytery Mr. Block ap- 
pealed to the Synod of Georgia. 

CASE BEFORE THE SYNOD OF GEORGIA. 

The Synod met at the Central Church, Atlanta, Oct. 
z3rd, 1878, and continued in session till Wednesday, No- 
vember 1st. There was a full attendance and the intens- 
est interest manifested on part of the church and com- 
munity, as the place of meeting was the church and con- 
gregation in which the case originated; and moreover as 
the case had been before the church and world for more 
than a year; a great deal having been said and written 
on the same. 

The following are the grounds of the appeal, eight 
in all. The first, second and eighth, were stricken by the 
Synod, as not being germane to the appeal and not sup- 
ported by evidence, which in the nature of the case, could 
not be contained in the records. 

3rd. On the ground that the decision was not sup- 
ported by the evidence, there being no proof offered, that 
any sin had been committed by myself, or any one else 
in my house, on December 27th, the Session relying solely 
for proof on questions asked me to convict myself, which 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 199 

mod€ of conviction is contrary to the fundamental princi* 
pies of justice, both in civil and ecclesiastical courts. 

4th. On the ground that I am suspended from the 
church upon a charg-e which in itself does not contain the 
essentials of an offens-e. 

5th. On the ground that the verdict of the Session 
was not corrected in the statement that "I justified danc- 
ing both round and square," which is contrary to the fact 
as shown in the evidence on record. 

6th. On the ground that the verdict of the Session 
was not corrected in the statement that I "denounced the 
deliverances of the Assemblies as an unwarranted usur- 
pation of power on part of the said judicatories," which is 
contrary to the fact as shown in the printed defense as 
offered before the Session. 

7th. On the ground that the position taken by the ap- 
pellee, and supported by the Presbytery, involves the mak- 
ing of new terms of communion, not contained in the 
Bible or in our standards." 

After protracted discussion of the case, the vote was 
taken and is as follows: 

To sustain 26. To sustain in part, 14; not to sustain; 
17. The Presbytery of Atlanta not being allowed to vote. 

The following was adopted the finding of the Court: 

The Synod finds: 

1st. That laws exist in our constitution which are ap- 
plicable to all offenses, including under that term popular 
amusements of all kinds, when these are in their own na- 
ture sinful, or from attendant circumstances become so. 

2nd. That when common fame charged Mr. P. E. 
Block, a deacon of the Atlanta Central Church, with hav- 
ing violated a law of the church in connection with danc- 
ing it was the duty of the Session of said church to inves- 
tigate this charge, in obedience to the commands of the 
General Assembly, as contained in its deliverances made 
in answer to the overtures of Drs. Ross and Dabney, and 
the Presbytery of Atlanta, in the years 1865, 1869, and 
1877. 

3rd. That the proceedings of said session, in conduct- 



200 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

ing the trial to which this investigation led, were irregu- 
lar. (1) In failing to specify with sufficient particularity 
in the charge what law of the church had been violated 
(2) In failing to observe the requirements of the Book of 
Discipline in chapter IV, section 5. (3). In including in 
the sentence specifications of offenses not set forth in the 
charge. 

4th. That the decision of said Session was not sus- 
tained by the evidence. 

5th. Therefore, on these grounds the Synod reverses 
the decision of the Presbytery of Atlanta in this case and 
the sentence pronounced upon Mr. F. E. Block by the Ses* 
sion of the Atlanta Central Church, and it restores Mt 
Block to the privileges of church Membership." 

The vote upon this paper stood: Ayes, 37; Nays, 15. 

Dr. Leftwich gave notice that he would on part of th« 
Session take an appeal to the General Assembly. But 
having received a call immediately thereafter, and even 
before the rising of the Synod, to the First Presbyterian 
Church, Baltimore, Md., and soon moving out of the 
bounds of the Southern Assembly, the matter was drop- 
ped and the case prosecuted no further. 

We have been rather particular in our statements, as 
this is one of the most important judicial cases ever up be- 
fore the Synod of Georgia for adjudication, as it settled a 
most important principle. The case was watched with in- 
terest, not only by our own people, but equally so by oth- 
er denominations, and likewise by the outside world. It 
was regarded by all as a test case. Its decision, therefore 
was far reaching, and forever settled the question of 
church discipline for worldly amusements and not only 
so but lowered the entire standard of church membership, 
and not only in our own church, but those of other denom- 
inations, removing all barriers between it and the world, 
except the judgment and notion of the member himself; 
and in his way, most disastrous in its effects. Formerly dis- 
cipline for worldly amusements was administered with 
comparative strictness, but now worldly conformity is no 
longer desciplinable, at least beyond admonition. For if 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 201 

promiscuous dancing, theatre going, and card playing, be 
not disciplinable, neither are whiskey selling, horse rac- 
ing and gambling. The church has thus tied her own 
hands by placing these things outside her jurisdiction and 
limits of her power. If she be not competent to act on 
general principles, and to define what is to be considered an 
"offense," but must show a thus saith the Lord, for every 
statute, she may as well throw down all her standards 
except the ten commandments, and abolish all her courts. 
He who goes to the Scriptures for an express command- 
ment for every case will find himself mistaken. All we 
find are general fundamental principles, which in cases of 
dispute are to be settled by her courts. 

We have nothing to say about this particular case, 
whether the punishment was unduly severe or not, but 
this much we would venture to afirm, that our courts 
seem to stand self contradicted. For in the first deliver- 
ances in '65, '69 and '77, it was distinctly affirmed that in 
the judgment of the Assembly promiscuous dancing was 
considered an offense and Sessions were instructed to pro- 
ceed against recalcitrant members. And then in 1878 they 
assert with equal clearness' that there is no such law; 
that the Assembly has no authority so to interpret an of- 
fense; that these former deliverances were mere "Obita 
Dictu" of the court, and really of no authority, not even 
as advice, for if the advice could not be followed in deal- 
ing with delinquent members, the Assembly simply stulti- 
fied itself in giving it. 

In the discussion the distinction was clearly drawn be- 
tween a decision and a mere "in thesi deliverance," it be- 
ing admitted that the former would have all the binding 
force of law, but the latter never could, for the former 
would be the act of a court solemnly sitting in the name of 
Jesus Christ and the latter only an expression of opinion. 

On the other hand, it was argued that these deliver- 
ances were the deliverances of the same court of Jesus 
Christ, as well as the other constituted in the same way, 
with the same authority, and why the one solemn deliver- 
ance of the same court, constituted in the same way, and 



202 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

with the same authority, should not be as binding as the 
other, no one could tell. 

There seemed also to be a confused notion as to the 
styling of a decision in a concrete case as a law. It was ad- 
mitted that all such decisions would be law in that partic- 
ular case, but how a law in others with different attend- 
ing circumstances? So the case must precede the law be- 
fore the law could be known, and thus the case would de- 
termine the law and not the law the case. The whole ques- 
tion of the force of "in thesi deliverances" and their posi- 
tion in our form of government, needs to be upset and re- 
considered. Of what use is a court if it cannot interpret 
the meaning of the law when appealed to; or if its inter- 
pretation, when thus rendered, be not binding? 

Concerning this case the following things are to be 
noted : 

1st. Next to the evolution controversy, of which I 
shall speak hereafter, no question was ever before the 
Synod of Georgia of equal magnitude and none ever stir- 
red the church more profoundly. The papers, both secu- 
lar and religious, were full of it. The discussion was upon 
every lip and this interest not confined to our own church 
alone, but to the other denominations as well and also to 
the utside world. Every body regarded it as a test case. 
The question was now to be settled whether a church 
member could be dealt with for worldly conformity and 
indulging in worldly pleasures. Whether the Church had 
the right to make a law against such things? Or to so in- 
terpret the teachings of the Scriptures as forbidding such 
things and to exclude from her communion all who per 
sistently indulged in them. And the question assumed 
additional interest, because so far reaching in its applica- 
tion; the principle applying alike to the kindred subjects 
of whiskey selling, horse racing, gambling and the like. 
For they were all in the same category. If the church 
could not reach the one in her discipline, neither could it 
reach the others. The eyes of every one, therefore, were 
turned to this case to see what would be the decision of 
the Presbyterian church on this class of subjects. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 203 

2nd. To th€ casual observer the settlement of the 
case was a quasi declaration that the Presbyterian church 
has no law against these things, and therefore no man is 
to be dealt with for indulging in them. This was the in- 
terpretation put upon the verdict by the world. This was 
the thing charged by the defeated minority of the Synod, 
and virtually admitted by the controlling majority, inas- 
much as in their judgment they said nothing about the con- 
duct of the defendant, as though he had done nothing 
worthy of censure, though he was a deacon, -and had sworn 
to "study the unity and peace of the church," but the entire 
blame being put upon the Session for all the disturbance, 
and injury done the church and the cause of Christ in 
general. 

It was for this reason that Dr. Lane, seeing the logi- 
cal interpretation the world would and was putting upon 
this action of Synod, offered the supplementary resolution 
which was adopted to the effect that, notw'ithstanding the 
decision in the case, the Synod would not have the world 
believe that it favored dancing. And for the same reason 
eight years after, at Sparta, in 1886, J. L. Stevens, 
seeing still more clearly the effect of the decision, offered 
the resolution: 

"Resolved, That in view of the fact that the action of 
the Synod in the Block case has been construed into an 
approval of the dance, when that case was decided purely 
on technical grounds, as the records of the Synod will 
show, that we affirm that all of the deliverances of the 
Assemblies of the church on the dance are in full force.'* 
Which resolution was at once tabled by a vote of 32 to 11. 
(Min. 1886. p. 12.) 

So also in 1889, thirteen years after, at GriflEin, the 
Synod found it necessary to counteract the effects of that 
decision, to adopt the following resolution upon the recom- 
mendation of the committee on Worldly Amusements: 

"Whereas, there is a misapprehension as to the posi- 
tion of the Synod of Georgia on the subject of dancing and 
other fashionable amusements, it is hereby: 

Resolved, That the Synod of Georgia disapproves of 



204 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

and condemns dancing, especially in its more modern 
forms, the round dance and the German, card playing and 
theater going, and that this has uniformly been the posi- 
tion of the Standards of the Church." (Min. 1889. p. 13.) 

That this was the interpretation of the entire outside 
world clearly appears from the effects. The result of the 
decision was that it has effectually killed all discipline 
not only in the Presbyterian church but in all the Christ- 
ian churches, for the offense of dancing, it heing 
no more regarded as an offense but the merest peccadillo 
at best. Afld not only so, but also lowered the standard of 
discipline in all the churches and upon all matters. Form- 
erly the churches were tolerably strict in their discip- 
line, but now the dividing line between the church and 
the world has been almost entirely obliterated, and it has 
become exceedingly rare ever to hear of a case of discip- 
line in any of the churches for any offense. The decision 
of the case has been most disastrous in its results and far 
reaching in its consequences. 

3rd. Now as to the merits of the case and the prin- 
ciples involved. In order to understand this we must 
bear in mind the following things: 

1st. The Definition of an Offense. An OiTense, ac- 
cording to the Book of Church Order, " is anything in the 
principles or practice of a church member which is con- 
trary to the Word of God. The Confession of Faith, and 
the Larger and Shorter Catechisms of the Westminster 
Assembly, together with the Formularies of 'Government, 
Discipline and Worship, are accepted by the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States as standard expositions of 
the teaching of Scripture in relation to both faith and 
practice. Nothing, therefore, ought to be considered by 
any court as an offense or admitted as a matter of accusa- 
tion, which cannot be proved to be such from Scripture as 
interpreted in these standards." (Ch. Ill Par. 153.) 

2nd. The Powers of the Assembly. In addition to its 
general supervisory power, among other things, it is 
asserted that it is its province, "to decide in all controver- 
sies respecting doctrine and discipline; to give its advice 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 205 

and instruction, in conformity with the constitution, in all 
cases submitted to it." Not that it has power to make law, 
or to set up a new standard, but to interpret the standards 
already set up, in all cases submitted to it for its decision. 
Being the Court of last resort, its instructions and direc- 
tions are to be regarded as supreme, its interpretations of 
the standards to be received as authoritative and binding. 

3rd. The things mentioned as embraced in the Stand- 
ards. These are, the Confession of Faith, the Larger and 
Shorter Catechisms, together with the Formularies of Gov- 
ernment, Discipline and Worship. Error in any of these 
particulars constitutes an Offense with which the Courts 
are to deal. 

4th. Now for the facts in the case. For some years, 
from 1865 to 1877, at different times and on different oc- 
casions, the Assembly had been formally overtured, once 
by a Theological Professor, once by a prominent pastor, 
and once by a Presbytery, for interpretation and instruc- 
tion as to the teachings of the standards of the church 
on the subject of the dance. Whether the "promiscuous 
dance" as commonly practiced was an offense according 
to the standards, and therefore disciplinable, and whether 
there should be a distinction between the round and 
square dance, and whether in private and public? 

The Assembly replied that no Church Court has a 
right to make any law on the subject, but that each Ses- 
sion has the right to make a deliverance aflarming its sense 
of what is an offense in the meaning of the Book of Dis- 
cipline. That all dances may not come under those term- 
ed lascivious in the answer -to the 139th question in the 
Larger Catechism, yet they all tend to evil, whether 
round or square, in public or private, and should be dis- 
countenanced. That is was their duty to enforce the 
teachings of the standards on this and other fashionable 
amusements, and after admonition, public and private, had 
failed, to proceed to such method of discipline as to sep- 
arate such from the church. This instruction was also re- 
peated a second time. 

With these clear cut interpretations of law by this the 



206 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

supreme Court of the Church, and to which the Constitu- 
tion had given this power, before them, the Session of the 
Central Church proceeded to table charges against Mr. 
Block and suspended him from the church. 

Now in the Judgment rendered by the Synod, they 
declare that the Session of the Central church, when they 
had heard the charge of common fame against the defend- 
ent, ought to have proceeded according to the directions of 
the Assembly in answering the overtures in '65, '69 and 
'77. But had they not done that very thing? This is what 
they thought they were doing. 

The Assembly had adjudged that promiscuous danc- 
ing was an offense under the standards. This was the 
added clause, "and enquire what law had been violat- 
ed?" The Assembly had adjudged that promiscuous danc- 
ing was an offence under the standards. This was the 
thing submitted and passed upon. Herein the standards 
of the church as interpreted by our highest court were dis- 
regarded, and this is the charge against the defendant. This 
was all to be proven; a thing not denied. What then is 
the meaning of this search for violated law, and that in 
obedience to the direction of the Assembly, when the As- 
sembly said nothing about it? To some of the members 
of that Court at least, at that time, the search for that 
violated law, doubtless all seemed right and proper, but to 
observers at this distant day it appears sadly out of join*-. 

This brings us then to the main issue in the argu- 
ment, since in this demanded search for law is clearly 
concealed an implied hint that there was no law on the 
subject, and indeed this was the very point made in the 
argument. The point was pressed by all the leading speak- 
ers upon that side that these decisions of the Assembly 
were mere "Obita dictu," mere "In thesi" deliverances, 
and not law. And yet they were the utterances of a 
Court, the highest court of the church constituted for the 
very purpose of settling all questions of law as well as all 
controversies, when submitted to them and in answer to 
a formal overture that as a court, it would interpret th^e 
standards. In all civil courts all interpretations of the law 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 207 

by the court are authoritive and binding and indeed 
forms part of the law itself. Strange, then, that the same 
principle should not apply to Ecclessiastical Courts as 
well. If the solemn interpretations of law by the Assem- 
bly when formally submitted to it be no more than a mere 
opinion or advice, then wherein does a Presbyterian As« 
sembly differ from a congregational assembly? If it can 
only give advice, of what use is it? According to Pres- 
byterian theory, the Assembly is a court and not an advis- 
ory body, and all its decisions are authoritative and bind- 
ing. When it gives an opinion, merely, then that opinion 
is to be received simply as an opinion and respected as 
such. When it gives a solemn interpretation of law that 
interpretation becomes the law of the church and is to be 
accepted as such. So when it decides a judicial case that 
decision becomes the law in that particular case. If a court 
in one thing, so in all. If a court in the morning, so in 
the evening. If only a court in some things, then where 
will you draw the line? If the interpretation of a court be 
not law, and binding, why should its decision in a judicial 
case be binding? If the ruling of the Assembly be not 
law, but only an expression of opinion, why term it a 
Court? According to our standards, the General Assem- 
bly is a properly appointed Court, and every where so 
termed, and like all other courts, not to make law, but to 
interpret the law, to tell what the law is, and that decision 
is just as binding as when it passes the final sentence. 
The very object of a court is to see that the law is prop- 
erly understood and administered as it is written upon the 
statute book. This is what the Assembly did. It made no 
new law but simply interpreted the law concerning offen- 
ses, as then existing upon the standards. To say on the 
one hand that the Assembly had no right to do this, is to 
deny its existence and authority as a Court. To say, on 
the other hand, that in doing this the Assembly made a 
new law, is simply making an assertion not supported by 
the facts in the case. 

Here then was the circle in which the Synod was mov- 
ing. In their judgment they said that the Session ought to 



208 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

have followed the direction of the different Assemblies in 
the matter, and yet they condemned the Session for doing 
that very thing. They were to follow the directions of the 
different Assemblies of '65, '69 and '77, and point out with 
distinctness the particular law of the church which had 
been violated, and yet when that was done and they had 
pointed to the law of offense as interpreted by the As- 
sembly, they say that those official decisions of this the 
highest court in the church, and set up for that very pur- 
pose, which in the exercise of their ligitimate functions, 
had interpreted the law as submitted to them, that these de- 
cisions of this high court were mere "obita verba" "in thesi 
delivepances," mere opinions and not laws. They were to 
follow the Assemblies and not to follow them. 
The Assembly, when sitting as a jury, was a court, 
but when sitting as an interpreter and expositor 
of law, no court, and its decisions of no more binding au- 
thority than of any body else. It is easy to see how the whole 
outside world regarded the whole trial as the merest 
sham, but an ecclesiastical dodge of the great practical 
issue that was shaking the church from its centre tj its 
circumference. 

There were two other particulars in which the Synod 
said the Session had erred. One was not first having gone 
to the defendent in private, according to the Saviour's 
rule in Matt. 18, 15 (see Ch. IV. Sec. V. Book of Discip- 
line.) But to the Session this did not appear a private but 
a public offense. The offender had been remonstrated 
with; the pastor had been to see him, and had been preach- 
ing upon the subject; the subject had been before the As- 
sembly several times, and discussed in the papers; the 
appellant knew very well that he was disregarding the 
wishes of his pastor and Session and also running against 
the highest judicatory of the church; nor yet was the of- 
fense a private one but committed in public. The Session, 
therefore, felt that enough had already been said; the act 
though committed but once, yet being of so contumaceous 
a character that they felt warranted in taking the step they 
did. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 209 

The second ground of exception, was that there were 
some things in the sentence of the Session, that were not 
in the charges, and even admitting this to be true, it would 
not affect the decision in the least and is therefore un- 
worthy of notice here. 

It was the opinion of a large part of the Synod that 
the Session had acted too hastily in not first having tried 
milder measures, and this w^as the ground of the vote to 
sustain in part. If the Synod had based their judgment 
solely upon that ground, instead in calling in question the 
constitutional authority of the Assembly, the decision 
would have been far more logical and satisfactory. 

We have thus written at large and endeavored fully 
to present the subject in all its phases. And we cannot 
but express regret that the case was never carried to the 
Assembly for final adjudication, for as the matter now 
stands the. Assembly has said one thing and the Synod 
another. In other words, the Synod has given an interpre- 
tation contrary to and in the face of that of the Assembly. 
And thus the matter stands. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



EVOLUTION. 



Scarcely had the cloud passed away ere another of 
still greater magnitude commenced to gather in the dis- 
tant horizon, and one, too, destined soon to sweep over 
the whole land with its damaging results, as it affected 
alike the interests of the whole Church. 

Like a great mountain cast into the sea, it agitated the 
surrounding country, not only Georgia, but the whole 
Southern land and even reaching Northern shores. It was 
acted upon in Presbyteries, Synods, General Assemblies; 
discussed in Church papers and political journals; talked 
of on the streets, as a matter of general comment. It con- 
tinued to agitate the church for four years, from 1884 to 
1888, and like the burning fire in the forest, consuming 
every thing in its course, the greatest injury being to the 
Synod of Georgia, and the Theological Seminary at Co- 
lumbia, S. C, as these were the centres of the hottest 
fires. 

To do justice to such a controversy would require a 
full volume to itself, instead of a single chapter. We shall 
endeavor to be as concise as possible in pointing out th<i 
different acts in this noted controversy. 
ITS BEGINNING. 

In the autumn of 1857 Dr. James A. Lyon, of Colum- 
bus, Mississippi, introduced the following resolutions in the 
Presbytery of Tombeckbee, which were warmly supported 
by Rev. Richard S. Gladney, of Aberdeen, and unanimously 
adopted, viz: 

"Whereas, We live in an age in which the most insid- 
ious attacks are made upon revealed religion through the 
natural sciences; and as it behooves the church, at all 
times to have men capable of defending the faith once db- 
livered to the saints; therefore: 

"Resolved, That this Presbytery recommend the en- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 211 

dowment of a professorship of the natural sciences as con- 
nected with revealed religion in one or more of our theo- 
logical seminaries, and cheerfully recommend our churches 
to contribute their full proportion of funds for said en- 
downment. 

"Resolved, That the same be brought before our Synod 
(of Mississippi) at its next meeting for consideration." 

This was accordingly done. The Synod of Mississippi 
unanimously approved the proceeding of the Presbytery 
and "cordially recommended the same to the consideration 
of the next General Assembly." Thus it appears the idea 
of a professorship of natural sciences originated in the 
Presbytery of Tombeckbee. 

At the meeting of the Synod of Georgia, at Jackson- 
ville, Florida, Dec. 2, 1859, official notice was given through 
the Board of Directors of the Seminary that Judge John 
Perkins, of "The Oaks," near Columbus, Mississippi, a 
member and ruling Elder of the church in that city, had 
donated to the Seminary at Columbia, $50,000, $30,000 of 
which was to be devoted to the establishment of a new 
chair in said institution on the connection of Science with 
Revelation. The residue to be used for the benefit of in- 
digent young men in the Institution, as well as of disabled 
ministers, their widows and children. 

To this sum $10,000 was afterwards added by the 
Donor, making $60,000, in all. 

This was indeed a most magnificent gift, and was thank- 
fully and joyfully received. And the Synod began to take 
steps for the establishment of the new chair, the title of 
which was to be, "The Perkins Professorship of Natural 
Science in connection with Revelation, the design of which 
shall be to evince the harmony of science with the records 
of our faith." 

According to an agreement with the other associated 
Synods, it was the time for the Synod of Georgia to elect 
the Professor and the others to confirm. So the Synod de- 
termined to go into an election and set the hour, but on ac- 
count of the great interests and responsibilities involved, 



212 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

it was thought best to postpone the election till the next 
regular meeting, which was done. 

At the meeting of the Synod next year at Columbus 
(1860), Synod proceeded to elect a professor to fill the 
chair. There were four names put in nomination: Rev. 
James Woodrow, professor in Oglethorpe College; Rev 
James A. Lyon, D. D., pastor at Columbus, Miss.; Rev. Wil- 
liam Flinn, pastor at Milledgeville, and Prof. A. Guyot, of 
Princeton, N. J., which name was afterwards withdrawn. 
Prof. James Woodrow was duly elected, and his election 
being confirmed by the other Synods arrangements were 
made for his inauguration. At the next meeting of the 
Synod, of Georgia, at Marietta, Nov. 22, 1861, Dr. Wood- 
row delivered his inaugural address, in which he outlined 
the methods and subjects of his teaching. 

After pointing out the method by which the design 
of the chair could be met in instances where there was no 
antagonism, he proceeds to show the method where there 
was asserted antagonism, as in the length of the Mosaic 
days, the Scriptures asserting as usually believed ordi- 
nary days, but science indefinite periods; the first begin- 
ning of death; the Scriptures teaching that there was no 
death before the Fall; science on the other hand claiming 
that death of lower animals, at least existed before that 
event; then as to the extent of the flood; the Scriptures 
teaching its universality; science that it was only partial; 
that in cases of this kind, as it was impossible for hira 
to conceive of a proposition being Theologically true but 
scientifically false, the diflaculty would be either with the 
facts of science or the interpretation of Scripture, the 
work of the professor would be to acquaint himself with 
the facts of the one and also to see that the interpreta- 
tion of the Scriptures be correct and thus remove the 
seeming antagonism, but that in either and every case, the 
authority of the Scriptures was never to be called in ques- 
tion, its authority being supreme. 

In that inaugural there was no mention made of Evo- 
lution, as that subject was yet hardly before the public. 
It was not till after this that the views of Darwin and Hux- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 213 

l€y became generally known. After the publication of their 
"Works, and their views were known they were discussed 
in the public Journals. Dr. Woodrow found it necessary 
to discuss them before his classes. It therefore became 
desirable to the members of the Board of Directors of the 
Seminary and also highly proper that they should know 
the views of the Professor of Natural Science on that sub- 
ject and the character of his teaching to his classes. 

Hence we find the following resolutions adopted at 
their meeting in May, 1883. 

"Whereas, "This Seminary is the only one in our 
Southern Church, that has the Chair of Natural Science in 
connection with Revelation; and 

"Whereas, during the senior year, the questions of 
the unity and antiquity of the human race are fully exam- 
ined; and 

"Whereas, Skepticism in the world is using alleged dis- 
coveries in science to impugn the Word of God; 

"Therefore, be it resolved, that this Board request 
Prof. Dr. James Woodrow to give fully his views, as taught 
in this Institution upon Evolution as it respects the world, 
the lower animals and man, in the October number of the 
Southern Presbyterian Review, or as soon thereafter as 
possible." (Min. of Board). 

At the meeting of the Board the next year (1884,) 
May 6th, a communication was received from Dr. Wood- 
row, stating that "it had been impossible for him to pre- 
pare the article requested by the Board for the October 
number of the Southern Presbyterian Review, but that 
he would deliver an address that night before the 
Alumni, in which he would present the views and teach- 
ings asked." The Board regarded the statement as satis- 
factory, and requested the publication of the teachings in 
the aforesaid Review. 

The address was delivered as promised, and afterwards 
published in pamphlet, and also in the Review. 

In that address he said "There would seem to be no 
ground for attributing a different origin to man's body 
from that which would be attributed to animals. If the 



214 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

existing animal species were immediately created, so was 
man; if they were derived from ancestors unlike them- 
selves, so may man have been. The soul of Adam he be- 
lieved to be immediately created. In the case of Eve, 
however, he saw "insurmountable obstacles in the way of 
fully applying the doctrine of descent." 

The Board met again in Sept. 16 of the same year. The 
following communication was received from Dr. Wood- 
row: 

"In the autumn of 1882 your report to the Synod con- 
tained certain expressions touching Evolution which led 
me to regard it as my duty to take the earliest possible 
opportunity to call your attention specially to my in- 
structions on that subject in the class room, although I had 
already frequently done so at the successive examinations. 
Accordingly at your next meting in May, 1883, I laid be- 
fore you a brief statement as to the views held and taught 
by me. Thereupon, after receiving the brief statement 
that Evolution does not contradict the sacred Scriptures, 
you did me the honor to request me to give my views more 
fully on this topic and publish them in the Southern Pres- 
byterian Review, since "scepticism in the world is using 
alleged discoveries in science to impugn the word of God." 
I have acceded to your request, and beg leave now to sub- 
mit to you a copy of the article I have published in accord- 
ance with it." 

After a long and thorough discussion of the matter, 
Rev. A. W. Clisby offered the following paper: 

"Whereas, the Board of Directors of the Seminary, at 
its meeting in May, 1883, requested the Perkins Professor 
of Natural Science in connection with Revelation, to give 
fully his views as taught in the Seminary upon Evolution 
as it respects the world, lower animals and man. In com- 
pliance with this request he delivered an address before 
the Alumni Association, in the presence of the Board in 
May, 1884, and published it in the Southern Presbyterian 
Review of July following: 

"Whereas, Both this action of the Board and said ad 
dress have been made the subject of much discussion in 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 215 

our religious papers, the Board deems it proper to make the 
following statement to the Synods controlling the Semi- 
nary for their information and that of our whole church: 

1. This Board is in fullest sympathy with the godly 
jealousy of the church for the infallible truths of, and 
absolute inerrancy of, the Scriptures of the Old and New 
Testaments as God's word to man, and we rejoice in the 
full confirmation by Dr. Woodrow of our conviction that 
he stands immovably with us with said position. 

2. In making our request upon Dr. Woodrow, the 
Board was not actuated by any suspicion of his soundness 
in the faith, but having heard that to some extent such 
suspicion had arisen in some parts of our church, and 
knowing that scepticism was using some forms of the the- 
ory of Evolution for assailing the Word of God, we judged 
the occasion opportune for securing an exposition of the 
whole subject in its relation to Revelation from one 
thoroughly acquainted both with it and the Scriptures of 
truth which might be greatly useful in imparting needed 
information to the church and allaying groundless alarm 
on account of the boasting of unbelief. 

3. In our use of the words, "as taught in the Semi- 
nary," the Board was fully aware of the difference of 
meaning in the phrase "teaching science" as applied to 
secular institutions of learning on the one hand and Theo- 
logical Seminaries, on the other. We were mindful, that 
in the College, human science is taught for its own 
sake, as truth discovered by man concerning the works of 
God. In this sense it is merely stated or described, in it.3 
alleged facts and principles, for the purpose of inquiring-in- 
to its relations to the Word of God. The college teaches 
it as truth to enlarge knowledge. The Seminary men- 
tions it as current among men, and inquires whether its 
claims are consistent with the teaching of Scripture. If 
contradictory, then the Seminary pronounces it ipso facto 
false, if not contradictory, leaves it to stand or fall on its 
own merits without further concern about it. 

Holding this view and convinced that Dr. Woodrow 
held the same, The Board is gratified to have this convic- 



216 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

tion confirmed, both in liis address and reply to criticisms 
thereon, and to have his explicit assertion that wherever 
Scripture makes definite statements in any branch ot 
Natural Science, or in matters in the alleged range of such 
science, these statements are the standards of appeal and 
the end of Controversy. In connection, therefore, with his 
phrase, "teaching science" we call upon all concerned, 
to note that no theory of Evolution or of any other human 
science is dogmatically taught in the Seminary, but only 
the relation to the Word of God, of what men call science. 
With regard to the mode of creation of Adam, proposed 
by Dr. Woodrow as probably true, since he advances it 
only as an hypothesis tentatively adopted by himself, nor 
contradicted by any express statement of the word of God, 
and does not dogmatically teach, or even hold it, while far 
from yielding our assent to it, the Board sees no reason to 
approve or condemn it officially. 

4. This Board heartily acknowledges the great and 
timely service done by Dr. Woodrow to the church in his 
address in calling attention to the duty and necessity of 
affirming as a matter of faith only what a candid and crit- 
ical study of the Word of God shows him to declare either 
in express terms or by good and necessary consequence. 
Sad and guilty experience in the past aboundantly con- 
firm this admonition, and we cordially congratulate the 
controlling Synods on our possession of one able and will- 
ing to remind us of this duty with courageous fidelity as 
well as ability and wisdom. 

5. This Board accepts with unfeigned confidence Dr. 
Woodrow's full and explicit reaffirmation of his hearty ad- 
herence to the whole Word of God as the only rule of faith 
and practce, and of our standards as setting forth the sys- 
tem of doctrine contained therein; and we bespeak for him 
like confidence from the church. Praying that he may 
long be spared to serve it faithfully as hitherto and now 
especially in instructing its candidates for the ministry. 

6. In conclusion, we congratulate the Synods and the 
church and render thanks to God that the Seminary 
opens with an increase of students over the number in at- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 217 

tendance last year, and the promise of a very notable ad- 
vance in this respect." 

For this paper of Dr. Clisby, Dr. Stacy offered the fol- 
lowing substitute, which was lost by a vote of 8 to 3, as 
follows: 

Ayes — James Stacy, J. B. Mack, Geo. W. Scott. (3) 

Noes— A. W. Clisby, T. H. Law, W. J. McKay, W. A. 
Clark, T. B. Frazer, C. A. Stillman, J. W. Lapsley, A. D. 
Curry. (8) 

"Whereas, in the July number of the Southern Pres- 
byterian Review, Prof. James Woodrow, in giving his 
views as taught in this Institution upon Evolution, "does 
affirm that evolution is God's plan of creation, and that 
the body of Adam was probably evolved from lower ani- 
mals," therefore be it resolved: 

1. That this Board regards the teaching of the un- 
proved hypothesis of 'Evolution as improper, especially as 
it changes the received interpretation of many passages 
of Scripture. 

2. That this Board regards the view that the body of 
Adam was evolved from lower animals, as contrary to our 
standards as understood by those wjio made them, by the 
Presbyterian church, and by our Assembly when it en- 
dorsed them in 1861 in Augusta, Ga. 

3. That this Board enjoins upon Dr. Woodrow not to 
teach these views in this institution," 

Rev. W. J. McKay then offered the following paper 
as a substittue for that of Dr. Clisby, which was adopted 
by the same vote of 8 to 3, names reversed. 

"The Board having carefully considered the address of 
Dr. Woodrow published in pursuance of its request, adopts 
the following minute: 

''Resolved, 1st that the Board does hereby tender to 
Dr. Woodrow its thanks for the ability and faithfulness 
with which he has complied with its request. 

2nd. That in the judgment of this Board "The rela- 
tions subsisting between the teachings of natural science 
and the teachings of Scripture," are plainly, correctly and 
satisfactorily set forth in said address. 



218 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

3rd. That while the Board is not prepared to concur 
in the view expressed by Dr. Woodrow, as to the probable 
method of the creation of Adams' body, yet in the judg 
ment of this Board, there is nothing in the doctrine of Evo- 
lution, as defined and limited by him, which appears in 
consistent with perfect soundness in the faith. 

4th. That the Board takes this occasion to record it*? 
deep and ever growing sense of the wisdom of our Synods 
m the establishment of the "Perkins Professorship of Nat- 
ural Science in connection with Revelation." And of the 
importance of such instruction as is thereby afforded, that 
our ministry may be the better prepared to resist the ob- 
jections of the infidel scientists and defend the Scriptures 
against their insidious charges." 

The following protest was admitted to record: 

"The undersigned respectfully request to enter their 
solemn protest against the action of the Board, in refusing 
to enjoin upon Rev. James Woodrow not to teach that evo- 
lution is God's plan of creation and that the body of 
Adam w-as probably evolved from lower animals, which 
things are affirmed in an address delivered by him, and 
published in accordance with a request made by this 
Board, that he would give fully his views as taught in this 
Institution, upon Evolution. 

We Protest for the following reasons: 

1. Evolution is an unproved hypothesis. 

2. Belief in Evolution changes the interpretation of 
many passages of Scripture from that now received by the 
church. 

3. The view that Adam's body was evolved from low- 
er animals and not formed by a supernatural act of God, 
is dangerous and hurtful. 

4. The theory that the body of Adam was formed by 
the law of evolution, while Eve's was created by a super- 
natural act of God, is contrary to our standards (Conf. 
Faith, Ch. Iv. Sect. 2-17), as those standards have been and 
are interpreted by our church. 

'. The advocacy of views which have received neith- 
er the endorsement of the Board nor of the Synods having 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 219 

control of the Seminary, which have not been established 
by science; which have no authority from the word of God; 
which tend to unsettle the received interpretation of many 
passages of Scripture, and to weaken the confidence of tho 
church in her standards; which have already produced so 
much evil by their agitation; and which will injure th« 
Seminary, and may rend our church; ought not to be al 
lowed. " 

JAMES STACY. 
J. B. MACK. 
GEO. W. SCOTT. 

The four associated Synods, soon to meet, were duly 
informed of the action of the Board. The Synod of South 
Carlina was the first to meet. They m€t at Greenville, 
Oct. 22, 1884. The Committee on the Seminary were di- 
vided bringing in both a majority and a minority report. 
These reports covered very much the same ground as oc- 
cupied by the different members of the Board at their 
meeting, the substance of the majority report being, that 
they saw no necessity for interfering with the action of 
the Board inasmuch as evolution was not taught in the 
Seminary as a science, but simply in an expository man- 
ner. The minority reported, substantially that as the 
theory contradicted the interpretations of the Bible by the 
Presbyterian Church, the action of the Board should be 
reversed, and the further teaching of the theory be pro- 
hibited. After a lengthy discussion, running through sev- 
eral days, both these reports were rejected, by the same 
vote of 52 to 44. 

The following was offered: 

"In as much as Dr. Woodrow maintains that he doea 
not teach the Evolution hypothesis, as set forth by him in 
his address, in the sense of inculcating it, and as he does 
not set it forth as a demonstrated truth. 

"Resolved, By this Synod, that with this limitation, as 
set forth by him, they do tiot see that he transcends the 
duties of his chair." 

The following substitute was then offered and adopted: 

"Resolved, That in the judgment of this Synod the 



220 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

teaching of Evolution in the Theological Seminary, at Co- 
lumbia, except in a purely expository manner, with no in- 
tention of inculcating its truth, is hereby disapproved." 

This resolution was adopted by a vote of 50 to 45, and 
was the final action of the Synod. 

The Synod of Georgia met the following week, 
October 29, at Marietta. In addition to the report of the 
Board, the Synod had before it an overture from the Pres- 
bytery of Atlanta, asking Synod to express its disappro- 
bation of the teaching of Evolution in the Seminary, and 
to "take whatever steps be necessary to prevent it." 

As in the case of the Synod of South Carolina, there 
were two reports, a majority and a minority report. 
MAJORITY REPORT. 
"In reference to the subject of Evolution, brought to 
the attention of the committee in the report of the direc- 
tors of Columbia Theological Seminary, and by the over- 
ture of the Atlanta Presbytery, the majority of the com- 
mittee on Columbia Seminary respectfully recommend for 
the adoption of the Synod the following resolutins: 

1. "The action of the Board of Directors of Columbia 
Theological Seminary, in permitting the teaching of Evolu- 
tion, as contained in Dr. Woodrow's address be disap- 
proved. 

1. "The action of the Board of Directors of Columbia 
should be taught in that Seminary; and hereby, as one of 
the controlling Synods of that Seminary, directs the 
Board to take whatever steps may be necessary to pre- 
vent it. 

G. B. STRICKLER, 
J. L. ROGERS, 
A. G. JOHNSON, 
R. F. TAYLOR, 
P. L. MYNATT, 
K. L. TURK, 
M. A. CANDLER. 
MINORITY REPORT. 
"Resolved, 1. That inasmuch as the hypothesis of ev- 
olution concerning the earth, the lower animals and the 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 221 

body of man, as advanced by the Professor of Natural 
Science in connection with Revelation is a purely scientifir 
and extra Scriptural hypothesis, the church as such is not 
called upon to make any deliverance concerning its truth 
or falsity. 

2. That in view of the deep interest in this matter 
experienced by all, and the fears experienced by some lest 
this doctrine of evolution should become an article of 
church faith, the Synod deems it expedient to say, that the 
church being set for the defence of the Gospel and the 
promulgation of Scriptural doctrines, can never, without 
transcending her proper sphere, incorporate into our Con- 
fession of Faith any of the hypotheses, theories or sys- 
tems of human science. 

3. That while the presentation of the hypothesis of 
evolution in relation to Scripture falls necessarily within 
the scope of the duties pertaining to the Perkins Profes- 
sorship, nevertheless neither this nor any other scientific 
Hypothesis is, or can be taught in our Theological Semi- 
nary as an article of church faith. But we see no objection 
to its being demonstrated, as it has been done by Profes- 
sor Woodrow, that the hypothesis of evolution as defined 
by him is not contradictory of the teachings of the word of 
God. 

4. That in view of the above congiderations, the 
Synod sees no sufficient reason to interfere with the pres- 
ent order of our Theological Seminary, as determined by 
the Board of Directors. 

CLIFFORD ANDERSON, 
T. D. BREWSTER, 

DONALD McQueen, 

A. M. HASSELL." 
The majority report was adopted by a vote of ayes 60, 
noes 21. 

A protest was then offered signed by ten of the mem- 
bers, which wag allowed to go on record. The grounds of 
the protest were threefold. (1) That this action defeats 
the very purpose for which the Perkins chair was estab- 
lished. (2.) That it was in violation of the constitution 



222 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

of the Seminary, inasmuch as Synod undertakes to control 
the action of the Board in matters entrusted to it by the 
Constitution. (3) That it was a virtual condemnation of 
the Perkins Professor without according him a trial by the 
Board, as provided in the Constitution of the Seminary. 

To this reply was made by the Committee in 
which they affirm: (1) That Synod does not pro- 
pose to prevent the teaching of science in Colum- 
bia Seminary, but only the teaching of evolution as con- 
tained in the address of Professor Woodrow. (2) Thai 
the action was not unconstitutional, as the Constitution 
accords the Synod the power of controlling the Seminary 
through the Board. (3) That its action has particular 
reference to the Board of Directors, and that the condem- 
nation of Professor Woodrow was only incidental, which 
is inevitable whenever one's views are condemned. 

The vote on the above is as follows: 

Ayes— Ministers: G. H. Cartledge, A. G. Peden, James 
Stacy, Henry Quigg, J. N. Bradshaw, D. Eraser, J. L. Rog- 
ers, W. T. Hollingsworth, G. B. Strickler, E. H. Barnett, J. 
T. Bruce, J. H. Alexander, Z. B. Graves, J. E. DuBose, John 
Jon€s, W. Adams, N. Keff Smith, T. C. Crawford, J. M. M. 
Caldwell, R. F. Taylor, L. A. Simpson, W. McKay, K. P. 
Julian, J. L. King, J. J. Robinson, G. T. Chandler, J. S 
Hillhouse, C. W. Lane, T. P. Cleveland.— 29. 

Ayes— Elders: S. C. Groves, T. E. Fell, W. L. Peek, 
J. W. Hollingsworth, E. Huie, G. C. Crookshanks, T. L 
Russell, W. M. Lowry, Samuel Pharr, R. A. Saye, J. A. 
Nisbet, J. H. Logan, E. P. Ellis, W. G. Wigley, T. E. Ken- 
drick, Josiah Sibley, H. H. Logan, W. C. Keheley, Edward 
Bailey, J. T. Owen, W. K. Moore, James Pritchard, Frank 
White, M. A. Candler, D. A. Thompson, P. L. Mynatt, J. B. 
Estes, W. C. Sibley, A. W. Blake, A. H Sneed, Ceo. L. Car- 
son.— 31. Total 60. 

Noes— Ministers: J. C. Grow, M. McN. McKay, G. T. 
Goetchius, D. McQueen, A. M. Hassell, J. W. Baker, D. L. 
Buttolph, A. W. Gaston, W. A. Milner, J. B. Hillhouse, R. F. 
Bunting, A. W. Clisby, J. E. Jones, W. E. Boggs.— 14. 

Noes— Elders: R. L. Hunter, J. W. Bones, P. R. Cor- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 223 

telyou, J. F. Brewster, Clifford Anderson, C. N. Alexander, 
J. W. Fleming.— 7. Total 21. 

Rev. Messrs. McKay and Gaston qualified their votes 
with the statement that they were alike opposed to both 
reports. 

The debate occupied most of the time of the Synod. 
Though with much earnestness, the language was cour- 
teous and respectful. Dr. Woodrow opened the discussion 
on Thursday evening, consuming the whole evening and 
concluded on Friday morning, speaking about 7 hours in 
all. He was followed by Dr. Strickler who spoke in de- 
fense of the Majority report. Dr. Boggs continued the de- 
bate, arguing against, followed by Dr. Rogers who spoke 
in favor of said report, followed by Dr. Adams in favor 
of, and Col. Anderson against, and Col. Mynatt in favor of 
the report. Rev. A. W, Clisby then spoke m defense of the 
Board. Dr. Strickler then concluded the discussion, being 
Chairman of the Committee. Dr. Woodrow declined speak- 
ing any further, as the time had been restricted to one 
hour, which he said was too brief for his defense, as he 
felt that he was virtually on trial. 

The debate closed on Saturday night, when the vote 
was taken. Many others of the members went prepared 
to take part in the discussion, but were barred by short- 
ness of time. Indeed if no limit had been set to speeches 
and time it is impossible to tell how many more days would 
have been consumed. 

SYNOD OF ALABAMA. 

The Synod of Alabama was in session at Tuscaloosa at 
the same time with that of Georgia. There was likewise 
division in that body. Two reports were brought in by 
the Committee, signed by four members each, the com- 
mittee being equally divided. The first report simply 
disapproved the teaching of evolution except purely in an 
expository manner. The second both disapproved the 
teaching of evolution, and also instructed the Board to 
take steps to prevent its being taught in the Seminary. 
This latter report, which was substantially the action of 



224 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

the Georgia Synod, was adopted by a vote of ay€s 41, 
noes 19. 

SYNOD OF SOUTH GEORGIA AND FLORIDA. 

The Synod of South Georgia and Florida, the remain- 
ing one of the four controlling Synods, met at Leesbnrg 
a month later, Nov. 27th. There were three reports 
brought in before that Synod. The first, a majority re- 
port, signed by Messrs. J. W. Rogan, Jas. W. Shearer, W. 
H. Crane and Ruling Elder S. Thompson, condemning the 
teaching, and instructing the directors to unite with the 
others in preventing its further being taught. The sec- 
ond, signed by Elders Angus Patterson and E. P. Miller, 
stating that as they could see no conflict with he teach- 
ing of Scripture they could see no reason for any inter- 
ference. The third, was offered by Rev. Gilbert Gordon, 
in which he dissented from the majority report and pro- 
posed to abolish the professorship inasmuch as it proposes 
to shackle and restrain the Professor in the utterance of 
his convictions in a manner and to a degree that would 
render his scientific investigations worthless; and that 
the church must either dictate the findings and utterances 
of science, or abdicate her just authority, so far as that 
chair is concerned and therefore that a complete reorgan- 
ization if not abolition of that Professorship, seems to be 
called for as the only possible solution of the difficulty. 

The majority report was adopted by a vote of ayes, 22; 
noes, 13. 

After the taking of the vote, Dr. W. H. Dodge offered 
a resolution requesting the Board to settle the matter by 
regular judicial action; which was, however, rejected. 

A protest was then entered signed by twelve of the 
members and on the grounds, (1) That the Synod, in de- 
claring that evolution was an unproved hypothesis, was it- 
self passing judgment upon a scientific question. (2) Be- 
cause the action taken was a virtual condemnation of the 
professor without a trial. ' (3) Because it makes the 
opinion of a majority, no matter how small, the rule of 
teaching in the Seminary. 

Dr. Woodrow opened the debate on Friday afternoon 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 225 

and spoke two hours, Rev. J. W. Rogan replying. The 
debate was continued till Saturday afternoon by Revs 
Messrs. Anderson, Curry, Mack, Dodge, Helm, .^hearer 
Kerr, Johnson; and Elders Campbell, Montgomery and Pat- 
terson. The discussion closed with another speech fron: 
Dr. Woodrow of three hours, and a short rejoinder by Rev 
J. W. Rogan, chairman of the Committee; the whole time 
being 12 hours, nine of which was consumed by the evolu- 
tionists; and the remaining three hours by the other side. 
(Christian Observer). 

OTHER SYNODS. 

The agitation was not connned to the controlling 
Snyods, but extended to others that were without. 

The Synod of Mississippi expressed itself as unwilling 
that such an unproved hypothesis should assume to con- 
trol the interpretation of the Word. So the Synods of 
Kentucky, Nashville, Memphis, Arkansas and Texas, all 
condemned the theory and its further promulgation. 

The Synod of Nashville went so far as to say, 
that unless the teaching should be prohibited immediate 
steps would be taken to secure the withdrawal of their 
candidates from the institution. 

MEETING OF THE BOARD. 

Under the circumstances, therefore, it seemed obvi- 
ous that something should be done and at once to prevent 
further hurt to the Seminary, as well as to carry out the 
instructions of the controlling Synods. A call signed by 
Messrs. Stacy and Scott, of the Synod of Georgia, and 
Mack, of Carolina, was sent to the President asking him to 
convene the Board, which he did, on the 10th day of Decem- 
ber, 1884. There were thirtee^n members present, 
five of whom were new. These new members changed the 
complexion of the Board, as they were chosen since the 
agitation, and by Synods which had spoken out against 
this probable theory of Dr. Woodrow. One of these new 
members was Dr. Adams, of Augusta, who had been ap- 
pointed by the Synod of Georgia to fill the place of Rev. 
A. W. Clisby, who had been displaced by the Synod. At 
the meeting of the Synod at Marietta, Dr. Clisby having 



226 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

refused to comply with the instruction of the Synod to 
take steps for the prohibition of the further -"eaching of 
Evolution, and would only promise a respectful considera- 
tion of the action and wishes of Synod, his commission 
was withdrawn, and Dr. Adams substituted in his place. 
When, therefore, Dr. Adams presented his credentials two 
of the members objected to his being seated. Dr. Clisby 
also sent a communication claiming the right to his seat, 
and asserting that the Synod had exercised an unconsti- 
tutional authority in his removal. Dr. Adams was, how- 
ever, seated, and upon his admission a protest was enter- 
ed by Rev. Messrs. Eraser, Law and McKay. 

The Board proceeded to the business before them. The 
following paper was introduced and adopted by a vote of 
8 to 4: 

"Wheras the Synods of Georgia, Alabama, and South 
Georgia and Florida, have disapproved of the views of 
Pr^of. James Woodrow on the subject of Evolution as con- 
tained in the address submitted by him to the Board of 
Directors in response to their request, for him to give fully 
his views as taught in this Institution, and have also in- 
structed the Directors to take steps to prevent the teach- 
of such views in their Seminary; and Whereas, the Synod 
of South Carolina has disapproved of the teaching of evo- 
lution except in a purely expository way, without intention 
of inculcating its truth; and Whereas, he has publicly 
announced, that if he continues to be their Professor, he 
will hereafter teach as probably true, the hypothesis of 
evolution; and Whereas he is thus disqualified from re- 
maining as a Profesior in their Seminary, and thereby ren- 
dered incompetent to discharge duties in which he speaks 
in the name and by the authority of these Synods; there- 
fore be it 

Resolved, That this Board, in obedience to the above 
instructions appoint a committee, consisting of Messrs. 
Stacy, Webb and Sibley, to wait on Dr. Woodrow, and ask 
for his resignation." 

The committee waited upon Dr. Woodrow. The Board 
received the following answer, that afternoon: 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 227 

Gentlemen: I have received by the hand of your com- 
mittee, the preamble and resolution adopted by you, in 
which you ask for my resignation as Professor in the 
Seminary, 

I have no desire to teach in the name and by the au- 
thority of the Synods which control the Seminary, since 
they have expressed disapprobation of my views, yet I am 
constrained respectfully to decline to offer my resignation 
for the reason I would thereby acquiesce in, and so to 
some extent recognize, the justice and righteousness of 
the action of the Synods on which you base your request, 
and which I regard as illegal in form and incorrect in fact. 

The resolutions of three of the Synods to which you re- 
fer, condemn with greater or less clearness, my teachings 
as unscriptural, and contrary to our standards; and this 
condemnation has been expressed without judicial inves- 
tigation, by which alone such matters can be authoritative- 
ly determined. 

I hold, on the other hand, that my teachings, so far as 
they are expositions of the sacred Scriptures, accord per- 
fectly in every particular with the teachings of the Con- 
fession of Faith and Catechisms, and so far as they relate 
to natural science, do not on any point contradict the 
sacred Scriptures as interpreted in our standards. 

In view of these facts, I respectfully ask that you pro- 
ceed to determine the questions as to my alleged incom 
petence, and unfaithfulness in teaching what is contrary 
to the sacred scriptures, as interpreted in our standards, 
by a full trial as is provided in the constitution of the Sem- 
inary, section 2, article 2. Yours very respectfully, 

JAMES WOODROW. 

The following paper was then offered: 

"Inasmuch as the Perkins Professor has already had 
a full hearing in person before three of the Synods, and 
through his friends and advocates before the fourth Synod, 
and inasmuch as these Synods have already condemned 
his views and teachings on the subject of evolution, this 
Board, in deference to the decisions of the said Synods, 
declines to comply with his request. 



228 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

"And inasmuch as in his reply to the committees 
appointed to wait upon him, Dr. Woodrow declares his 
unwillingness to tender his resignation, therefore, 

"Resolved, That he be, and is hereby, removed from 
his Professorship according to the authority given this 
Board. See Constitution, Section II, Articles 11 and 13." 

Pending the discussion of the foregoing, the following 
was adopted: 

"That Dr. Woodrow be invited to appear before the 
Board at 7:30 p. m., if he so deisre, to show cause why 
the pending resolution may not be adopted." 

Dr. Woodrow declined this invitation, whereupon the 
following paper was adopted: 

"Inasmuch as Rev. James Woodrow, Perkins Profes- 
sor, has declined to appear before the Board of Directors, 
to show cause why he should not be removed from his 
Professorship; and inasmuch as he has already had a full 
hearing in person before three of the Synods, and through 
his friends and advocates before the fourth Synod, and 
inasmuch as these Synods have already condemned his 
views and teachings on the subject of evolution; and inas- 
much as in his reply to the committee appointed to wait 
upon him. Dr. Woodrow declares his unwillingness to ten- 
der his resignation, therefore, 

"Resolved, That he be, and hereby is, removed from 
his professorship, according to the authority given to the 
Board. See Constitution, Sec. 2, Art 11 and 13. 

2. "That the Secretary be directed to officially no- 
tify Dr. Woodrow of this action." 

The following resolution was also adopted: 

"Resolved, That in taking this action the Board de- 
sires it to be distinctly understood that in its interpreta- 
tion of the instructions received from the Synods, it does 
not understand that any undue restrictions shall be placed 
upon any professor of our Seminary or limitations put upon 
the discussion of any legitimate doctrine or hypothesis; 
nor does this Board, itself, desire to limit discussion on 
any proper subject; provided always, that the views incul- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 229 

cated shall be in accordance with the standards of our 
church." 

Immediately after the adoption of the resolutions, Dr. 
Law tendered the resignation of Dr. W. E. Boggs, as Pro- 
fessor of Church history, and Rev. W. J. McKay tendered 
that 0(f Dr. C. R. Hemphill, as Professor of Biblical Liter- 
ature, both of which were accepted, the resignations to 
take effect at the close of the session. 

Dr. Woodrow gave due notice, a few days after to the 
President of the Board, of his intention to appeal from the 
decision of the Board to the Associated Snyods, and upon 
the ground that his removal without a trial was con- 
trary to the Constitution. 

At an adjourned meeting of the Presbytery of Augusta, 
of which Dr. Woodrow was a member, the request of Dr. 
Woodrow made at a previous meeting was considered. The 
request was that a judical proceeding should be entered 
against him as he had been accused of heresy and teach- 
ing contrary to the standards of the church. After con- 
sidering the matter, the Presbytery declared that 

1st. We find nothing that warrants a trial for heresy. 

2nd. As no one appears or offers to make out charg- 
es no process can be instituted. Dr. Woodrow gave notice 
that he would complain to the Synod on account of the 
incompleteness and unsatisfactoriness of the decision. 

When, therefore. Dr.. Woodrow appeared before the 
Synod of Georgia, which met at LaGrange, October, 1885, 
he appeared both as complainant and appellant; Complain- 
ant against the Presbytery of Augusta, and appellant from 
the action of the Board. The case also came up in the 
report of the Board. There were two reports before th<» 
Synod, a majority and a minority, the minority disap- 
proving of the action of the Board and the majority ap- 
proving of the action of the Board in the removal of Pro- 
fessor Woodrow. The majority report was adopted by a 
vote of ayes, 45; noes, 23. 

The complaint against the Presbytery of Augusta was 
sustained, "Because the Presbytery, while declining to say 
that ther^ were no grounds for judicial process, refused to 



230 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

prefer charges against the complainant and try him. The 
Synod, therefore, returns the case to the Presbytery and 
directs it to reopen it, . and either to declare that there 
are no grounds for judicial process or if there are such 
grounds to proceed to trial." 

The Synod of South Carolina met in Chester, in October. 
When the report of the Board came up for review there 
were two reports touching the removal of Dr. Woodrow. 
The majority was adopted, in which the Synod disapprov- 
ed the action of the Board in his removal, by a vote ayes, 
79; noes, 62. 

The Synod of Alabama, which met at Huntsville, No- 
vember 4, on the other hand, by a vote of 27 to 15, sua, 
tained the action of the Board. 

The Synod of South Georgia and Florida met at Sa- 
vannah, October 23. By a vote of 15 to 11 they disap- 
proved of the action of the Board in removing Dr. Wood- 
row, for these reasons: 

1. "The Board should have asked him, if he would 
conform his teachings to the expressed wishes of Synod 
before removing him. 

2. "The Board proceeded to execute a judicial sen- 
tence without a judicial trial, as provided for in the Con- 
stitution. Sec. 2. Art. 11. 

Thus there was an equal division in the action of the 
four controlling Synods, two approving and two disap- 
approving the action of the Board in removing Dr. Wood- 
row, the consolidated vote being 129 for and 145 against 
removal. The Board, therefore, had a problem before 
them at their meeting. 

They met in December after the meeting of the Syn- 
ods, and considered the case of the Perkins Professorship. 
Official notice of the action of the Synods having been re- 
ceived, Dr. Law presented the following: 

"Whereas, the action of the Board taken December 
4th, 1884, removing Prof. James Woodrow, D. D., from his 
professorship in the Seminary, being duly reported to the 
controlling Synods, was not "approved by a majority of the 
Synods" which, according to the constitution. Sec. ii, Art, 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 231 

11, is necessary to make such action complete; therefore, 
"Resolved, 1. That the Board recognizes the said Prof. 
James Woodrow as the lawful incumbent of the Perkins 
Professorship. 

2. "That the Treasurer be instructed to pay to the 
said Prof. Woodrow the salary pertaining to the said Per- 
kins Professorship from 1st January last up to the pres- 
ent time. 

3. "That inasmuch as the Synods in their action of 
1884, have instructed the Board to tal^e steps to prevent 
the teaching of the hypothesis of evolution as inculcated 
'in his address laid before the Board in 1884, the Board 
now requests Prof. Woodrow to inform it whether or not 
he can or will conform his instructions on that subject to 
the expressed wishes of the Synods in reference thereto. 

4. "That a committee be appointed to convey a copy 
of these resolutions to Prof. Woodrow and request a reply 
at his earliest convenience." 

For the Third resolution Dr. Stacy offered the follow- 
ing substitute: 

"Whereas, Three of the controlling Synods of the Sem- 
inary have disapproved of the views and teachings of the 
Rev. Dr. James Woodrow on the subject of evolution, and 
have instructed their representatives to take whatever 
steps may be necessary to prevent its teaching in the sem- 
inary; and 

"Whereas, two of the Synods have withdrawn their 
approval of Dr. James Woodrow as a Professor in said 
chair, by approving the action of the Board of Directors 
in removing him from his Professorship, about a year ago, 
under Art 5, Sec. 11, of the constitution of the Seminary, 
which renders his continuance in oflBce unconstitutional; 
therefore : 

"Resolved, That in the judgment of this Board the 
continuation of Rev. Dr. James Woodrow in the Perkins 
Chair is both unconstitutional and in violation of the 
spirit and letter of the terms in the deed of gift of the 
late John Perkins for the founding of said Professorship." 



232 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

The Substitute was rejected aiK* the Faper of Dr. Law 
adopted, by a vote of 7 to 6. 

A committee was therfore appointed to wait upon Dr. 
Woodrow, through whom the Board received the following 
answer: 

"Gentlemen: I have received through your committee, 
Rev. Messrs. Thos. H. Law and W. J. McKay the pre- 
amble and resolutions which you adopted this morning 
respecting my relation to the Theological Seminary, in 
which you recognize me as the "lawful incumbent of the 
Perkins Professorship." 

"In your third resolution, you call my attention to 
the instructions given to the Board by the controlling Syn- 
ods respecting my teaching of the subject of Evolution, 
and you request me to inform you whether or not I will 
conform my instructins to the expressed wishes of the 
Synods. 

"In reply to your question, I would say that I recog- 
nize the right of the Synods, to which the Seminary be- 
longs, to prescribe what subjects shall be there taught and 
what shall not be taught; and therefore as long as I shall 
continue to be a Professor in the Seminary, I will act in 
accordance with the expressed wishes of the Synods by 
omitting Evolution from the subjects taught. 

"If the question were of present prtictical importance, 
I would request the Board to interpret for me the meaning 
of the Synods: Whether it is intended that the subject in 
all its aspects shall be omitted, or that the teaching re- 
specting it shall be only expository, or that it shall be 
omitted only so far as it is supposed to relate to man, etc., 
but inasmuch as no reference to the subject in any of 
its aspects occurs except in the third year of the course ot 
lectures in my department, and inasmuch as this part of 
the course cannot be presented to the students now in the 
Seminary for two years, owing to the interruption of my 
lectures since Dec. 10th, 1884, the question is not now of 
practical importance, and therefore I will not trouble you 
with it at present. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 233 

Dr. Adams offered the following, which was rejected 
by a vote of 7 to 6. 

"Resolved, that in view of R€V. Dr. Woodrow's pro- 
nounced position upon the subject of Evolution in his pub- 
lished address, editorials, and speeches he is disqualified 
for the occupany of any chair in this institution. 

"Therefore, this Board is unwilling for him to con- 
tinue in his Professorship, and respectfully requests his 
resignation at onc€." 

Rev. W. H. ©odge offered the following resolution. 

"Resolved, That in order to quiet the agitation exist- 
ing in the church, by reason of the discussion of the sub- 
ject of Evolution, and to secure the best possible results 
in behalf of the Seminary, the Board of Directors of the 
Seminary most respectfully requests Dr. Woodrow to 
tender his resignation as Perkins Professor of Science in 
Connection with Revelation." 

Dr. Stacy offered the following as a substitute: 

"Wheras, Dr. Woodrow in his answer h&s given no 
assurance that he will conform his instructions on the sub- 
ject of Evolution to the interpretation of his theory by the 
Synods; and 

"Whereas, His further continuance in the Perkins 
chair would be hurtful to the interest of the Seminary and 
the entire church, we again request his immediate resigna- 
tion." 

The substitute was rejected and Mr. Dodge's paper 
adopted by a vote of 8 to 5. 

A committee was appointed to convey this paper to 
Dr. Woodrow. Said Committee returned with the answer, 
that Dr. Woodrow "did not see his way clear to give an 
answer at present." 

Whereupon, Rev. F. B. Webb presented the following: 

"Whereas, this Board, deeming it highly injurious 
to continue Dr. Woodrow in his Professorship, requested 
his resignation, 'and he having declined to answer at once; 
therefore be it 

"Resolved, that for the same reasons for which his 



234 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

resignation was requested, the Board hereby declare the 
chair of the Perkins Professor vacant." 

The resolution was rejected by a vote of 7 to 6. 

Mr. W. C. Sibley moved that, "Inasmuch as judicial pro- 
ceedings against Dr. Woodrow are pending in the Pres- 
bytery of Augusta that he be suspended from his profes- 
sorship until the case be decided." 

The motion was lost by a vote of 7 to 5. 

Dr. Adams offered the following protest which was 
submitted to record: 

"The undersigned respectfully requests permission to 
place on record their solemn protest against the action of 
the majority of the Board in refusing to declare the chair 
of the Perkins Professorship vacant, inasmuch as the con- 
tinuation of the Rev. Dr. Woodrow in that chair portends 
to this Seminary serious and alarming consequences, 
and inasmuch as we have done all we could to secure the 
will of the Synods which elected us as Directors of this 
Institution, we declare that the responsibility rests upon 
the Brethren with whom we differ." 

Signed: Adams, Stacy, McKee, Webb, Scott, Sibley. 

The following answer was also admitted to the record: 

"We recommend the following reply to said protest: 

"The Board of Directors have power to remove from 
ofRce any Professor for two causes only, viz., unfaithful- 
ness in his trust or incompetency to the discharge of his 
duties. In the absence of any charges or Specifications 
bringing the Perkins Professor under either of these dis- 
abilities, the Board has no power to remove him, directly 
or indirectly, by declaring a chair vacant, (Con. Sec. II 
Art. 11). In the course of discussion before the Board 
01 the matters relating to the Perkins Professorship, it was 
several times suggested that such charges in a definite 
form were necessary, before a Professor could be removed. 
In the absence of such charges a Professor can- 
not be removed without repeating the action taken by the 
Board in December, 1884, which failed to receive the ap- 
proval of a majority of the Synods. 

"Under these circumstances. Dr. Woodrow having 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 235 

prDmised to obey the instructions of the Synods, given in 
1884, the majority of the Board could not see that any 
course was left to them other than the one adopted. 

"There might be difference of opinion as to the con- 
sequences of their act, but for these consequences they do 
not regard themselves responsible, having discharged their 
duty with the best lights before them." 

The Board met May 12, 1886. 

Dr. Stacy presented the following resolution: 

"Whereas, the Board at its last meeting requested 
Professor Woodrow for his resignation as Perkins Profes- 
sor; and Whereas the only reply received was that he 
does not see his way clear to answer at present. 

"Resolved, That we now repeat the same request and 
ask for an immediate reply; and that a committee be ap- 
pointed to wait upon and communicate to him this ac- 
tion." 

This resolution was adopted by a vote of 7 to 6. 

The committee was appointed, and waited upon Dr. 
Woodrow and brought the following answer: 

Gentlemen: On the 11th December last, I received by 
the hands of your Committee, consisting of the Rev. 
Messrs. Dodge and McKay, a copy of a resolution in which 
you request me to tender my resignation as Perkins Pro- 
fessor. To that request I replied, through your commit- 
tee, that I did not see my way clear, to give an answer at 
once. I intended to send you a formal written answer dur- 
ing your present Meeting. 

"I have now received through another committee, con- 
sisting of the Rev. Dr. Stacy, the Rev. M. Webb, and Mr. 
McKee, a reiteration of the same request. 

"I beg leave to say in reply that I have carefully con- 
sidered the matter, and that it would give me pleasure to 
comply with your wishes were it in my power; but I re- 
gard it as impossible for me to do so honorably under 
existing circumstances. Therefore, I respectfully decline 
at present offering my resignation." Yours, etc. 

Dr. Stacy then offered the following Resolution: 

"Resolved, That in consequence of the serioi*s compli- 



236 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

cations in which this institution is involved, we hereby de 
Clare this Seminary closed until the controllia? Synods 
shall order its reopening." 

This resolution was lost by vote of 7 to 6. 

The Board met Sept. 15, 1886. 

The following communication was received froir Dr. 
Woodrow: 

"Gentlemen: You are doubtless aware that the Gen- 
eral Assembly, which met at Augusta last May, adopted 
the following resolution: 

"Resolved, That the General Assembly is convinced 
that Rev. James Woodrow, D. D., one of the Professors 
in the Columbia Theological Seminary, holds views re- 
pugnant to the Word of God and to our Confession of 
Faith, therefore this Assembly does hereby, in accordance 
with its action yesterday, in regard to the oversight of 
Theological Seminaries earnestly recommend to the 
Synods of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and of South 
Georgia and Florida, which direct and control the said 
Seminary, to dismiss the Rev. James Woodrow, D. D., as 
Professor in the s'aid Seminary and to appoint another in 
his place. 

"You are also aware that I was charged by the Rev. 
Dr. Wm. Adams with 'teaching and promulgating opinions 
and doctrines in conflict with the sacred Scriptures as in- 
terpreted in the Confession of Faith and the Larger and 
Shorter Catechisms of the Westminster Assembly, that 
last month I was tried on this charge by the Presbytery 
of Augusta and declared by it 'not guilty;' and further, 
that Dr. Adams has complained to the Synod of Georgia 
with reference to this verdict. 

"In view of these facts, I am reluctant to teach in the 
Seminary while the pending questions are unsettled. 

"I therefore respectfully request that you consent to 
my abstaining from teaching, for the present, I during such 
time relinquishing my salary." Yours, etc. 

This request was granted. 

Mr. McKay offered the following which was adopted: 

"Resolved, That in view of the present incomplete 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 237 

equipment of the Institution, the Board does hereby recom- 
mend that the controlling Synods authorize the Board to 
defer the resumption of the exercises of the Seminary until 
the third Monday in September, 1887." 

The following protest was admitted to record: 
"The undersigned respectfully put on record their 
solemn protest against the following action of a majority 
of the Board, viz: 

First. In granting the request contained in the letter 
of the Rev. James Woodrow to be relieved for the present 
from his official duties. Such action involving his reten- 
tion in this Institution as a Professor, and thereby com- 
promising both the Board and the church. Inasmuch as it 
is the expressed wish of the church that his connection 
with the Seminary be severed. 

Second. We protest against the action of the majority 
of the Board in the election of Professors to the vacant 
chairs. Inasmuch as the difficulties by which it has been 
embarrassed and brought to its present unhappy condi- 
tion must be adjusted by the Synods controlling the Sem- 
inary and not until such adjustment be made can we ex- 
pect any person qualified for those duties to accept the po- 
sition. Such action, therefore, is premature and likely to 
debar, rather than to secure, men fully qualified for the 
work. 

Signed: Adams, Scott, McKee, Webb, Sibley, Stacy." 
By this time the whole church was considerably stir- 
red up over the condition of things at Columbia. The re- 
ligious journals were loaded with articles on the subject, 
many of which showed feeling, and even bitterness . in 
many instances. The secular papers, too, were taking part 
in the discussion. It had become perfectly obvious that 
something must be done to prevent further disgrace to the 
cause of religion and the church. Matters had gone so far 
that charges had been brought against one of the leading 
journals of the church and its editors even accused of du- 
plicity and falsehood and the case tried before one of the 
Presbyteries. Furthermore, "A Declaration and Testi- 
mony" had been published, signed by 104 ministers and 



238 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

elders, which even threatened division. Hardly a Church 
court in the Church but had taken action of some 
kind, some Synods criticising the action of the Assembly; 
the Northern Assembly had expressed itself; two of the 
Professors of the Seminary had resigned their places in the 
Seminary, and the resignation of another (Dr. Girardeau), 
was then before the Board for their action; and the 
Board awaiting the action of the Synod to close the Sem- 
inary. 

This was the state of affairs when the Synods held 
their meetings in the Fall (1886.) 

Dr. Girardeau in Synod of South Carolina offered a res- 
olution to the effect that it would be to the interest of the 
Seminary for Dr. Woodrow to resign, and that he be re- 
quested to tender his resignation to the Board. Adopted 
by a vote of 71 to 42. Dr. Woodrow, not being at the 
meeting, he was communicated with by telegraph. His 
answer was: "Under existing circumstances, I decline to 
accede to Synod's wish." 

Dr. Girardeau then offered the resolution, That as Dr. 
Woodrow had declined to accede to the wishes of the 
Synod, that the Board be directed to remove him from of- 
fice and declare the Professorship vacant. Adopted, ayes, 
78; noes, 42. A resolution was also adopted setting forth 
the fact that this action was entirely independent of the 
recommendation of the General Assembly on this subject. 

The Synods of Georgia and Alabama met a few weeks 
later, at the same time (Nov. 10th) the one at Sparta, and 
the other at Talladega. The action taken was the same as 
that of the Synod of Carolina, viz: That the Board be 
instructed to request the resignation of Dr. Woodrow. 
Should he refuse, then they should proceed to remove 
him from office and declare the Professorship vacant. The 
vote in the former stood ayes, 32; in the latter the state- 
ment is "almost unanimous." 

The Synod of South Georgia and Florida, met at Mont- 
icello, Nov. 24. There were two reports, the majority 
agreed with the aforesaid Synods in directing the Board 
to remove Dr. Woodrow, if he refuses to resign; the minor- 



• THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 239 

ity that they proceed to try him. The majority report was 
adopted by a vote of 25 to 16, 

In view, therefore, of the action of the controlling 
Synods, and in obedience to their instruction, the Board 
met Dec. 8th, 1886. 

The following resolution was adopted by a unanimous 
vote: 

"Whereas, The four Synods controlling this Seminary 
have instructed this Board to request the Rev. James 
Woodrow, D. D., for his resignation as Professor of Natural 
Science in Connection with Revelation. 

"Resolved, That a committee consisting of Rev. J. W. 
Rogan and Rev. W. T. Thompson, D. D., be appointed to 
w^ait on Dr. Woodrow and make the said request and the 
said committee present Dr. Woodrow with a copy of this 
resolution." 

The Committee waited upon Dr. Woodrow and re- 
turned with the following answer: 

"Gentlemen: In reply to the request which you have 
just handed me for my resignation as Professor of Natural 
Science in Connection with Revelation, I beg leave to say, 
that I respectfully decline acceding to it." 

Yours respectfully. JAMES WOODROW. 

Perkins Professor of Natural Science in Connection 
with Revelation." 

The following Resolution was, therefore, unanimously 
adopted: 

"The committee appointed to present the request of 
this Board to Dr. James Woodrow for his resignation as 
Professor of Natural Science in Connection with Revela- 
tion, having presented his reply declining to accede to the 
request, therefore, it is 

Resolved, That in accordance with the instructions re- 
ceived from the four controlling Synods of the Theological 
Seminary, he be and hereby is, removed from the chair of 
Natural Science in connection with Revelation, and that 
the Secretary be directed to communicate this action to 
Dr. Woodrow." 

The history of this case is not yet fully stated. It is 



240 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

necessary for us to retrace our steps a little and in a 
measure go over the same ground in part, in order for the 
reader fully to comprehend the situation. 

At the regular meeting of the Presbytery of Augusta, 
at Union Point, April 1885, Dr. Woodrow made the state- 
ment that he had been accused for several months in the 
public journals of teaching what was contrary to the 
Scriptures, and asked that the Presbytery, of which he was 
a member, would subject him to a regular trial. The mat- 
ter was put in the hands of a committee and the case to 
be tried at an adjourned meeting. 

The Presbytery met at Augusta. The committee 
brought in a unanimous report, which after discussion was 
adopted, and is as follows: 

"First. We find nothing that warrants a trial for 
heresy. 

"Second. As no one appears or offers to make out 
charges, no process can be instituted." Signed, Henry 
Newton, O. T. Goetchius, J. W. Wallace, W. M. Adams. 

Dr. Woodrow gave notice that he would complain to 
the Synod of Georgia on the ground of the incompleteness 
of this action. The Presbytery released him from the 
charge of heresy, but not of the charge of teaching con- 
trary to the Scripture. 

The Synod of Georgia, as already stated, met at La- 
Grange. The complaint of Dr. Woodrow was sustained 
and the case returned to the Presbytery with instruction 
•'to reopen it and either to say that there was no grounds 
for judicial process, or if there are such grounds, to pro- 
ceed to trial." 

The Presbytery met at Waynesboro in April, 1886, The 
complaint, together with the action of Synod, was placed 
in the hands of a committee consisting of Rev. Messrs. Dr. 
Adams, Henry Newton, and Elders F. White, J. G. Tolleson 
and C. H. Smith. They brought in a report signed by only 
three of them, the others refusing to sign, viz., Messrs. 
Adams, Tolleson and Smith, reporting "that they find there 
is strong presumption of the truth of the charge that Dr. 
Woodrow holds and teaches doctrines with regard to the 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 241 

origin of the body of Adam which are contrary to the 
teachings of the Scriptures on this subject, as interpreted 
by the standards of the church and so recommend that 
the Presbytery Institute process against him for these er- 
rors." 

After discussion, Rev. D. McQueen offered a substitute 
which was adopted by a vote of 8 to 7, and is as follows: 

"The Synod of Georgia having remanded the complaint 
of Rev. Dr. Woodrow back to this body for a new hearing, 

"Resolved, 1. Thiat inasmuch as Dr. Woodrow de- 
clares himself a firm believer in the inspiration of the 
Scriptures and cardinal doctrines of the Presbyterian 
church; and inasmuch as we by our former action exon- 
erated him of the charge of heresy, that we do now, while 
not endorsing the hypothesis of Evolution as advanced by 
him, reiterate our declaration exonerating him of said 
charge. 

"That inasmuch as we vindicate him from the charge 
of heresy, and heresy being the point at issue, we find no 
ground for judicial process." 

Dr. Adams then gave notice that he would prefer 
charges against Dr. Woodrow, on his own responsibility. 
This was accordingly done, and the Presbytery met at 
Bethany church, Aug. 16, for the purpose of issuing the 
case. Dr. Adams then appeared as prosecutor. There were 
two counts in his bill of indictment: First, "That he was 
pro^yagating opinions and doctrines in conflict with the 
sacred Scriptures, as interpreted in the Confession of 
Faith, and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms of 
the Westminster Assembly," Second, that in his teach- 
ing concerning the origin of Adam's body, "He was promul- 
gating opinions which are of a dangerous tendency, and 
which are calculated to unsettle the mind of the church 
respecting the accuracy and authority of the Holy Scrip- 
tures as an infallible rule of faith." 

After discussion the vote was taken and Dr. Woodrow 
exonerated on both counts, and declared "not guilty;" on 
the first by a vote of 14 to 9; on the second by a vote of 
17 to 6. Dr. Adams gave notice that he would carry his 



242 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

case to the Synod of Georgia. 

The Synod of Georgia met at Sparta, Nov. 10th, 1886, 
at which time the Complaint of Dr. Adams against the 
Presbytery of Augusta was fully tried, with the following 
results: To sustain, 49; not to sustain, 15; to sustain in 
part; 2. 

In the record of the case, the Synod declared that 
"the complaint be sustained, for the reason that the finding 
and judgm-ent of the Presbytery are contrary to the evi- 
dence and the law, in that the evidence before the Pres- 
bytery showed that the belief of the said defendent Rev. 
James Woodrow, D. D., as to the origin of the body of 
Adam, was contrary to the Word of God as interpreted in 
the Standards of the church; and it is therefore ordered 
that the said verdict and judgment of the Presbytery is 
hereby reversed." 

Dr. Woodrow not being satisfied with this decision, 
gave notice that he would complain to the General As- 
sembly. 

The Assembly met in St. Louis in May, 1887. Dr. Wood- 
row being physically unable to attend requested the As- 
sembly to postpone his case to the next Assembly. The 
request was granted and the case postponed. 

The Assembly met at Baltimore May, 1888. The com- 
plaint of Dr. Woodrow was heard, and not sustained; with 
the following vote: 

Not to sustain, 109; to sustain, 34; to sustain in part, 
2. 

In their judgment, the Assembly declared: 

"It is the judgment of this General Assembly that 
Adam's body was directly fashioned, by Almighty God of 
the dust of the ground, without any natural animal parent- 
age of any kind. The wisdom of God prompted him to re- 
veal the fact, while the inscrutable mode of his action 
therein he has not revealed. 

"Therefore, the Church does not propose to teach, 
handle or conclude any 'question of science which belongs 
to God's kingdom of nature. She must by her divine consti- 
tution see that these questions are not thrust upon her. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 243 

to break the silence of Scripure, and supplement it with 
any scientific hypothesis concerning the mode of God's be- 
ing or acts in creation, which are inscrutable to us. It is 
therefore ordered, that this complaint in this case be not 
sustained, and the judgment of the Synod of Georgia be, 
and the same is hereby in all things affirmed." 

Rev. T. C. Whaling presented the following protest 
signed by himself and seventeen others, which was admit- 
ted to record: 

1. "The second specification in the indictment against 
the Rev. James Woodrow, D. D., is expressly excluded by 
the constitution of the church inasmuch as "nothing ought 
to be considered by any court as an offense, or admitted as a 
matter of accusation, which cannot be proved to be such 
from Scripture as interpreted in these standards." 

2. "In the view of your protestants, the Holy Bible 
does not reveal the form of the matter out of which, or the 
mode by which God created the body of Adam, and 
therefore the hypothesis of evolution as believed by Rev. 
James Woodrow, D. D., cannot be regarded as in conflict 
with the teachings of the sacred Scriptures. 

3. "The Westminster standards simply reproduce, 
without interpretation, the statements of the Scriptures in 
reference to the creation of Adam's body; and as the 
views of the complainants are not in conflict with the 
statements of the Scriptures so neither can they be with 
the teachings of the standards." 

4. "The action of the Assembly in refusing to sustain 
this complaint is equivalent to pronouncing as certainly 
false the theory of Evolution as applied by Dr. Woodrow 
to Adam's body, which is a purely scientific question, en- 
tirely foreign to the legitimate sphere of ecclesiastical ac- 
tion. Your Protestants, therefore, are unwilling that thir 
General Assembly should express any opinion whatever re 
specting the hypothesis of evolution, or any other scien- 
tific question." 

This was the third time this subject was up before the 
Assembly; First before the Assembly at Augusta, in 1886, 
brought up by overture, asking a deliverance on the sub- 



244 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

ject; and also by the report on Theological Seminaries. In 
the first, Dr. Woodrow's theory was condemned; in the 
second, the Assembly earnestly recommended the con- 
rrolling Synods to take the necessary steps to have him re- 
moved and some one else put in his place. 

The second time at St. Louis, in 1887, by overtures 
from the Presbyteries of Harmony and South Carolina, 
asking for a deliverance on the authority of the Assembly 
over the Seminaries; and from the latter asking a further 
deliverance on the mode of creation; in both of which the 
Assembly declined saying any thing further. 

The third and last time was in the meeting above men- 
tioned at Baltimore in 1888, when the Assembly, in decid- 
ing the case substantially repeated what had been said 
at Augusta in 1886, condemning Dr. Woodrow's theory of 
Evolution and the mode of the creation of the body of 
Adam. 

Thus with this final action of the Assembly, and the re- 
moval of Dr. Woodrow from his Professorship in the Sem- 
inary, after four years of constant agitation, the subject 
began gradually to disappear from the public eye. 

There is still another little episode, connected with 
this subject which is necessary to mention in order to com- 
plete the history of this unfortunate movement. After the 
removal of Dr. Woodrow in December 1886, he became con- 
nected with the South Carolina College as one of its Pro- 
fessors. Some of the students of the Seminary being his 
warm friends and admirers, matriculated as attendants 
upon his lectures; among whom were Mr. W. W. Elwang 
under the care of the Presbytery of New Orleans, and W. 
C. Foster under the care of South Carolina Presbytery, 
and this without the knowledge of the Faculty. Undet 
the advice and counsel of Rev. Mr. Blackburn, then tutor in 
the Seminary, and without the knowledge of the Profes 
sors, these young brethren ceased attending those lectures. 
Mr. Foster soon left the institution. In the meanwhile Mr 
Elwang had written to Rev. J. W. Flinn, Chairman of tha 
Committee of Education, of New Orleans Presbytery, for 
instruction. Mr. Flinn replied, that he should consult his 




FIRST PRESYTERIAN CHURCH, AUGUSTA, GA. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 245 

wishes in the matter, and to attend said lectures if he so 
desired. The faculty had before this notified Mr. Elwang 
of their intention to refer the matter to the New Orleans 
Presbytery. Mr. Elwang wishing to have the matter set* 
tied as a test question, submitted it to the Faculty for their 
decision. They gave it as their judgment, that in view of 
the decision of the four controlling Synods they could not 
do otherwise than refuse permission to the students of th3 
Seminary to attend upon the lectures of Dr. Woodrrow. 
Mr. Elwang soon left the Institution, and thus the little 
cloud, which for a time seemed to threaten a little fric- 
tion, soon blew over. In reviewing their action, the Boar(? 
approved what the Faculty had done. 



We have given in the above the main facts in the 
Evolution controversy, and in so doing have entered largely 
into details, that the reader may be in a condition to judge 
for himself of its true character. Without desiring in the 
least to interfere with his right to form his own conclus- 
ions, we offer a few remarks upon the general subject. 

1. As to the propriety of the Chair Itself. Though 
voting to receive the money the writer is candid to say 
that he never has been able to see the necessity or advis- 
ability of this new addition to the seminary curriculum. It 
has always seemed to him an incongruous, as well as dang- 
erous thing, for the church to appoint a man to teach in 
her name and by her authority, something outside th» 
Scriptures, concerning which she knows nothing, and foi 
which she has no standard; the only limitations to the 
teaching being the individual notions and conclusions of 
the man himself; thus placing herself entirely at his 
mercy, without any protection or safeguard against any 
vagary in which he might indulge; and in case of conflict 
between himself and the church, which might occur at any 
time to put him in position to plead his superior knowledge 
as an expert, thus placing her at an awkward and humiliat- 
ing disadvantage. 

But a still greater incongruity appears in the proposed 
end for which the appointment was made. The idea of en- 



246 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN aEORGIA 

trusting the defense of God's truth .to any one man, no mat- 
ter who he is, or what his talents or qualifications may be, 
ff not so serious a matter, would he farcical in the ex- 
treme. It finds its parallel in the story of the two irate 
neighbors living on opposite sides of Stone Mountain, 
each with pole in hand, pushing with all his might, the one 
seeking to roll the towering mountain over upon his neigh- 
bor, and the other, putting forth all his strength to pre- 
vent it. God's truth is immovable, being "Forever settled 
in the heavens." God's truth is indestructible, and needs 
not the feeble efforts of puny man for its defense any 
more than the keeping of the sun, moon and stars in their 
orbits. The Ark is the Lord's and has no need of Uzzah's 
unhallowed touch to prevent its fall. He has made us His 
witnesses or ambassadors simply and not his counsellors 
or co-defenders of his truth. "Ye are my witnesses." In- 
stead of one man, he has made all His people His witness- 
es. If a wicked and gainsaying world refuse to receive 
the truth, that is a matter entirely between them and the 
king. The responsibility is with them and not with the 
ambassador. And after all, the best and only effective sys- 
tem of Christian apologetics, and the only one God has 
appointed, is the consistent life of his people. It is by their 
godly living that they are "To put to silence the igno- 
rance of foolish men." We need this tar more tnan the 
study of science, or the appointment of a professor's chair, 
for the speedy and successful triumph of the gospel. 

We cannot, therefore, but express the coinviction that 
in the appointment of a Chair of Natural Science, the 
church simply went out of her commission, assuming a 
prerogative and role which were not hers. And as "The 
curse causeless sh'all not come," the divine displeasure 
soon became apparent in the sudden sweeping away of the 
larger portion of the endowment and the after visitation 
of the bitter strife and angry debate which followed, the 
effects of which are still felt and especially seen in the 
hurt inflicted upon the unfortunate Seminary, from which 
it seems difl[icult, if not almost impossible to rally. 

2. As to the removal of the Professor. This, and not 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 247 

simply the question of Evolution, was the storm center of 
the whole controversy. No one defended the doctrine of 
Evolution, and certainly not as interpreted by Dr. Wood- 
row. We tind no minister, Presbytery, Synod, or Assembly 
endorsing his peculiar tenets on that subject. The chief, 
and we might add, the only objection raised was, that the 
Professor was removed without a trial, as was charged, 
and which thing was felt and declared by his friends to 
be an act of great injustice to him. 

We cannot but express surprise at this statement, 
when the records so abundantly show that he was tried, 
and fully tried, both as to his doctrine and as to himself; 
arst, his doctrine, by the Synod of 'Georgia at Marietta in 
1884, and also by the other Synods in their meetings so 
soon after, when days were consumed in canvassing the 
whole subject; and second, himself tried first before his 
Presbytery at Augusta in 1885, and at Bethany in August 
1886, and by the Synod of Georgia at LaGrange in 1885, and 
again at Sparta in 1886, and by the General Assembly at 
Baltimore in 1888. His case was before the associated 
Synods and the General Assembly and the entire church 
for four consecutive years (1884-1888) considered and acted 
on in the church courts, discussed in the public prints, and 
tried at the bar of public opinion; with unlimited time 
allowed him at the church courts in which to defend him- 
self, with the Southern Presbyterian, his own paper, at his 
command, and which, too, he wielded wiih a deft and dili- 
gent hand, and the Southern Presbyterian Review at his 
fullest disposal; in all of which the most ample opportu- 
nities were afforded him for the vindication of himself, and 
presentation of his views. Instead of a deficiency, if any- 
thing, there was too much trial, at least, so thought some 
of his friends. For when he asked his Presbytery 
(Augusta) to enter judicial process against him they 
refused to do it, even after the Synod had returned the 
case to them with instruction to reopen it and either enter 
process or assert his entire innocence; they refusing upon 
the ground that they had already considered the case and 
acquitted him of all charge of heresy. 



248 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

It should also be borne in mind that Dr. Woodrow was 
not removed until all the Synods had spoKen again and 
again, and had all acted and in concert with the General 
Assembly, had given instruction to the Board to remove 
him in case he should refuse to tender his resignation. It 
is true the records show that he Was removed by the 
Board in the fall of 1884, But that was not a removal 
proper, but only a suspension. In the records of the Board 
the word "removed" was unfortunately used instead of 
"suspended," for this was all the Board could do and all 
that was rea'lly done. The Board under the constitution as 
it then existed, had no right to remove permanently. They 
could only suspend temporarily till the Synods could act. 
As the Synods did not approve what the Board h'ad done 
its action went for naught, and left the Professor the law- 
ful incumbent of the ehair, which the Board afterwards 
unanimously declared. The Board cannot, therefore, be 
chargeable with his removal before the Synods had con- 
sidered the case or that he was removed without a trial. 
He was not actually removed till after the action of all 
the Synods. The only error of the Board was the incor- 
rect use of the word "removed" in their records. 

But the thing chiefly complained of by Dr. Woodrow 
and his friends, was the absence of a special and formal 
trial to test his orthodoxy and suitableness for the profes- 
sorship. But a moment's thought will show that this was 
neither possible nor necessary. 

This trial could not be by the Board. The Board had 
no right to try him for anything, and certainly not for his 
orthodoxy. That Was the province solely of his Presby- 
tery. No provision was made for the organizing of the 
Board into a court and sitting in judgment upon a man's the- 
olgy. Dr. Woodrow virtually admitted this when he refused 
to appear before them, when invited, to show reason why 
he should not be removed. He knew full well that they 
had no right to summon him into their presence, which 
they would, had they been a legally organized Court. 

Nor could he be tried in this manner by the Synods, 
especially as there were four of them. We know of no law 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IX GEORGIA 249 

in our Ecclesiastical affairs, whereby four Synods could 
form themselves into a court for the trial of a minister's 
orthodoxy. No provision for any such anomaly as that. The 
Synod of Georgia could sit in judgment upon his orthodoxy 
in an appeal, but what had the Synods of South Carolina, 
Alabama and South Georgia and Florida to do with that 
matter? All that the Synods could do, would be to sit in 
judgment upon his fitness simply as a professor, and to say 
whether in their judgment, he was a suitable man to fill the 
position or not, and which they could without any formal 
trial, and in his absence as well as in his presence, they 
having the undoubted and absolute right to say whether a 
man shall teach in their institution and the right to dis- 
miss for any reason, if displeased, without giving any rea- 
son, than simply to say, you do not suit us. 

Dr. Woodrow seems to have lost sight of the fact that 
his election was not for life irrespective of any and all 
considerations outside of his orthodoxy. In all covenants 
or contracts, in which no time is specified, it is understood 
that the continuance is at the will of the parties. Either 
may withdraw at any time if they see fit to do so, as in 
the appointment of judges of the court, the selection of 
teachers in schools and colleges, and the installation of 
pastors in churches. No court, institution of learning or 
church would do -such a foolish thing as to bind itself to 
any incumbent for life. And the Seminary could be no ex- 
ception. To deny the right to the Synods to change their 
professors when the interest of the seminary demanded it, 
would be to rob them of all controlling authority and make 
the will of the Prfessor supreme in the matter. It was un- 
fortunate that this underlying error was not more distinct- 
ly emphasized in the debate. 

We have a parallel in the case of Dr. Plumer, when tho 
Assembly in 1880 approved of his removal by the Board, 
on account of his age, and that too, without any other cere- 
mony or formal trial than a simple resolution. And strange 
enough, too, that some who were so hearty in the removal 
of Dr. Plumer were so bitterly opposed to the removal of 
Dr. Woodrow, though the cases were analogous. Dr. Plumer 



250 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

denied the charge of incompetency and plead the contin- 
uance of the contract. Tlie Assembly, then, was shut up 
to one of two things: Either to resolve itself into a court 
to establish his superannuation, or else continue him as 
professor, to the gre'at detriment of the institution. To 
do the former, would be to make this high court guilty of 
a most shameful and unheard of thing, a thing without 
law or precedent; to do the latter would be to surrender 
all control of its own property, and prove itself recreant 
to its trust. 

The same principle applies to the case before us. Dr. 
Woodrow denied the charge of disqualification, and plead 
the continuance of the contract. Nothing was left the 
Synods to do, but either to assert their authority and vacate 
the chair, or else surrender the institution to the professor 
and his friends. 

We repeat, that the only trial outside of the Presby- 
tery, known in the annals of Ecclesiastical law whether by 
the Board or the Synods, to which the professor was sub- 
ject, would be for them simply to say whether or not in 
their judgment he was suitable and acceptable, and that 
too without form or ceremony. And in this sense he was 
fully tried both by the Board and the four controlling 
Synods. 

Even if it were possible for the Synods to organize 
themselves into a court and give him a formal trial, of 
what use would it be? For it must be remembered that 
the only thing for which Dr. Woodrow was to be tried was 
his Evolution theory. That was the only ground of ob- 
jection to him and the only reason for his removal. If an 
Evolutionist, he was not wanted. That was the whole of it. 
The question then comes up, what was the use of any trial, 
formal or otherwise, when he admitted the fact, and his 
address was open to every one? Why try a culprit after he 
confesses guilt? Wherein the necessity of any sort of trial 
to prove what he never denied? 

But the greatest error of the Professor, and that, too, 
which seemed to have confused the minds of so many, was 
his demand of the Synods that they show wherein his 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 251 

views were contrary to the Scriptures. From tlie persist- 
ent refusal to tender his resignation the Professor seemed 
to think that the Synods were bound to show his error and 
convince him of the unscripturalness of his views, before 
they would have a right to remove him. But that was a 
question with which they were not concerned just then, as 
they had already considered it, and in a condemnatory 
way in their sessions at Marietta. Why consider it again? 
Besides, they did not feel called upon to correct the erro- 
neous views of the Professor. It was enough for them to be 
convinced in their own minds that they were unscriptual 
and should be kept out of the Seminary. 

Here then were the two erroneous positions of the 
Professor. 

1st. That his appointment was for life, irrespective 
of any and all considerations, except the matter of heresy. 

2nd. The necessity of convincing him of the unscrip- 
turalness of his views, before the Synods would have the 
right to remove him. Both of which were contrary to 
reason and the common practice of mankind. 

We cannot conclude this review without noticing tho 
action of the Synod of South Georgia and Florida. In their 
judgment they said: "The Board ought first to have asked 
if he would not cease teaching his peculiar views?" But 
that would have been of no practical value, as it was after- 
wards tried and brought no relief. Obviously that was not 
the way to reach the evil. The mischief was already done. 
His views had been promulgated far and wide. And even 
if he did not say a single word, he could not remain a Pro- 
fessor without teaching them. And indeed those viewg 
would be but the more widely advertised by the very con 
spicuousness of the silence. Then see the awkward and 
anomalous position, of having an institution with a Pro- 
fessor of pronounced views and yet restrained and muz- 
zled from expressing them, and who could not be question- 
ed by the students, and when interrogated, dare not give 
an opinion. Who desires such a professor, or would pat- 
ronize such an institution? 

Any one can «ee at a glance, that any Professor would 



252 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

at once be disqualified by such a muzzling. The Board so 
thought, so th€ Synods; and so the General Assembly, as 
appears from the fact that in the end they all voted for 
his removal, notwithstanding the fact that he had prom- 
ised to drop the subject of Evolution altogether out of the 
course of lectures. 

We think we have said enough to show that there was 
no necessity for any trial either to prove that Dr. Wood- 
row held to the theory of Evolution', or to find out whether he 
would cease from teaching it, and therefore the utter want 
of any foundation for the charge of injustice done him in 
not granting him a formal trial, since he was removed 
simply and solely for the reason that he was an Evolu- 
tionist, which neither himself nor his friends denied. If 
an Evolutionist, the case was fully made out and further 
dalliance utterly useless. 

3. A third thing worthy of notice was the manner of 
conducting the debate and the arguments employed. A 
great deal said was irrelevant, and a great deal mislead- 
ing and fallacious. A great deal was said concerning the 
Scriptures, "as interpreted in our standards," but very lit- 
tle about the Scriptures themselves. The assailants of Dr. 
Woodrow's theory argued that the hypothesis was un- 
proved; but how easy the retort that in that very saying 
the church courts were themselves settling a scientific 
question which they had avowed to be outside their 
sphere, as Dr. Whaling and others charged the Assembly 
with in their protest. So there w^as also an utter lack of a 
clear cut and well defined definition of the term Evolution, 
and which led to so much confusion, and useless discus- 
sion. If simple development, as in the minds of many, 
very few would object to being called evolutionists. But 
it especially seemed unfortunate, and a defect in the argu- 
ment, that the great law of creation as given by Moses, in 
the opening chapter of Genesis, was not distinctly stated 
and insisted upon. That law is very explicitly stated in 
Gen. 1. 24: 

"And God said let the earth bring forth the living 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 253 

creature after his kind, cattle and creeping thing, and 
beast of the earth 'after his kind; and it was so." 

The great Scripture law of descent is generation after 
its kind. Every beast and living thing was to produce only 
after its kind. The fish always to produce the fish; the 
bird nothing but a bird, and the quadruped nothing but ? 
quadruped. Here then was the great law with which Evo- 
lution was in direct conflict. 

God says every thing is to perpetuate itself 
after its kind; not so says evolution, but one kind can and 
will produce another kind; the oyster can become a fish, 
and the fish a bird, and the bird a lion. Here is conflict, 
and not only conflict but direct contradiction. Admit the 
fixedness of species or kind and the question is settled 
Admit the fixedness of species, and the law that kind is to 
produce its kind, and no one objects to the greatest lati- 
tude of mere development resulting in Varieties, c.s is 
known to every agriculturist and pomologist. Dr. Wood- 
row's Evolution was not simply development, but transpo- 
sition of kind, from one species to another, from the pro- 
toplasm to the mollusk, from the mollusk to the radiate, 
frm the radiate to the articulate, and from the articulate 
to the mammalia. This point, however, he very adroitly 
covered up. On speaking of it, it was always, "as explain- 
ed in his address," and in the address, it was simply 
"descent with modification," and never the distinct enun- 
ciation of the transmutation from one species or 
kind to another. In speaking of Adam's body as 
probably of brutal descent, he completely ignored 
the previous Evolution of that body. He stated the case 
thus: The Scriptures say nothing about the body, wheth- 
er formed from organic or inorganic matter, and in the ab- 
sence of any Scripture on the subject, it was unfair to ac- 
cuse him of teaching contrary to the Scriptures, when he 
said that the body was probably of animal parentage. But 
what did he mean by "Animal Parentage?" He and his 
friends argued the case as though the question was wheth- 
er Cod simply took the body of some animal already in 
existence, and out of it formed the body of Adam, or 



254 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

whether he fashioned that body directly from inorganic dirt? 
But this view was clearly misle'ading, as there was no Evo- 
lution in such a creation as that. The evolution was in the 
previous formation of that animal body — the bringing of it 
up from some lower form of animal life and it was just 
there in the judgment of many that the Professor contra- 
dicted Moses in saying that that body did come up from 
some lower form, when Moses had said so explicitly, that 
the law of animal life was for every thing to perpetuate it- 
self after lbs kind. If he meant simply that God took the 
body of an animal already m existence, then it was simply 
a remodeling with which Evolution had nothing to do, and 
much, if not all discussion on that subject, was "Much 
ado 'about nothing." It seems strange that no mention was 
made of this point in the discussion we have of the sub- 
ject, when it was the very turning point of the whole ar- 
gument. If the debate had been narrowed down to this 
one definite Scriptural view, every thing "after its kind," 
fully three fourths of the discussion would have been ruled 
out as irrelevant and a great deal of rancor and bitterness 
thereby avoided, and with result far more satisfactory. 

In common with the whole church, we rejoice that the 
discussion of this vexed question has long since passed out 
of view. Errors are many times like approaching weaves 
which threaten to engulf every thing before them, but 
pass on to come no more. So this great error, we believe, 
has passed by to return no more forever. And even if it 
should ever lift up its head again, we have no fears what- 
ever of the safety of God's truth, for that truth is eternal 
as the years of the Most High. 



CHAPTER XV. 

THE GREAT COMMISSION. 
HOME MISSIONS. 

From th€ fields of controversy and strife, we turn to 
th-e legitimate home work of the church, as set forth in her 
great commission, "Ge ye into all the world and preach the 
gospel to every creature." For we need hardly say — that 
all this dissension and discord through which she has 
passed form no part of that commission. She is no where 
commanded to engage in controversy and strife. But 
simply to "go and preach." This is to be her sole busi- 
ness. 

And it is worthy of note that the command is to "go," 
not to sit still, but to go and carry the gospel to the peo- 
ple. The terms of her commission require her ever to be 
moving and advancing. She is to go, and as she goes to 
preach; like Jonah entering Ninevah, and crying as he pro- 
ceeds, declaring the doom of the city. Nor yet is she to stop 
till tihe gospel is preached to ever creature. 

Concerning this commission, we have further to say: 

1st. Its first essential feature is that of preaching. 
Nothing is to take the place of this formal proclamation of 
the gospel. Neither leagues, nor associations, sohools of 
instruction, nor any other thing of human device can take 
the place of the living ministry, or be made a substitute 
for the human form or human voice. It is required of 
those who would preach this gospel, that they speak it in 
person. They are to be witnesses, as well as ambassadors 
of the truth. God has ordained, that by "the foolishness of 
preaching" the kingdom of Satan is to be overturned — and 
the world saved. 

2nd. Nor yet is anything to take the place of this 
gospel, the essence of which is faith in the Lord Jesus, as 
set forth in the declaration, "He that believeth, and is bap- 
tized, shall be saved, but he that believeth not, sihall be 



256 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

damned." Man is not to tamper with this message, either 
by adding thereto or taking therefrom. 

That there is much included in this matter of preach- 
ing we readily admit. All religious instruction is preach- 
ing in one sense. The office of the pastor is to teach as well 
as to preach. But all teaching is not preaching. We are 
to teach only what is included in the great commission. 

The only rule to guide us in determining what to 
preach and what to leave out is the model given us in 
the Scriptures, viz., the preaching of the master and the 
Apostles. The nearer we follow those models, the more 
effective our preaching; the farther we depart from them, 
the weaker our testimony, and the fewer souls led to 
Christ. 

3rd. The Church, in her marching, is not to neglect 
her home work. There is a work behind as well as before; 
a work at home, as well as abroad. She is not to send all 
her forces to the front, nor yet to keep them all at home, 
but to divide the same between her missionary or evange- 
listic fields and her pastoral work at home. Like a wise 
general she is to hold on to and fortify her conquests, and 
make the same the base of future operations. 

And herein we see what we conceive to be the mistake 
of our Methodist brethren on the one hand, and our own 
on the other. They set out with the idea of having noth- 
ing but traveling evangelists. The Presbyterians, on the 
other hand, though they have ample provision in their sys- 
tem for evangelistic work, have been emphasizing the pas- 
torate. Both these methods are extremes; both unscript- 
ural. The divine appointment covers the middle ground: 
"Some evangelists, some pastors and teachers," the 
evangelist to do the outside work, and the pastor the work 
at home. They are both beginning to see their error, and 
endeavoring to correct the same, and in doing this are get- 
ting nearer the scripture standard in this, that the Metho- 
dists are lengthening their pastorate, and the Presbyter- 
ians are increasing the number of their evangelists. When 
this is fully accomplished they will then be standing side 
by side upon the true scripture ground. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 257 

4. There is to be no distinction or limitation as to the 
field. The distinction between Home and Foreign Mis- 
sions, is absolutely without any foundation in the scrip- 
tures; nor yet in reason, for when the whole world is 
evangelized, then there will be no foreign field. In scrip- 
ture parlance, the "field is the world," not the part at home 
any more than the part abroad; nor one place to the ex- 
clusion of any other. Beginning at Jerusalem, but not to 
stop there, but to go to Samaria, and the uttermost part 
of the earth. Nor yet waiting for the conversion of every- 
body, but continue moving from house to house, from place 
to place, from nation to nation, till the very last man of 
every tribe and nation has heard the glorious tidings of 
salvation. 

How apparent then the error of those who say that 
they believe in home, but not foreign missions. Those who 
thus believe take their own reason, and not the word of 
God, as their guide. 

5. Here then is the distribution we would make as 
gathered from the word of God. The pastor is to preach 
and teach at home, both offices, preaching and teaching, 
being in one. The evangelist, or home missionary, as he 
is sometimes termed, to look after the new and destitute 
fields; the two here again being both united in one. 

Thus the evangelistic and home mission work are very 
closely allied, the only difference being the additional 
feature of sustentation in connection with the latter. The 
evangelist is more of a traveling minister. The home mis- 
sionary is expected to look after the feeble and newborn 
churches planted by the evangelist. The feeble churches 
must be cared for and nursed or else they will die. No 
Church can expect to enlarge her borders which will adopt 
any other plan. This is the reason as we believe and we 
here repeat it with emphasis, why the Presbyterian church 
has made no more progress. While looking over her home 
interest, the other denominations, with their advance 
guards, were actively engaged in planting churches in other 
and destitute places in the country. 

But we are glad to know that the Presbyterians of 



258 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Georgia are becoming more and more alive to the impor- 
tance of this work. The Presbyteries now all have a stand- 
ing committee on home mission work, whose duty is 
to look after and provide for the wants and necessities of 
every weak and destitute field. This is one of the en- 
couraging signs, and evidence of advance in the church. 
With fidelity on the part of these committees, every field 
in the Synod will thus be supplied. 

We desire just here to speak of a method of evangelis- 
Lic work inaugurated in the Presbytery of Atlanta, and one 
we think a most admirable one, and that is the use of the 
"gospel tent." It has been tried by the Presbytery with 
great success, and resulting in the organization of church- 
es, as at Panthersville, and Bremen, and also used with 
success at other places. We can but express regret that 
a plan so much in harmony with the principles of the great 
commission, and meeting with such success, should be dis- 
continued. 

SYNODICAL EVANGELISM. 

Following the example of the Synod of New York and 
Philadelphia, also the General Assembly after its forma- 
tion, and still later the example of the more recent Synods 
of Virginia and the Carolinas, the Synod of Georgia at 
first adopted it as its policy to send out missionaries or 
evangelists, in different parts of its territory. Hence, in 
1859, we find the Synod appointing as evangelists, Rev. Dr. 
J. C. Stiles, and Rev. W. M. Cunningham, who 
labored through the next year with great accept- 
ance and success. But in 1882 they seemed to have 
changed their policy. In answer to an overture from the 
Presbytery of Athens asking the appointment of one or 
m'ore Synodical evangelists, Synod gave the following 
answer: p. 21. 

"The Form of Government, which distinctly defines 
the sphere of action, and, by express provision, limits the 
jurisdiction of each court, gives to the Presbyteries — to 
Presbyteries alone — the power "to ordain ministers," to 
require them to devote themselves diligently to their sa- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 259 

cred calling, and to censure the delinquent, and "to s€t 
apart evangelists to their proper work." 

The Constitution gives Presbyteries — Presbyteries 
only — power "to form and receive new churches" and "to 
take special oversight of vacant churches." 

But as Synod has the constitutional right "to concert 
measures for promoting the prosperity and enlargement 
of the church within its bounds, it is hereby recommended 
and enjoined that the Presbyteries of this Synod faithfully 
and earnestly so to group and aid their vacant 
churches as to secure to all of them at least occasional 
ministrations." 

Notwithstanding these clearcut statements of the 
principles and interpretaton of the Book, we find the 
Synod five years after repudiating the same and going 
back to the old method of Synodical evangelists. For in 
1887 we find that in answer to an overture from the Pres- 
bytery of Augusta asking the appointment of evangelists, 
the Synod declared that it was its sense "that one or more 
evangelists should be put into the field," and a Committee 
appointed to carry out the scheme. The same action was 
taken for several succeeding years, without any practical 
results till the appointment of Rev. Dr. J. B. Mack in 1890, 
to whom Rev. Messrs. W. M. Doggett and Nathan Bach- 
man were added in 1891, at which time the Synod seemed 
so much enthused upon the subject that the Committee 
recommended the appointment of four more evangelists; 
they also proposed the appointment of a minister as gen- 
eral superintendent, who should give his entire time to the 
work. Said superintendent was not appointed, however. 
The matter was referred to the standing committee, and 
we see nothing more said about it. 

Whatever may be said concerning the logical sound- 
ness of the interpretation of the constitutional principles 
laid down by the Synod in 1882, the results showed the 
wisdom of the appointment. Dr. Mack continued in the 
field some eight years, the other two about two. Never 
was there a greater accession to the number of churches 



260 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

than during those years. Dr. Mack says in his report in 
1898: 

"Since coming to this Synod in the Fall of 1890, it has 
been my privilege to participate in the organization or re- 
organization of forty-four Churches. Of these, two have 
been dissolved; one is in another Synod; and one com- 
posed mainly of Northern emigrants, has preferred to he 
with a Northern church; of the remaining forty (or about 
one fifth of the churches upon the roll of the Synod) thirty- 
two hav€ houses of worship; five are either building, or 
have secured desirable lots, and only thre« as yet have 
taken n'o definite step in securing a house. These results 
show what might have been accomplished if Synod had 
put three or four men in the field and continuously kept 
them there." (Min. p. 42.) 

Whether this be according to our theory of Church 
Government or not it nevertheless seems now to be the 
settled policy not only of the Synod but also of the Gen- 
eral Assembly. At the meeting of the Assembly at 
Greensboro, N. C, May 1908, they created a permanent 
committee on Evangelism, and the Synod, at its meeting 
at Athens, has also endorsed the same by appointing a 
similar committee to act in concert with said committee 
of the Assembly, but, "not to interfere with the committees 
01 the Presbyteries." 

We may here add that the interpretation given by the 
Synod in 1882 may be a correct expose of the principles of 
the bo'ok, but the question may here be raised as to the 
soundness of those principles themselves? For if the 
Synod be but a larger Presbytery, as sometimes stated, 
why may it not also have the same right to appoint evange- 
lists as the Presbyteries? It, therefore, becomes simply 
a question of expediency and not of constitutional law. 



CHAPTER XVI. 



FOREIGN MISSIONS. 

In nothing, perhaps has the Synod made greater prog- 
ress than in her work in foreign fields. At first little or 
nothing was done in that direction, not only because of the 
inaccessibility of those fields, not being open as now, but 
also because the church, at that early period, felt that they 
themselves were in a certain sense, a foreign and needy 
field. But with the opening of the Eastern world by the 
visit of Commodore Perry in 1853, and the expansion and 
development of the church at home, the interest in Mis- 
sions has also been growing, till now the whole church is 
becoming more and m'ore enthused with the importance of 
the work. 

We think we can safely say, that never has the world 
been so stirred on the subject, as at present; never such 
general and wide spread interest, never such zeal, such 
liberality, such success, such loud and continued calls for 
money and men. Witness the numerous Ladies Mission- 
ary Societies, and their unwearied zeal and devotion to 
the cause, and the interest manifested even by the child- 
ren, but especially the recent "Lay Movement," originated 
and supported by the men of the church. Indeed so great 
the interest and marvellous the success, that the idea is 
now taking hold of the minds of the people, at first a mere 
random thought uttered by some one, but now becoming 
a settled conviction, and an article of belief, that the 
evangelization of the world is to be accomplished with this 
generation. 

The increasing zeal of God's people appears from their 
increasing liberality. Formerly the contributions to this 
•cause were sporadic and small, and were the result of 
special appeals, and under the stimulus of a visit of a 
church agent, but now in a regular systematic way with- 
out the need of such agents. The amount contributed by 



262 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

th€ Synod for Foreign Missions during the past year (1911) 
was $37,935, sev€n years ago, $14,855. 

This growing z-eal further shows itself in the increas- 
ing number of those who are contributing to the support of 
Missionaries outside of their regular contributions. It is 
encouraging as well as astonishing to know the number of 
these churches and individuals who have pledged them- 
selves, in whole or in part, for the support of Mission- 
aries. There are at least thirty of these in the Synod, and 
the number is constantly multiplying. 

That the evangelization of the world is moving on 
apace, and that, too, at an increasing rate of speed, must 
be obvious to the most casual observer. The fulfillment of 
prophecy points to a speedy approach of the Millennium 
when the mountain of the Lord's house shall be establish- 
ed on the top of the mountains, and all nations shall flow 
unto it, when the "the little stone cut out of the mountain 
without hands shall become the huge mountain and fill the 
whole earth." 

Whether this evangelization is to be in this generation, 
we will not affirm. All that we can say is, that the accum- 
ulation of prayer is going on at the throne of the heavenly 
grace, the seed being widely sown, the gospel will soon be 
preached to every creature, all then that will be needed 
will be the outpouring of the Spirit, to secure the birth of 
nations In a day. 

Nor yet does the approach of this glorious day necessi- 
tate the conversion of all men. The wheat and tares are 
to grow together till the harvest, when the angel reapers 
are to go forth and gather the wheat into the garner of 
the Lord, but bind the tares in bundles that they may be 
burned. The teaching of Scripture is that there is to be a 
falling away first before the end, and the question comes 
is the church now entering into that period? If the views 
held by many, that the seven Apocalyptic churches are 
seven progressive periods of the church on earth be true, 
then the Lord is yet to spue out of his mouth the church 
of today, not for the want of outward activity, but misin- 
terpreting that activity, in saying, on account of that very 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 263 

activity, that she was rich and had need of nothing, where- 
as, she was spiritually poor and wretched and blind. If 
we interpret prophecy aright, there is yet to be a great 
earthquake, or upheaval such as never before, or the like 
of which will ever again be seen, of which John speaks. 
This is only the sowing time, and this sowing can be done 
by people of the world, as well as the people of God, and 
all this outward activity can easily be mistaken for relig- 
ious zeal. God may allow, for the advancement of his 
truth, all the present methods of man's devising and mul- 
tiplied forms of self imposed "Will worship," but in the 
end judgments are to come, and some great movement or 
revolution will arise in the very heart of the church which 
is to usher in the Millennial reign of righteousness and 
peace. 

FOREIGN MISSIONARIES. 

There have gone out from Synod the following Mission- 
aries: 

IsL. The first were Mr. and Mrs. R. Q. Way, who 
went out from the old Midway Church, Liberty County, 
to Ningpo, China, in 1845, the year in which the Synod 
was organized. Both were natives of said Church and 
County, Mrs. Way being the daughter of the pastor, Rev. 
Robert Quarterman. This was the first missionary move- 
ment in the State, and the second in the south, the first 
being the Rev. Abiel Stevens, of the Baptist Church, of 
Liberty County, and sent out by the Baptist Board at Rich- 
mond, Va., to Burmah, in 18 — 

2nd. The second Missionary was Mr. Jno. Winn Quar- 
terman, and brother of Mrs. Way, and went to Ningpo, 
China, 1846, where he died of smallpox, October 14, 1857, 
the first to fall at his post, and give his body in trust to 
the soil of China. 

3. The next was Rev. William Le Conte, another na- 
tive of Liberty County, who went to Brazil in 1872. 

4. Miss Safford, the daughter of Rev. Henry Safford. 

5. Rev. W. H. Sheppard, colored, a native of Virginia, 
educated at Tuscaloosa, licensed by the Presbytery of 
Tuscaloosa, ordained by Atlanta Presbytery, and in com- 



264 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

pany with the lamented Lapsley, went as a pioneer mis- 
sionary to Africa, and where he labored with such wonder- 
ful success, until recalled a year ago. 

6th. Rev. R. P. Baird, missionary from Cherokee 
Presbytery to Brazil, died on the train at Jesup, Georgia, 
Nov. 9th, 1909. 

7th. The Rev. H. M. Perkins from the Presbytery of 
Savannah. 

In addition to these were Rev. Thomas Clay Winn, 
son of Rev. John Winn, and Miss Harriet Leila Winn, 
daughter of Rev. T. S. Winn, all the descendants from 
Midway Church, though not at the time connected with 
the Synod of Georgia. The latter went to Kanahawa, 
Japan, in 1877 as a missionary of the Northern Church; 
the former to Japan under the care of the Dutch Reform- 
ed Church in 1873. 



CHAPTER XVII. 



WORK AMONG THE COLORED PEOPLE. 

We find nothing specially done for the colored people 
in Georgia till the organization of the Presbytery of Geor- 
gia in 1821 and for the reason, we presume, that there were 
comparatively few slaves in the up-country. As that 
Presbytery embraced all the Seacoast, where the larger 
portion of the colored people dwelt, we naturally expect 
it would take the initiative; and so we find. 

The place where we find the first manifest interest in 
the colored people was in the bounds of the Old Midway 
Church, Liberty County, and even there no special efforts 
were made for a number of years. No provision made for 
them in the first log house, nor even in the second, till 
1770, when it was ordered that a gallery be made commod' 
ious for the white and a shed be added for the colored 
people. During Mr. Holmes' ministry some stimulus 
se^ms to have been given to their 'religious instruction, ae 
a booth or arbor was erected near the Church for them. 
The interest continued during Mr. Gilderslteves niuiistry. 
who frequently held special Sabbath afternoon services fol 
them. 

But the work did not fairly begin till 1831, when Dr. 
C. C. Jones, a native of Liberty County, and a man of 
means, devoted himself to their instruction, and he may 
well be termed the Apostle to the colored people. Being 
a practical man, he soon had them arranged into schools 
with preaching places for their oral instruction, and with 
colored leaders whom he placed over them as "Watchmen." 
These were scattered over different parts of the county. 
He also formed an association among the whites to whom 
he annually made reports. In a few years the whole lower 
belt of the county became fully organized. Quite a num- 
ber of the white people becoming interested likewise tools 
part in the work. Dr. Jones continued his work for thir- 
teen years, and as a result hundreds of the colored 



266 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

were saved, their general condition greatly improved, and 
a general interest awakened throughout the whole coun 
try, principally Georgia, South Carolina and Mississippi 
and not only in one church but all the churches. 

We have no means of determining the number of col- 
ored members before the civil war as they were not kept 
separate. But there must have been a considerable num- 
ber, for white churches all had provision for the negroes to 
worship with them, either in the gallery or in the seats in 
the rear of the building. They had no separate churches 
of their own, but joined with the whites. Since the war 
they have withdrawn and not only have separate organiza- 
tions but also houses of their own, on which account few 
of the Presbyteries have made any special efforts in their 
behalf, nor have those been very successful that have. 

The following is their several actions since the war: 
The Presbytery of Hopewell, in accordance wtih an 
overture from the colored members of the Macon Church 
to be set off into a separate church, met in Macon on May 
10, 1866, and organized said church, and at same time or- 
dained Joseph Williams, David Laney and Joseph Carter, 
all members of said church as ministers of the gospel; 
"Provided, however, that these men shall be regarded as 
ordained ministers in the Presbyterian Church only among 
their own color" (Min. Presbytery,) without telling their 
authority for this restriction, however. David Laney was 
installed Pastor of the Church; Williams and Carter were 
ordained as Evangelists at large among the colored peo- 
ple. 

Rev. Joe Williams removed to Liberty county where 
he succeeded in gathering together and organizing into 
three separate churches, the colored elements remaining 
after the dissolution of the Midway Church, viz., Midway, 
with Ebenezer on the North, Riceboro on the South. These 
churches connected themselves with the Knox Presbytery. 

The Presbytery of Hopewell in 1840 organized the 
African Church of Augusta, which existed for but a short 
time. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 267 

Neither of the Presbyteries of Georgia, Flint River or 
Cherokee ever had a colored church under their care. 

The Presbytery of Macon organized the colored 
church of Hicksville in 1890 and ordained E. D. Covington 
in 1891 and installed him pastor. He was dismissed to 
Central Alabama Presbytery in 1895. 

The Presbytery of Atlanta organized the First Colored 
Church Atlanta in 1867; Mount Sinai Church, 1875; and 
Zion Church Atlanta, 1879; and received Mr. A. A. Jones 
from the Methodist Church and mad« him pastor. The 
church was dissolved in 1894 and Mr. Jones joined Knox 
Presbytery. Atlanta Presbytery also ordained the Rev. J. 
R. Harris in 1887, and dismissed him to Knox Presbytery 
in 1887; also, ordained the Rev. W. H. Sheppard, as Mis- 
sionary to Africa, and whose career is so well known. 

The Athens Presbytery organized the Sardis church in 
1889, Mt. Zion in 1891, Mt. Olivet in 1892, Cedar Grove in 
1893, and ordained E. P. Burns in 1889, T. Thompson in 
1895 and S. J. Morrow in 1897. These churches were all 
dismissed to the Presbytery of Abbeville in 1898. Rev. 
S. J. Morrow was dismissed to Catawba Presbytery in 
1899, and the name of E. P. Burns dropped in 1898. 

The Presbytery of Savannah organized the Savannah 
Colored Church in 1881, and dissolved the same in 1884; 
organized Grant Chapel, and ordained J. D. Taylor and in- 
stalled him pastor in 1892, and dismissed both to the Knox 
Presbytery in 1898. 

Thus from first to last there have been twelve colored 
churches organized and ten colored men ordained within 
the bounds of the Synod, but none today connected with 
the same. 

Making all due allowances for the desire on part of 
the colored people to have an entirely independent organ- 
ization of their own, we cannot be oblivious to the fact 
that the white people were just as anxious to have them 
to themselves, and therefore the policy pursued towards 
them was not of such a character as to draw that people 
any closer to their organization. Indeed, it was difficult 
to determine the precise relation of the colored churches 



268 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

to the Presbyterian Church. They seemed to have been 
considered as an integral portion of the Church but simply 
"in accordance with the scheme of the Assembly to form 
an independent church of their own," but of which scheme 
no one could give an intelligent account. In some in- 
stances they were not even put upon the roll, and if they 
were they were not rgarded as entitled to representation. 
It might well be asked, whether any development, or in- 
crease could grow out of or the blessing of God rest upon 
any such an anomaly? In the absence of the proper 
Episcopal oversight, and left to themselves, we have an- 
other illustration of "the blind leading the blind, with the 
open ditch before them into which to fall." 

As an illustration of this, and also to show the injus- 
tice done them by thus cutting loose from them, to show 
their idea of things and what to expect if left to them- 
selves in their present state of advancement, I quote the 
following sentence from a published account of the open- 
ing sermon of a Colored Singing Convention not many 
miles from where the writer resides: "Rev. Mobley took 
for his text "Behold how good and pleasant it is for breth- 
ren to dwell together in unity." The sermon was tenured 
biblical, explained explicitly, referring to consistary, treat- 
ing on Theology, showing Deontology, giving remonstrance, 
impelling them which was remarkable and incontestible 
and well received by the delegation." Were it not a matter 
of such solemn importance the reader would be tempted to 
indulge in a smile. But the matter is of too serious a na- 
ture for any thing like merriment, but rather of the deep- 
est sympathy and concern.. Instead of awakening 
laughter it should stir up the soul to its deepest depths on 
their behalf. 

To further show the condition of this class of people, 
if left to themselves, and the need of missionary work 
among them, I quote from my work, "The History of Mid- 
way Church," in which an account is given of that most re- 
markable episode among the colored people of that section, 
known as the "Christ Craze," and which in some respects 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 269 

finds its parallel only in the celebrated New England 
Witch Craze in 1692. 

THE CHRIST CRAZE. 
In the early part of 1889, a white man named Dupont 
Bell appeared suddenly in the lower part of the County, 
from whence not definitely known, though from Ohio, it 
was said, slender in form, about thirty-five years of age, of 
rather pleasing appearance, open countenance, with long 
flowing beard, and hair of light sandy color, parted in the 
middle, somewhat curly, and resting upon his shoulders; 
attired in copper colored suit, with a sailor's oilcloth hat 
and colored shoes, and withal remarkably well versed in 
the Scriptures. 

This man knocked at a house occupied by a colored 
man and family at a late hour in the night. Being refused 
admittance on account of the lateness of the hour, the 
family all having retired, he stated that if they knew who 
it was that knocked they would not hesitate to open to 
him. On being asked who he was, he made to them the 
startling announcement that he was the Christ and that if 
they would call their neighbors and friends together he 
would make known to them the object of his mission. 

By the next day a considerable number were gathered 
together, when he proceeded to tell them that he was 
Jesus, who had been crucified and risen from the dead. 
To confirm their credulity, he asked them if they did not 
remember the great earthquake which they had a few 
years before (1886) and if they were not all shaken at that 
time? Said he, "that shaking was produced by my com- 
ing. You have been praying for my coming, I am now 
come, and there is no need to pray anymore; no necessity 
of planting or doing anything more, but to get ready; that 
the world would come to an end in August; and that as 
Moses led the Israelites into the promised land, so in 
about forty days he would lead them to Jerusalem. He 
told them the people would soon rise against him and have 
a Sanhedrim Court, and would cast him out as they did be- 
fore, but it makes no difference if they would only stand 
up to him." 



270 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

This he did from day to day. The congregations con- 
tinued to increase. The colored people flocked from all 
the surrounding country. In a few weeks he had between 
two and three hundred followers. A bush arbor was first 
erected near the junction of the Riceboro and Mcintosh 
roads, under which they met for a while, but afterwards 
they removed to Mr. Walthour's "Homestead place," a few 
miles further back in the country, where they met every 
day under two majestic live oaks, covering at least a quar- 
ter of an acre of ground, where they had a box placed, 
termed "The Ark," and into which the people deposited all 
their money, which they had been told was now useless. 
The people became almost frantic with excitement. The 
nearest surrounding Churches were drawn heavily upon 
and for the time even threatened with extinction, as Bell 
had told them that their pastors were imposing upon them, 
robbing them and preaching for money, for which he gave 
them no authority, as he himself went without money or 
scrip. 

The people became deluded with the belief that Bell 
was the Christ from his singular appearance, his wonder- 
ful knowledge of the Scriptures and also his pretended 
power to work miracles. For on one occasion, while walk- 
ing along the road, said he to a crowd, "Did not Christ, 
when on earth, convert water into wine? Hand me half 
a dollar." He took the money and put it into a tin bucket, 
which one of them had, then shaking the bucket turned it 
upon the ground, when lo, by a dexterous turn, a dollar roll- 
ed out, which was accepted as a genuine miracle by his ad- 
mining followers. 

His power over them was truly marvellous. Indeed he 
seemed to have had perfect control, they holding them- 
selves to do his every bidding. In obedience to his behest, 
they ceased working, neglected their farms, sold their 
goods and lived together upon the proceeds. 

By the middle of August, their proceedings became so 
disorderly and riotous, and the community so demoralized, 
that the sober people, both white and colored, felt that 
something must be done to arrest the evil, as it had become 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 271 

a standing menace to the continuance of good order, for 
they had not only abandoned their homes and farms, but 
many of them had begun to show signs of mental aberra- 
tion. Whereupon a warrant of vagrancy was sworn out 
against said Bell. He was arrested and carried to Flem- 
ington before the Magistrate, Captain W. A. Fleming, for 
commitment trial. He was carried in a buggy guarded 
by officers and armed men, to prevent disturbance. The 
negroes followed their Christ as they termed him, in 
crowds. Instead of trying him at thai time, the Magistrate 
appointed a day for hearing the case at Mcintosh Station. 
As the prisoner was carried back the crowd followed, frant- 
ically shouting, singing and crying, "This is our Jesus who 
was nailed to the tree." Before the day of trial it was 
thought best to change the form of the warrant from vag- 
rancy to that of lunacy, as it was obvious that Bell was 
deranged. A jury was accordingly summoned, and upon 
a formal trial in August, 1889, he was adjudged, "Non 
compos mentis," and a short while afterwards sent to the 
Asylum at Milledgeville, where he still remains confined. 
After Bell's sentence, and before leaving for the Asy- 
lum, he appointed his right hand man and Counsellor, Ed- 
ward James, at that time a Colored Magistrate, as his suc- 
cessor, and left every thing in his hands, with full author- 
ity to carry on the government, till his return, which he 
said, would be in a very short time. Bell had told the peo- 
ple that his spirit would return, and probably in the per- 
son and form of a colored man; and as James claimed to 
have the spirit of Bell, they believed him and were there- 
fore ready to accord him all honor and authority, and 
which he was not slow to receive, and which he resigned 
his magistracy to accept. For a short time James carried 
it with a high hand, and issuing orders which were im- 
plicitly obeyed. In obedience to his orders, the people con- 
tinued to cast their silver into the "Ark," which none of 
them dared touch, as Bell had assured them that the per- 
son touching the same would instantly be smitten of the 
Lord. Upon David James endeavoring to get his brother 
Edward away, the people in their fury fell upon one Sam- 



272 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

uel Carter, who had accompanied him, and beat him quite 
severely. In a general melee that followed, some outside 
parties, more under the influence of cupidity than 
feelings of piety, stole all the money and carried it off. 
Soon after this James was arrested and tried on charge of 
lunacy and adjudged insane and sent to the asylum at 
Millegeville, where he died. 

Under and in connection with his leadership rose one 
Shadrach Walthour, who often hearing Bell speak of Sol- 
omon's greatness, vainly imagined himself to be that per- 
sonage, and therefore styled himself as "King Solomon," 
and by which appellation he was generally recognized. But 
unfortunately for this would-be king, he was soon arrested 
under the charge of disorderly conduct and placed in the 
county jail at Hinesville where, while awaiting his trial, he 
suddenly and rather mysteriously died. The jailor was 
thought to be the cause of his death and was afterwards 
tried under charge of murder, but was acquitted. 

After the arrest of "king Solomon," the government 
and leadership were left in the hands of Ellen Roberts, as 
"Queen Mary," or "Virgin Mary," or "Queen of Sheba," as 
she was variously styled. And under this appellation, and 
under her more gentle sway, the affairs of the Society 
were conducted until the elose. 

Upon the removal of Bell all restraint seemed to be 
removed, and such orgies and abominations practiced as 
hardly to be believed. Eye witnesses say that the picture 
can hardly be overdrawn. Among other things they were 
even charged with laying aside the marital vow under the 
delusive idea of having "Things in common." But we draw 
the vail over this part of the proceedings. 

With Bell, their Christ, and his Deputy James, both in 
the Asylum, with Solomon their King, under arrest, and 
held in "durance vile" for misdemeanor, and with several 
of their prominent leaders hopelessly insane and the strong- 
arm of the law beginning to assert its authority, the de- 
lusion gradually fell out of view. Though for a time, it 
was said, they still had a queen to whom they secretly did 
homage. The Craze, like a passing storm, shook mightily 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 273 

for a while some of the churches of the neighborhood. The 
Congregational, near by, but especially the two Baptist 
churches at Newport, and the Methodist at Mcintosh, were 
for a time considerably brought under the influence of this 
ecclesiastical maelstrom. 

Concerning this delusion we have to say: 

1. That Bell was obviously a crazy man, and therefore 
we are not to be astonished at any of his hallucinations and 
vagaries. 

2. That while this was the case, it nevertheless can- 
/.ot but be a matter of considerable astonishment that he 
obtained a large following, and especially in such a county, 
where so much had been done for the religious instruction 
of the negroes, and it is only on this account that it is 
worthy of notice, especially as it might and has been used 
as an argument against the work of the churches in be- 
half of this race. 

3. Truth and justice to the sainted dead, to Dr. Jones 
and- his coadjutors, who so faithfully labored for their spir- 
itual welfare, demand the statement that very few, if any, 
of the regular descendants of the old Midway people, w^ere 
led off by the delusion, or took any part in those scenes. 
And this was especially true of those who had lived 
around the old church, of which Rev. J. T. H. Waite was 
pastor, and which is now Presbyterian. The same is true 
of the Presbyterian Church, on the other side, at Riceborn, 
of which Rev. B. L. Glenn, colored, was pastor. The drain 
was upon the congregations and churches above enumerac- 
ed. 

From which we see: 

1st. The utter unfairness of declaring that the work 
among the colored people was a failure. 

2nd. The wisdom of Dr. C. C. Jones and others, in 
not encouraging the separate organization of the colored 
people into a separate church of their own. The question 
of a separate and independent church for the colored peo- 
ple, with only colored ministers and without any aid or 
oversight from the white race, under present environments 
at least, may be regarded still an open one. 



274 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

3rd. A third inference is the entire suitableness of 
the Presbyterian form of government for the illiterate and 
uneducated. The church of Mr. Glenn (Presbyterian) was 
not at all disturbed by the commotion, having lost none of 
its members while that of Mr, Waite on the other side, 
lost but a few, and only temporarily. The government of 
a congregation, by an intelligent board of officers, with an 
educated minister, and well taught and trained Elders, is 
rational and effective, as well as in harmony with the gen- 
eral teachings of the Scriptures. To leave the government in 
the hands of an ignorant and untrained populace, is to 
leave it in a state of insecurity, for there is room for con- 
siderable swing in any direction. 

4th. Our final remark is, that the most astonishing 
thing in connection with the whole matter is that the 
scenes of these outrageous proceedings was, as already 
hinted, almost within sight, and under the very shadow of 
a large flourishing institution, erected by Northern Congre- 
gationalists for the colored people. In justice to said 
institution let it be said: 

First. That the teachers were away at the time, hav- 
ing returned to the North, whither they go every summer 
on account of health, during the sickly season. Their 
presence might have done much in way of restraint. 

Second. Whatever might be said of the church and 
congregation, I have no knowledge of the fact that any of 
the pupils of said Institution, ever took any part in those 
proceedings. 

Third. The Institution had hardly been in existence 
long enough to permeate all classes with its refining and 
elevating influences, as to shield a whole district from 
such an inroad. The elevation of a people from a state of 
ignorance and servitude must be necessarily slow. If Bell 
had deferred his visit till now, he might not have been so 
successful in securing followers." Pages 193-199. 

We have reproduced the above, not only on account of 
its extreme marvelousness, but that we might make the 
additional remark that such proceedings could never have 
occurred in the days of slavery, when the two races wor- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 275 

shipped together and furthermore that the only way to 
prevent the recurrence of these and similar scenes is for 
the white race to feel a deeper interest in, and do more for 
the religious uplift and training of the colored people. We 
are glad to be able to state that some of the churches are 
waking up to a sense of responsibility in this matter and 
putting forth special efforts on behalf of the colored people 
and that their efforts are crowned with an encouraging de- 
gree of success. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 



THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

Dr. John S. Wilson in his Necrology, asserts that "To 
Hopewell belongs the honor of taking the initative for the 
establishing of a Theological Seminary in the South." 
This statement needs some qualifications. If the establish- 
ment of an independent Seminary is meant, it is true; but 
not true if the appointment of a Professor of Theology in 
a Literary Institution, for there was such a Professor in 
Hampden Sidney College by the appointment of Hanover 
Presbytery as early as 1812. No matter how we interpret 
the statement, it is true that to the aforesaid Presbytery 
belongs the honor at least of making an early and praise- 
worthy effort in the direction of establishing such a Semi- 
nary, as appears from the following account: 

In 1809, in answer to an overture on the subject from 
the Presbytery of Philadelphia, the General Assembly de- 
termined to establish an Institution for the better training 
of her ministers, and sent down to the Presbyteries an 
Overture to vote upon and decide which of the three pro- 
posed plans should be adopted, viz: (1) Whether they 
should establish "one great School in the centre of the 
bounds of the church;" (2) Or "Two such schools for the 
better accommodation of the Northern and Southern di- 
visions of the Church," (3) "Or such a school in the 
bounds of each Synod." The majority having expressed 
themselves in favor of one school, a committee was ap- 
pointed, of which Dr. Ashbel Green was chairman, to pre- 
pare at once a plan for the Seminary. The Committee re- 
ported at the next meeting, and after due consideration, 
the Assembly finally adopted a Constitution, in 1812, and 
proceeded to elect a Professor of Theology, which resulted 
in the choice of Dr. Archibald Alexander. Dr. Samuel 
Miller was chosen the next year and in 1821, nine years 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 277 

afterwards. Rev. Charles Hodge was chosen assistant Pro- 
fessor. Min. Gen. Ass. 1812, 13, & 21. 

Although the Synod of Virginia acquiesced in the de- 
cision of the majority to have but one Seminary, yet they 
thought it best to have a school of their own, and looking 
to that end they appointed Dr. Moses Hoge, then President 
of Hampden Sidney, as their Professor of Thelogy, who 
thus continued to teach in that Institution, and in that 
capacity till his death in 1820. * Note. 

After unsuccessful efforts to secure a successor to Dr. 
Hoge, the Synod turned the whole matter over to the 
Presbytery, the first movers in the enterprise, and they 
proceeded to lay the foundation of an institution to be en- 
tirely separate from the College, and in 1822 elected Dr. 
John H. Rice, Professor of Theology, who delivered his 
inaugural January 1, 1824. In 1826 the Seminary was 
turned over to the General Assembly for their manage- 
ment and control, but the next year was placed in the 
hands of the United Synods of Virginia and North Caro- 
lina; the Assembly only retaining the general oversight, 
and in commemoration of the united interest and action 
of the two Synods, the name was changed to "Union Semi- 
nary," from that given it by the Assembly, viz., "The 
Theological Seminary of the Presbyterian Church under 
the care of the Presbytery of Hanover." Min. 1826 p. 32. 

The Presbytery of Hopewell, at their meeting at Mad- 
ison, September, 1817, resolved to establish a Seminary 
for the training of her ministers, and appointed a commit- 
tee consisting of Drs. Cummins, Brown and Finley, to con- 
sider the whole subject and report at the next meeting. 



*Note. This seems to have been the common custom 
Ol having a department of Theology in connection with 
Literary Institutions; as was the case in Harvard, Yale, 
Dartmouth, and Princeton. So in the plan first adopted, 
Columbia Seminary was to be a Classical literary as well 
as Theological School. Since then the settled policy is to 
have the Seminary entirely separate and independent. 



278 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

On account of the early death of Dr. Finley, which oc- 
curred soon after, no report was made. 

In 1819 another committee was appointed, consisting of 
Drs. Cummins, Brown and Beman, who brought in a report 
which was considered so far as to choose a location for 
the Seminary. Two places were in nomination — Athens and 
Mt. Zion. Athens was chosen. Another report was after- 
wards brought in but not adopted. After further considera- 
tion, the whole matter was "indefinitely postponed," wheth- 
er on account of the contest over the place, as the Author 
of the Necrology suggests, or because of a more realizing 
sense of the magnitude of the undertaking, we are unable 
to say. 

Thus it appears, that if not the first to establish in 
the South an independent Seminary, Hopewell began at 
quite an early day to move in that direction. This much 
may also be truthfully said, that to it belongs the honor of 
furnishing the first Professor to the Seminary, viz., Dr. 
Goulding. The Seminary, too, was first temporarily locat- 
ed in its bounds, at the home of Dr. Goulding, like the Ark 
of old temporarily in the house of Obededom. To Georgia 
Presbytery also belongs the honor of furnishing one of the 
earlier Professors in the person of Dr. C. C. Jones. 

In April, 1824, the Presbytery of South Carolina, at its 
meeting at Willington, appointed a Committee to draft a 
Constitution for a Theological Seminary. 

Upon the suggestion of the Charleston Union Presby- 
tery, which was invited to take part in its support, it was 
placed under the management of the Synod of South Car- 
olina and Georgia. Under the Constitution adopted by 
the Synod, the chartered name was ' The Literary and 
Theological Seminary of the South." And the site select- 
ed was the District of Pendleton and two and a quarter 
miles from the village of the same name. At the sugges- 
tion of the Board, the charter was so changed in 1827 as 
to make it only a Theological School. In 1829 the loca* 
tion was also changed. Columbia was selected in prefer- 
ence to either Winnsboro or Athens, Georgia, which were 
also put in nomination. These changes gave considerable 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 279 

dissatisfaction to many, who were alike dissatisfied with 
the dropping out the Literary department as well as change 
of location. 

In December, 1828, Dr. Thomas Goulding was chosen 
Professor of Theology with permission to remain for the 
time being in the pastorate of his Church. During the next 
year (1829) he taught at his own home a class of five 
students, their names being H. C. Carter, Isaac Waddel, 
Farwell Jones, James Beatty and Wm. Moultrie Reid, 
Early in January, 1830, Dr. Goulding removed, with his 
five pupils, to Columbia and occupied temporarily the Par- 
sonage of the Presbyterian Church. On March 17th, 1830, 
he delivered his inaugural, and in January, 1831, the exer- 
cises of the Seminary were regularly opened in a building 
which had been prepared for them, and kept up contin- 
uously ever since with exception of the year 1887, when 
closed on account of the Evolution disturbance. 

It might also be interesting to know that, previous to 
the establishment of Columbia Seminary, the churches of 
Georgia contributed liberally to Princton. Hence we find 
that at the second regular meeting of Georgia Presbytery, 
at Midway Church, in 1822, the Presbytery declared that 
they would assume $3,0'00, as their part of Synod's debt 
towards establishing a Professorship in Princeton Semi- 
nary, And of this amount, Mr. Davis reported to Presby- 
tery in April, 1823, that "$2,300 had been paid." Witness, 
too, the scholarships of John Whitehead, of Burke County, 
of $1,000, and also that of John Nephews, of Mcintosh 
County, for a similar amount, and the Augusta Female 
Seminary fund of $2,500. Besides smaller sums were given 
at different times to their agents, among whom were Dr. 
Davis, who was an Agent of the Assembly in 1827. Min. P. 
126. 

In 1857 the associated ownership and management of 
the Seminary was extended to and accepted by the Synod 
of Alabama, and in 1881, the Synod of Florida, so that now 
the Seminary is under the joint control of the four asso- 
ciated Synods of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, and 
Florida. Out of the Thirteen members of the Board of 



280 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

■Directors, the Synod of South Carolina is entitled to six; 
the Synod of Georgia, to four; that of Alabama, to two, 
and that of Florida, to one. 



CHAPTER XIX. 



RELIGIOUS PAPERS. 

As early as 1820, there was a paper published by Rev. 
Benj. Gildersleeve at Mt. Zion, styled "The Missionary," 
which received the endorsement of the Georgia Presbytery 
in its Sessions at Midway in 1822. In 1827 Mr. Gilde:- 
sleeve removed to Charleston and issued the Charleston 
Observer, which was of great service to the church. 

But feeling the need of a religious paper, nearer home, 
as the medium of communication, the Synod, in 1846, at its 
meeting at Milledgeville, considered the propriety of issu- 
ing a paper and also endorsing the Presbyterian Review 
at Columbia. The Committee to whom the matter was re- 
ferred reported, stating the terms upon which such paper 
might be published. A committee was accordingly ap- 
pointed to issue a prospectus, terms etc., showing that the 
paper should be a family paper, price three dollars, that 
its name be "The Presbyterian Luminary;" 2nd, that it be 
published at Milledgeville. They also endorsed the pro- 
posd Presbyterian Review to be publishd at Coilumbia, S. 
C, (Min. P 26.) At the next meeting, in 1847, it was an- 
nounced that a paper called "Southern Presbyterian," with 
Rev. Washington Baird, as editor, had been established. 
SOUTHERN PRESBYTERIAN. 

The Southern Presbyterian was founded near Mil- 
legdeville (at Scottsboro) in 1847, with Rev. W. Baird as 
editor, and removed to Charleston, S. C, in 1853, and 
where, in 1854, Rev. Dr. J. L. Kirkpatrick and Rev. B. E. 
Lanneau became editors. About 1851 the paper was sold 
to Dr. Adger and others and removed to Columbia, with 
Dr. Abner Porter as editor. Shortly before the close of the 
war it was removed to Augusta, At the close of the war 
Dr. Adger and fellow proprietors decided to discontinue its 
publication, deeming it a useless undertaking in the crip- 
pled condition of the country, when Dr. Woodrow, deeming 
it an invaluable aid, purchased it in 1865, becoming sole 



282 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

editor and proprietor and removed it back to Columbia and 
continued to publish it till 1893, and then sold it to Rev. 
W. S. Bean, who removed it to Clinton, S. C, and there 
sold it to Jacobs & Jacobs, who sold it to Rev. Dr. Con- 
verse, in 1903, who removed it to Atlanta. 

In January, 1909, it was consolidated with the 'Central 
Presbyterian, of Richmond, and the "South Western Pres- 
byterian," of New Orleans, with the three associated edi- 
tors, which has added greatly to its strength and efficiency, 
and its name changed to, "The Presbyterian of the South." 
It was later moved to Richmond, where it is still success- 
fully published. 

PASTORS AND PEOPLES JOURNAL. 

In 1857 a Monthly Journal was issued conjointly by 
Rev. Messrs. R. L. Breck, pastor at Macon, and William 
Plinn, pastor at Milledgeville, which received the endorse- 
ment of the Synod at Rome, and which for a time seemed 
to meet with success, but was suspended the next year, on 
account of the removal of Mr. Breck to the Presbytery of 
New Albany. 

WESTMINSTER MAGAZINE. 

This new enterprise was begun in Atlanta in 1911, 
under the direction of Rev. Thornwell Jacobs, and bids fair 
to have a useful and prosperous career. 



CHAPTER XX. 



PRESBYTERIAN HOSPITAL. 

Rev, Dr. Holderby, the pastor of the Moore Memorial 
Church, being a practicing physician before becoming a 
minister, and deeply interested in the "healing art," com- 
menced advocating the establishment of a church hospital 
for the sick, and especially for the poor, and with the re- 
ligious element prominently in the foreground. As the re- 
sult of his advocacy, an institution of this kind was es- 
tablished in the city of Atlanta in 1901 by a few individual 
members of the different Presbyterian churches and out- 
side friends. The next year, the attention of the Synod be- 
ing called to this work, a committee was appointed "to visit 
the institution and annually to bring tidings of the same 
to that Body." The committee having reported favorably 
the next year, the Synod "expressed its gratification at the 
growing efficiency and usefulness of this Institution, and 
commended it to the interest and prayers of our people, ' 
at the same time appointing another committee to visit the 
same during the year and to report. 

In 190'5, the Synod accepted a proposition made to 
them of taking part in the management of the Institution 
which had now been in successful operation for several 
years; and accordingly appointed six Trustees, one from 
each of the Presbyteries, and also appointed a Sunday, 
(second Sunday in February) to be known as "Hospital 
Sunday," in which a collection was to be taken in all the 
churches for this object. 

In 1908, the expenses of the Institution became so great 
on account of the great amount of Charity work, that it be- 
came involved in debt. As the result of a special effort, 
made in behalf of "the Great Hospital," this indebtedness 
has been lifted, a sufficient sum raised additional for the 
erection of a suitable building. A movement is also being 
made with a view of securing a "Maintenance Fund" to 



284 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

cov€r all charity expenses. At the same time, the charter 
has been so changed as to vest the absolute and permanent 
control of the Hospital in the Synod and Presbyteries of 
Georgia. Said institution to be controlled by a Board of 
Trustees, consisting of thirty-six members, together with 
an Advisory Board, consisting of the same number; eigh- 
teen of these Trustees, and the same number in the Ad- 
visory Board, to be appointed by the Presbytery of Atlanta, 
and the remaining eighteen of each to be appointed equally 
by the Synod and the other five Presbyteries of Georgia, 
each being entitled to three and three of the Advisory 
Board. This Advisory Board to consist entirely of minis- 
ters, and whose province it will be to look after the spirit- 
ual interests of the Hospital; the extent of their authority 
extending no further than the giving of Advice. 

This scheme, like many others, looked well on paper, 
but for want of interest or lack of means has never yet 
been carried out. The Hospital, after a few yars of seem- 
ingly successful operation, has been closed, and whether it 
is to be reopened remains to be seen. 



CHAPTER XXI. 



RETROSPECT. 

At this point it might be well to pause for a moment, 
and take a retrospective view of the progress the church 
has made, as well as the peculiar methods of that pro- 
gression. 

1st. And first as to the numerical strength. This we 
can better show in a tabular statement. As the earlier re- 
cords of the church were kept so imperfectly, and so many 
years in which no reports were sent either to the Synod or 
Assembly the early statements are not given as entirely 
accurate, but only approximately so, nevertheless with suf- 
ficient accuracy to show the general progress. 

1797 — 5 Ministers, 15 Churches, 100 Communicants. 

1810 — 5 Ministers, 11 Churches, 218 Communicants. 

1820 — 7 Ministers, 16 Churches, 320 Communicants. 

1830 — 23 Ministers, 51 Churches, 2,263 Communicants. 

1840 — 44 Ministers, 80 Churches, 2,747 Communicants. 

1850 — 61 Ministers, 95 Churches, 4,699 Communicants. 

1860—70 Ministers, 116 Churches, 6,199 Communicants, 

1870 — 65 Ministers, 123 Churches, 6,126 Communicants. 

1880 — 75 Ministers, 152 Churches, 8,605 Communicants, 

1890—69 Ministers, 151 Churches, 10,294 Communi- 
cants. 

1900—110 Ministers, 210 Churches, 15,915 Communi- 
cants. 

1910—124 Ministers, 238 Churches, 20,311 Communi- 
cants. 

From the above it will appear that the church made no 
visible progress during the first decade, and also very little 
during the second. This is generally the case with all new 
enterprises. There is always more or less preparatory 
work to be done. Thus it was with the early establish- 
ment of the province. Seemingly it made no progress dur- 
ing the first two decades. So in missionary work; usually 



286 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

years of toil and self denial elapsed before the first fruit 
appears. 

The above table shows another thing. In the decades 
between '60 and '70, and between '80 and '90, instead of 
progress, the church actually retrograded. When we re- 
member that these were the two decades in which the 
Church encountered war and afterwards worse than war- 
bitter controversy, we can easily see the reason. The Holy 
Spirit is the Dove of peace and will withdraw himself from 
the region of strife and turmoil. In the first decade, there 
was the four years of civil strife followed by the Block 
controversy lasting two years; and in the second, was the 
bitter controversy of Evolution, which more or less agitated 
the entire church. The season of peace and brotherly love 
is the time for progress in spiritual things. 

In comparison with other Denominations, especially 
the Methodists and Baptists, the progress of the Church 
seemed very slow indeed. The first regular Baptist min- 
istr in the state was the Rev. Daniel Marshall, and the 
first Baptist Church, the Kiokee Church, in Columbia Coun- 
ty near Appling, organized by him in 1774. Their first As- 
sociation was that of Georgia, set up in 1784, at Kiokee, at 
Columbia Court House, with five ministers and about as 
many Churches (Sherwood, Page 329). Today they have 
84 Associations, 1,482 Ministers, 2,218 Churches, 237,313 
Members. 

The first Methodist minister of which we have any ac- 
count, was the Rev. Beverly Allen, who came from Vir- 
ginia in 1785, and the first field he occupied by the ap- 
pointment of the Conference was simply "Georgia." (Min- 
Conf. p. 23). Their first Conference was held at the Forks 
of Broad River, April 9, 1788, with six members and four 
probationers in the year. (Asbury Jour, 11, 30). Today 
they have two annual Conferences, 910 Ministers, 1,553 
Churches, and 182,192 Members. 

In striking contrast with this appear the statistics of 
the Presbyterian Church; their first minister, Rev. John 
Newton in 1784; their first church in 1787; they have today 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 287 

(1910) six Presbyteries, 124 Ministers, 238 Churclies and 
20,311 Members. 

The contrast at first may seem discouraging, especially 
as they had such a promising start, being among the first 
in the field; and holding the educational centres. But their 
form of government, their ideals and standards, their 
method and character of work are so unlike, that after all 
the difference might not be so great as at first appears. 
The world may, later on, be better able to judge of the 
relative worth of the different systems. The final fruitage 
will be the best and only true test of superiority. 

Besides it must not be forgotten that each denomina- 
tion, as each individual, has a mission and work of its own, 
neither of which can do that of the other, and therefore 
is not to be judged by the standard or measure of another. 

2nd. The church has likewise made wonderful pro- 
gress in the development of her principles and policy, es- 
pecially in the elevation of the offices of Deacon and Rul- 
ing Elder to their proper place in the scheme of church 
government. It was not until recently that any great im- 
portance seemed to have been attached to either. In the 
earlier records the name of Deacon seldom, if ever, oc- 
curs. It was not until 1784 that the Assembly even order- 
ed the number of deacons and elders to be reported. But 
now a church is hardly considered fully organized without 
the full complement of these officers. 

So also with regard to the correct interpretation of the 
proper functions of these offices. Until recently Elders 
were denied the moderatorship of the ecclesiastical courts. 
But now it is understood that as a ruler in the house of th^ 
Lord, he stands on equal footing with the minister; and 
moreover concerning his duties, that ne has something to 
do more than to distribute the sacramental elements; that 
he is not installed to be honored, but to serve. He is call- 
ed to be a co-pastor with the minister in watching for souls 
and looking after the general interest of the church; while 
to the deacon belongs the management of its temporalities. 
As the result of this fuller development of her principles, 
and clearer definition of the duties required, these duties 



288 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

are more efficiently discharged and members better under- 
stand why they are Presbyterians. 

3rd. In nothing perhaps, is this improvement and de- 
velopment more apparent than in the matter of giving. The 
idea of worshipping God with our substance is more clearly 
seen and reduced to practice. Indeed the whole matter of 
giving is now reduced to a system and becomes an integral 
part of the regular service. At first neither the Assembly 
nor the Presbytery had any system of giving. The contri- 
butions were after a most desultory sort and principally 
through traveling agents or committees appointed for the 
purpose. For a long time the Assembly worked through 
what they called a "Society," and Presbyteries conforming 
their methods to that of the Assembly, also had theirs. 
And what might now seem strange to us, it was Q^ite a 
common practice with them to adjourn the Presbytery that 
they might meet as a "Society" and attend to its business 
At first these societies were independent but afterwards 
there was an advance in the system, and coming somewhat 
nearer to the Presbyterian theory, becoming "Auxilliaries" 
to that of the Assembly. The result was that the sums given 
in this desultory way amounted to little, especially after 
deducting the expense of the agent. 

This matter will the more strikingly appear by com- 
paring the present contributions with those of former 
years. In 1845, when the Synod was organized, there were 
only three outside causes, viz: Foreign Missions, Home 
Missions and Education. The contributions to these three, 
$4,441. As there were only 3,742 members, the amount 
contributed per member, was about $1.25. At the present 
time (1910) there are nine of these causes, and 20,462 
members, the amount contributed, $89,386, about $4.00 per 
member. 

It is here well worthy of special mention that there 
has been marked improvement also in the matter of pas- 
toral support. In 1842 Flint River Presbytery reported to 
the Synod that "three-fourths of their ministers were com- 
pelled to enter the school room for their daily bread." 
(Min. p. 433). But it is quite different of late, there being 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 289 

very few ministers in the schoolroom for that reason. 

4th. There is still another direction, in which the 
church has added largely to her equipments and activities, 
whether wisely or not, the future may determine. In ad- 
dition to her schemes of benevolence, she has organized 
herself into different Orders, Companies, Leagues, and As- 
sociations, and with a classification so minute, and exten- 
sive, as to embrace the entire membership, from the prat- 
tling babe to the old, weary, worn pilgrim. At first under the 
leadership of the old divines, she steadfastly resisted all such 
measures and overtures, as wholly useless, if not entirely 
outside of her commission. But latterly being drawn into 
the current, she has not only fully committed herself to 
the new regime, but made most wonderful strides in this 
newly discovered field of Christian activity. Whether any 
or all of these modern innovations be right and proper, 
whether they will add any thing to her queenly beauty or 
impart greater efficiency to her work, or in the end be set 
aside, as David did the armor of Saul, being found too 
cumbrous, may still be regarded as an open question. 

The general principle of exclusion herein set forth is 
equally applicable to all the other schemes of the church, 
her schools, colleges, hospitals, asylums and all the other 
eleemosynary institutions under her care, whether at 
home or in a foreign land. As these things are not found 
in her commission, they cannot form part of her ligitimate 
work, but properly the work of her individual members. 
The church may and should encourage her members to en- 
gage in these and similar enterprises but not become 
mixed up herself either in their construction or their 
management. The church is yet to dominate the world, 
but not in person, but through her principles and individ- 
ual members. "Holiness to the Lord" is yet to be written 
upon every thing, even the bells of the horses, but she 
is neither to own the bells nor control the horses. She 
may appoint her members as her helpers, give advice and 
counsel, and even of her money, but excluded by her char- 
ter from ownership. Her members may own property but 
not herself. Her members may own and control stores, 



290 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

and do business in the marts of trade, and bestow upon 
her the benefit, but in no case has she the right to own 
and control those stores herself. Her great work is to 
preach the gospel and as "the pillar and ground of the 
truth," to simply bear testimony to the truth, and 
not to build houses — not even to build and own and con- 
trol a hospital, orphanage or an asylum. The healing of 
the sick was given in the same manner and for the same 
reason as casting out devils, speaking in an unknown 
tongue, taking up serpents, drinking deadly poison with- 
out harm or any other miraculous work vouchsafed to 
the early Christians and intended simply as attestations 
of the gospel, and belonging to a miraculous age; the 
spirit alone, and not the power, being transmitted to us. 
Nor yet do we see any reason why any of the above should 
be singled out and emphasized to the exclusion of the 
rest. We are confirmed in these views: 

1st. From the entire silence of the Scriptures, they 
not even giving a hint, concerning these matters at any 
time. 

2nd. From the principle already enunciated, that 
what the church does in its organic capacity, it does in 
the name of the Lord; and he becomes the principal part- 
ner. In every case of failure, therefore, or suit against 
the property, the Lord himself must become a party to the 
transaction, a thought which shocks beyond measure. 

3rd. From the aggressive nature of all innovations, 
as already hinted. If the Church has a commission to 
build hospitals for the sick, why not go further and erect 
asylums for the insane and the blind? For Christ had fully 
as much to do with the demoniac and the blind as the 
"sick of the fever." If authority to own and control a 
hospital, why not likewise to own and control a home for 
the aged and infirm? Why not put temperance societies, 
anti saloon leagues, and every other institution that seeks 
to do good upon its roll and under its care and manage- 
ment? How different the spirit of the commission of the 
Master to his early disciples, to eliminate every thing from 
the business in hand and not even to stop to salute a 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 291 

friend on the way, but to go and preach the gospel, that 
being the main and only business. The truth of the mat- 
ter is, that we can see but one solution of the problem 
now confronting the world, and that is to remand all these 
schemes back to the individual members, the church re- 
taining only the niminating and advisory power, thus re- 
lieving herself of all financial responsibility. 

It would seem that Presbyterians by this time would 
have learned this lesson from their bitter experience in 
the past, in the complete destruction of Oglethorpe and 
her female Colleges, as well as the recent unfortunate fi- 
nancial trouble with her hospital. We are glad to believe 
light is breaking, and the church beginning to see that 
the true and only Scriptural plan is for all these outside 
institutions to be placed in the hands of her individual 
members, as Agnes Scott has so wisely done. Adopt any 
other, and like all errors it will sooner or later lead to dis- 
aster and ruin. 

The objector will doubtless, in reply, point us to the 
other denominational colleges which have not been over- 
taken with similar disaster, but seem to be doing well. 
Our answer is two-fold: 

1st. For purpose of warning, one wreck is quite suf- 
ficient. One wrecked Idaho on the coast of Ireland, gives 
warning enough to every passing vessel. One 'Deluge, one 
Pharaoh, one Ananias, are enough to show the mind and 
purpose of God, concerning the rebellious and perverse. 
His plan is not to visit judgment upon every transgressor, 
but by one clearly marked visitation, to furnish a distinct 
warning to all after comers. Other churches may, there- 
fore well profit iby our example. 

2nd. Our second answer is, wait and see; for the end 
is not yet. In our judgment, the question of denomination- 
al schools, is not yet settled by any means. For after all 
that has been said and done; after all the outlay of men 
and means, as far as we can see, such institutions have 
very little, if any advantage over others in either promot- 
ing .morality or checking the advance of infidelity. For 
they all seem to be heading in the same direction and 



292 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

adopting the same methods and from present indications 
they will in a short time all be conducted under the same 
general management and discipline. We give one in- 
stance, from which to judge the rest. The honor rule is now 
the popular one. Instead of acting as custodians of the 
students committed to their care, and, in the place of 
their p'arents, exercising a kind 'but strict surveillance, the 
student is simply put upon his honor, and allowed to roam 
at will, to lodge w^here he pleases, to come and go when 
and where he chooses, day or night, the only restrictions 
being his remaining in the city, and answering to his name 
at roll call. The extreme peril of such a course must be 
apparent to every one. Place a young boy at any college, 
it matters not whether state or church, away from home 
and home influences, with the temptiations of the city 
around him, with his pocket filled with money, and with 
no other restraint about him but his honor, which he can 
easily put in his pocket, or lock up in his trunk for safe 
keeping, and he is at once started on the high road to 
ruin; and unless arrested by the grace of God, and re- 
strained by early counsels will surely make his landing 
place there. We feel satisfied that the location and home 
training have far more to do with the question of morality 
than the character of the institution. And therefore the 
city is not the proper place for the location of a school, es- 
pecially under modern discipline, to which our youthful 
sons are to be sent for training. 

And as for the matter of infidelity, the question is 
well worthy of the most serious consideration, whether 
after all, the Church College constitutes such a bulwark of 
defense, and indeed whether there would be any more 
skepticism in the land if there were not a denominational 
College in existence. Home training, and not church col- 
leges, is the only true safe guard against the further pro- 
gress of this insidious foe. The family fireside with its 
religious instructons is the Lord's only appointed school, 
and a school, too, simple, economical, and efficient, though 
the world seems fast losing sight of the fact. "And ye 
shall teach them" (his laws) to your children, speaking of 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 293 

them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou 
walkest by the way, when thou liest down, and when thou 
risest up. And thou shalt write them upon the doorposts 
of thine house, and upon thy gates." Deut. IX. 19, 20. 
There are far greater dangers imperiling the life of the 
church th'an those springing from the infidelity of State 
colleges; and the neglect of the home is one of them 
Would that the church would place the emphasis where 
God has put it, upon the home and home training, and not 
upon her grand institutions of learning upon which she 
has lavished, and, in so many instances, squandered so 
much of her Lord's money. 

We will only further add, that if all the Christian 
people would rally around our State colleges and Univer- 
sities they could easily control their management and 
teachings. Whereas, the present plan of withdrawing and 
leaving in the hands of ungodly, and in many instances, 
profane men, these institutions with all their vast re- 
sources, the great centres of influence, and wielding such 
tremendous power in moulding the character of such a 
large percentage of the leading men of the country, is the 
best way we know of to intensify the skeptical tenden- 
cies of the age. 



CHAPTER XXII. 



SKETCHES AND INCIDENTS. 

It would indeed be a pleasing task to give some 
sketches of all of our deceased ministers, but time and 
space forbid. Nor yet do we think this necessary as it 
has been the growing custom of Synods and Presbyteries 
to furnish full and accurate memorials of their deceased 
members, and which may be found in their printed records. 
All that I can hope to do will be to emphasize the life work 
of a few of our departed brethren, who have been most 
prominent in the work of the church, and who, under the 
blessing of God, have seemingly been able to do more for 
the advancement of His cause than others, giving my own 
impression of their worth, and also, as far as possible, to 
record any additional incidents that might have come 
under my own observation and not heretofore published. 
REV. JOHN S. WILSON, D. D. 

The first name I mention is that of Dr. John S. Wilson, 
who was born in Pendleton District (now Anderson), S. C, 
Jan. 4th, 1796, the same year that the first Presbytery was 
formed; licensed by the Presbytery of South Carolina, 
Oct. 29, 1819; ordained by the same at Nazareth, April 
5th, 1821; taught and acted as missionary for four years 
at Ruckersville, Elbert County, Ga., when he removed in 
1824 to Gwinnett County, where he lived for twenty years, 
filling the position of teacher and preacher. For fifteen 
years he had charge of the old school at Lawrenceville, 
which, for a part of the time, was one of the Manual 
Labor schools established by Presbyterians in the state. 
In 1844 he removed to Decatur, one of the churches he had 
organized, and where he continued as pastor and teacher 
for fifteen years, till 1859, when he became pastor of the 
First Church of Atlanta, another Church organized by him, 
and where he remained until his death, which occurred 
March 27, 1873, after a ministry of over 53 years. 

Very few men did more for the cause of education and 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 295 

religion and the Presbyterian Church. Being one of the 
pioneer ministers, his labors were abundant, combining the 
toils of the school room with that of the pulpit. He taught 
school nearly all of his ministerial life, never being re- 
leased frm the school room till his removal to Atlanta in 
1859. When at Lawrenceville, he had a large attendance 
of young men, many of whom entered the ministery as well 
as prominent positions in the country and church. But he 
was especially useful in the ministry as a missionary, he 
having organized as many as fourteen churches. Being 
physically robust, he was enabled to endure hardness as a 
good soldier of Jesus Christ. And indeed it is difficult for 
any one living in this age of railroads and facilties for easy 
travelling to form anything like a correct idea of the sac- 
rifices connected with his laborious services. In his semi- 
centennial review of his ministry he thus wrtes: "The 
week was spent in the school room, and the Sabbath in 
the church. On Saturday I went to my field of labor, 
preaching at night, then preaching twice on Sabbath, 
and returned home on Sabbath night and was in 
the school room on Monday morning, often rid- 
ing thirty miles amid darkness and solitude, having 
deep streams and dangerous bridges to cross, with no 
light save the lightning's glare, and no sound save the 
thunder's roar and the growl of the wolf." Min. Synod. 1873 
p. 14. 

As a Presbyter, he was faithful to attend the meet- 
ing of the church courts; never failing but once through 
thirty consecutive years to attend the meeting of Synod, 
and then on account of sickness in his family. When we 
remember that for the first twenty-five years of his minis- 
try, the Synod covered two states, frequently with place of 
meeting at a distance of one to two hundred miles, and 
with no other means of conveyance than horseback, we at 
once see that this was no easy achievement. 

Dr. Wilson was a man of prominence and was very 
much respected and honored by his brethren. He was sent 
as a delegate to eleven General Assemblies and in one 
made Moderator (at Charlotte, in 1864). He was Modera- 



296 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

tor of the Presbytery of Flint Riv€r at its organization at 
McDonough in 1835. He was elected Stated Clerk of the 
Synod of Georgia at its organization at Macon in 1845, and 
which office he continued to fill till 1872, when he resigned 
on account of failing health. 

He was a strong man in the pulpit. His sermons were 
clear, solid and eminently practical as appears from the 
few that were printed; as a writer, accurate and pointed. 
In 1863 he was requested by the Synod to prepare memo- 
rials of her deceased ministers. How faithfully he per- 
formed the work will appear from his "Necrology," which 
contains thirty three sketches of deceased ministers of 
the Synod, together with a compact sketch of the early 
history of the Presbyterian Church in the state. In 1864 
his library was burned by the enemy, in which he lost not 
only all of his MSS sermons, but also notes he had been 
collecting for a history of the Church, which he intended 
to write. It is hard for us to realize the greatness of this 
loss, as no man was better qualified to write its early his- 
tory than he, so many of the early facts coming under his 
own observation. 

Upon the whole Dr. Wilson was a remarkable man in 
many respects, and in nothing perhaps more than this, 
that he never reached the "Dead line in his ministry," his 
time of greatest efficiency, being the latter years of his 
life. His life's history was but an Illustration of the 
Scripture, "They shall bring forth fruit in old age." 

So his life was a living epistle, and convincing exem- 
plification of the truth of Christianity. As a friend once re- 
marked, "I am sometimes tempted to be a little skeptical, 
but it all vanishes when I look at that grand old disciple, 
that living demonstration of Christianity." 

The honorary title of Doctor of Divinity was conferred 
upn him in 1852 by Oglethorpe College. 

REV. JOSEPH CLAY STILES D. D. L. L. D. 

Rev. Joseph C. Stiles was born in Savannah, Ga., Dec. 
6, 179'5; graduated at Yale College in 1814; studied law at 
Litchfield, Conn., after which he entered upon the practice 
of the same, having entered in co-partnership with W. W. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 297 

Gordon, Esq., one of the leading attorneys of the city. 

In 1822 a severe affliction befell him in the loss of his 
wife which led to his conviction and conversion. Immed- 
iately upon his conversion he entered upon a life of 
Christian activity, taking an active part in the informal 
services of the church. He also began holding meetings for 
the colored people on his father's plantation. Upon the 
suggestion of his father, who told him if he intended to 
give up the practice of law and enter the ministry to go to 
some theological seminary and prepare himself for the 
work, he went to Andover Seminary, where he remained 
two years. As evidence of his zeal and success among the 
colored people, we may mention, that upon acquainting 
them with the fact of his intention of entering the Semi- 
nary, they said to him, that it was "no use for you to go 
to the Seminary," but upon his reminding them that when 
they went out to their work in the morning, they first 
went and ground their axes, and that he was simply going 
to grind his axe," they said, "then go. Mars Joe, and grind 
your axe." 

After two years at Andover he returned to Georgia, 
and was licensed by Hopewell Presbytery, April 3, 1825, 
and ordained in Aug. 1826, by the same body, as an evange- 
list: preaching at Milledgeville, Macon, and other places, 
resulting in the organization of these and other Churches. 

In 1829 he removed to Mcintosh County, connecting 
himself with the Presbytery of Georgia, Jan. 4, 1855, from 
which he was dismissed to the Presbytery of West Lexing- 
ton, Ky., March 3, 183 , where he remained laboring in 
the West for about nine years, preaching at Cincinnatti, 
Ohio, Versailes, Harmony, Midway and other places. 

In 1844 he removed to Richmond, Va., and for four 
years, was pastor of Shocco Hill, now Grace St., Church. 
In 1848 he became pastor of Mercer St. Church, New York, 
which he resigned after two years, on account of failure of 
health, and became Agent of American Bible ^ociety, in 
1850 — 1, travelling principally in the South. 

In 1853, he accepted a call to the South Street Church, 
New Haven, Conn. The edifice was a costly one, being 



298 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

erected by Gerard Halleck, editor of the New York Journ- 
al of Commerce, who was desirious of having a church in 
that section in sympathy with Southern sentiment. While 
there he was instrumental in the formation of the Southern 
Aid Society, which did much toward sustaining many 
feeble churches at the South. 

In 1859 he was elected, in connection with Rev. Dr. 
W. M. Cunningham by the Synod of Georgia, as Synodical 
Evangelist. After two years of faithful service, in which 
much good was done in building and strengthening 
churches, he returned with his family to New Haven. 

At the commencement of the civil war he entered the 
Southern army and labored faithfully among the soldiers 
as army chaplain until its close. 

After the war he continued to labor as evangelist in 
Virginia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi and Missouri, and 
only ceased work when physically disabled. His last ser- 
mon was preached at Union, Monroe County, West Vir- 
ginia, Jan. 28, 1874. He died in Savannah May 27, 1879, in 
the 80th year of his age, after months of weakness and 
physical suffering. 

Dr. Stiles was a most remarkable man. Of fine phy- 
sique, striking features, pleasant voice, strong imagination 
and logical acumen, he became a preacher of unusual 
power; and never failed to command the attention of his 
hearers; nor was it ever necessary for him to resort to any 
of the sensationalism of the present day. His vivid pre- 
sentation of the simple truth was sufficient to excite the 
greatest interest. Under his powerful preaching many a 
poor sinner, like Felix of old, was made to tremble in his 
seat. He had a clear conception of the plan of salvation 
and knew how to make it plain to others. "Plunging into 
his theme he pursued it with wondrous abstraction and 
persistent investment until resolved to its first analysis. 
His definitions were transparent, his positions were im- 
pregnable, his rhetoric and elocution were rich and fasci- 
nating, his imagination glowing, and at times, terrific. As 
he arose and kindled with his subject, his irresistible logic 
and glowing figures, his ready utterance, and earnest ap- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 299 

peals, culminated in an application absolutely overwhelm- 
ing." We regarded him as the greatest preacher we ever 
heard. Professor Goodrich, teacher of elocution in Yale 
College, is quoted as saying that, "he was the first pulpit 
orator in America." 

As a writer. Dr. Stiles was clear and argumentative, 
as his work on "Modern Reform" will show, but his 
strength lay principally in his eloquent speech. 

To give the reader some idea of his style, we copy the 
opening sentences of his sermon on Predestination, preach- 
ed at Milledgeville, Ga., August 1828. 

"He that essays to comprehend the Almighty unto per- 
fection, will soon reach the limit of the human mind. If 
man knows much, he is ignorant of more. So far from 
embracing the great deep which spreads inimitably be- 
yond his farthest thought, even the narrow compass of his 
powers, there is scarcely an object so mean or an event so 
common, but it may boast something mysterious to man." 

In 1842, William W. Gordon of Savannah died. Being 
a most public spirited man, interested in all internal im- 
provements in the state, the promoter and urst president 
of the Central railroad, and after whom Gordon County 
was named, his death was greatly lamented. An immense 
crowd followed his remains to the cemetery, when Dr. 
Stiles, happening to be in the city at the time, addressed 
the crowd as they stood around the open grave, wth soft- 
ened hearts and open to impression, telling them of the 
ravages of death; how the monster was turning them out of 
the body, turning them out of this world, turning them into 
the hands of the Almighty God, and turning them into the 
unchanging retributions of Eternity. The address, it is 
said, was "powerful and stirring," and was followed by a 
series of meetings conducted by him in the city, which re- 
sulted in great good. 

Dr. Stiles was a man of the deepest humility. Just be- 
fore his death he wrote to a friend: "If possible I am still 
more sensible of man's utter helpfulness and Christ's all 
sufficient fulness. No words can tell you, my dear brother, 
what an unfaithful and useless life I seem to have lived. 



300 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

and what a worthless guilty creature I am, and ever have 
been." 

His death, however, was triumphant. Dr. Axson who 
visited him during his last sickness writes: "When his feet 
touched the waters of the river, nearer and nearer, with 
the consolations of his love, the dear Lord came till the 
soul began to run over, and he could only tell of the ex- 
uberance of his happiness, and utter benedictions on those 
who stood around him." 

The honorary title of Doctor of Divinity was conferred 
upon him in 1846, by the Transylvania University, and 
that of L. L. D. by the University of Georgia in 1860. 
REV. GROVES H. CARTLEDGE. 

We know of no one in the entire list of ministers ever 
in connection with the Synod more worthy of honorable 
mention than Rev. Groves Harrison Cartledge. Spending his 
entire life in what might be regarded as a more obscure- 
part of the state, and building little, if any upon any other 
man's foundation, he has done a great work which shows 
for itself. The churches of Homer and Hebron, built up 
chiefly through his ministry, to say nothing of other labors, 
will ever stand as monuments of his zeal and self sacrific- 
ing work. No churches, perhaps, are better indoctrinated 
and more strongly established in the truth, being thorough- 
ly taught in the fundamental truths of our faith. His 
teaching was doctrinal as well as practical. No man was 
ever more sound in the faith and none more Scriptural in 
his expositions, or more consecrated to his work. His was 
the longest pastorate thus far in the Synod, being 47 
years, 1852 — 1899. There have been only three others any 
where near it, viz., James Stacy, Newnan, 43 years 
1857—1900; Dr. Quigg, Conyers, 38 years, 1866—1904; Rev. 
Dr. Axson, Independent Church, Savannah, 1857 — 1891, 34 
years. 

Rev. Groves H. Cartledge was born in Madison county, 
Ga., Feb. 15, 1820, and almost his whole life was spent 
within 25 miles of the place of his birth. He graduated 
with distinction in Oglethorpe University in 1845; entered 
the Columbia Seminary the same year for the study of 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 301 

Hebrew; licensed by Hopewell Presbytery Oct. 1846, hav- 
ing studied Theology during his college course, under Dr. 
S. K. Talmage. In 1847 he located at Lexington, teaching 
and preaching for two years, after which his health failing, 
he returned to his home in Madison county, and entered 
the home missionary field, in Madison and Elbert counties. 

In 1852 he commenced to supply the churches of He- 
bron and New Lebanon (now Homer) and in the fall of the 
same year installed pastor by Hopewell Presbytery and 
continued to sustain that relation for forty seven years, 
till his death. Though other and flattering offers were 
made him by other churches, he declined them and re- 
mained with the same to which he had become attached. 
For a while he acted as Domestic Missionary of his 
Presbytery in connection with his regular pastorate as he 
had opprtunity. 

Bro. Cartledge was a man of strong native intellect, 
of general reading, having acquired a vast fund of inform- 
ation; well versed and powerful in the Scriptures, always 
interesting and instructive in his preaching; an independ- 
ent thinker. Though raised a Baptist, he became a decided 
Presbyterian, never having heard a Presbyterian sermon 
till about grown. No man exerted a greater influence in 
that whole section of country. He was a public spirited 
citizen, an able minister, faithful pastor and an able ex-_ 
pounder of the Word. Commencing as a missionary with 
two feeble churches, he built them up till they became the 
strongest country churches in the Presbytery, and at the 
same time planting and organizing quite a number of 
churches in and around his native County. No man had 
more of the confidence of the people, or did more for the 
cause of Presbyterianism in that whole part of the state. 
Preferring an humble and obscure field, he resisted all 
offers to larger and more attractive churches. Had he 
preferred to do otherwise, we know of no reason why he 
might not have won for himself a name and wide reputa- 
tin in the country at large. But he preferred to do his 
Master's work in a quiet and unobtrusive manner, and 
doubtless his crown will at last be but the brighter, and the 



302 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Master will say unto him "Well done, good and faithful 
servant, ent-er thou into the joys of thy Lord." 

His health failing in 1897 he tendered his resignation 
which was declined by his charge, but continued Pastor Em- 
eritus till his death, which occurred July 5, 1899, He was bur- 
ied in the cemetery of the Hebron church, and his memory 
still lingers as fragant incense in the entire community. 
He has left two sons in the ministry, Rev. T. D. and S. J. 
Cartledge, and upon whom his mantle has worthily fallen. 

The Synod adopted a suitable memorial at its meeting 
at Valdosta in 1901. He has also left an autobiography of 
himself, now in the hand of his son, Rev. S. J. Cartledge. 
He has also left a volume of sermons and some interesting 
"Sketches" of early Presbyterian History, which have been 
published. 

1865, was a year of great revival in both Homer and 
Hebron Churches, 39 being added to the former and 36 to 
the latter. The Holy Spirit had been working mightily 
upon the hearts of the members and people, insomuch that 
the pastor felt assured that the churches were upon the 
eve of a great revival, and he so stated publicly. The 
following account of a meeting held at the Hebron Church 
during that year, and commonly spoken of as the "Laugh- 
ing Meeting," is taken from the "Autobiography" of Rev. 
Mr. Cartledge, and in his own words: "I have witnessed 
many revivals." said he, "but have never seen any that 
seemed to have such a deep, happy and lasting effect upon 
the church itself." 

"The interest had constantly increased from Friday 
Morning till Tuesday afternoon, everything so far quiet 
and orderly, A goodly number had obtained a hope, and 
many others confessed. Christians had been growing 
more and more happy, until it was becoming painful for 
them to suppress their emotions. Such was the state of 
feeling in the vast assemblege when Bro. Milburn (Cum- 
berland Minister assisting) rose and began his sermon on 
that memorable day, which we still call the 'Day of Pente- 
cost.' The text was the invitation of Moses to Hobab, 
"'Come thou with us and we will do thee good, for the 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 303 

Lord hath spoken good concerning Israel. Num. 10, 29. In 
the intrduction, the preacher gave a historical narrative of 
the circumstances in which the words of the text were 
spoken. Before he had gotten through with these historical 
details, the emotions of the congregation became uncon- 
trollable and many began to give vent to their pentup feel- 
ings in noisy demonstrations of joy. The preacher, finding 
that he could neither restrain the people nor proceed with 
his sermon, simply said: "It is useless for me to try to 
preach. We, too, are journeying to that good land of 
which the Lord hath said I will give it to you, 'Come thou 
with us and we will do thee good.' 

"The scene which followed beggared description. Every 
one in that great congregation, with scarcely an exception, 
was making some audible demonstration of joy. And yet 
every demonstration was appropriate and becoming. The 
usual expression of joy was laughter, the most hearty, joy- 
ous laughter ever heard, and shaking hands, friend with 
friend, telling each other what the Lord had done for their 
souls, and praising God for his redeeming grace. Every 
eye seemed to sparkle with heavenly intelligence, and 
every countenance beamed with celestial radiance and 
glory. 

Those of other denominations who were present were 
affected as we were and expressed their joy just as we did. 
Those who, up to this hour, had been greatly alarmed on 
account of their sins, with only one or two exceptions, ob- 
tained deliverances and seemed to be as happy as any of 
the rest. 

After allowing the people to give expression to their 
joy, for perhaps an hour, and wishing to reduce them to 
order, I called for a hymn. Several of our singers began, 
but broke out into laughter before they had finished the 
first verse. Other efforts were made, but always with 
the same results. Finding the people were too happy to 
sing, I called on a good old Methodist Brother to pray. 
Laughing as hard as he could, he replied, Brother Cart- 
ledge, please call upon some one else I am too full to pray." 
I then called on one of the oldest Elders. He began, but 



304 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

before he had finished the first sentence he broke out into 
loud, joyous laughter. Chokng down his laughter with a 
great effort, he again began to pray, and again broke down 
as at first. 

I then attempted to pray; and the people kept mod- 
erately quiet; but as soon as I had finished, they broke 
out afresh. Abandoning all further effort to restrain their 
emotions, I left them to laugh and talk and shake hands 
till about four o'clock, when I arose and pronounced the 
Benediction. Then the happy people left the house, and 
started for their homes, still laughing and talking, and 
praising God. In many homes these demonstrations con- 
tinued nearly all night, the happy souls declaring, that if 
they did not give expressions to their emotions, they 
would surely burst asunder." 

REV. J. C. PATTERSON, D. D. 

The writer well remembers an incident in the life of 
this faithful servant of the Lord. He appeared before the 
Presbytery of Atlanta, for the last time at its meeting in 
Atlanta in the Central Church, May 3rd, 1866. Just before 
the close of the Presbytery, on Saturday evening. Dr. Pat- 
terson arose and said, that he was particularly desirous of 
attending this meeting of the Presbytery, as he felt as- 
sured that this would be his last, as we all too plainl/' 
saw, from the enlarged glands in his neck and throat, of 
which he afterwards died. He said he desired to meet 
with his brethren to express to them his continued 
esteem, confidence and love, and to bid them a final 
adieu, and also to leave his testimony behind to the sus- 
taining and comforting power of God's grace. After ex- 
horting us to be faithful he said that though he knew he 
would soon die, yet he wished us to know that he had no 
fears of death, that he was afraid of but one thing, and 
that was sin, and after pausing for a moment added, (his 
countenance brightening with the thought) and I am not 
afraid even of sin, for it is written, "Sin shall not have 
dominion over you." Such testimony from such a man 
under such circums.tances, was truly strengthening and re- 
freshing, and those of us who were present felt it was a 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 305 

message to us directly from the heavenly world; God 
speaking to us through the mouth of his servant. 

Another instance of the suggestive work of the Holy 
Spirit and received from his own lips: In early life he was 
in poor health. Once when on his way to his appointment, 
riding on horse back, he became impressed with the 
thought that he would surely die on the road side. In ithe 
midst of his despondency, the passage of Scripture came 
forcibly to mind, "I shall not die, but live to declare the 
wonderful works of God." He believed it, he said, and 
went on his way with confidence and strength to his ap- 
pointment. 

REV. SAMUEL J. CASSELS. 

When a student in the Theological Seminary at Colum- 
bia, S. C, the writer passing through Savannah, called to 
see Mr. Cassels. He found him in bed, weak and emacia- 
ted, hardly able to speak above a whisper. During the 
conversation, he remarked to me, in his low whispering 
voice, with occasional pauses as gasping for breath, 
"Brother Stacy, I will tell you what you will do when you 
enter the ministry, you are going to preach two-thirds 
Stacy and one third Christ." I need not say that I 
felt the thrust keenly and thought that although I knew 
that I was ambitious and thought pretty well of myself and 
my powers, yet I did not see why I was so much worse 
than others to be thus singled out for such an admonition. 
He continued, and to my great relief added. "This is the 
way I did; I at first preached two thirds Cassels, and one 
third Christ, but of late I think I have been able to re- 
verse the order, and preach one third Cassels and two 
thirds Christ." I have often remembered the remark, and 
been compelled to admit to myself, ithe justice and forceful 
application of the unintentional rebuke. 

REV. HENRY KOLLOCK, D. D. 

The, subject of this sketch was the eldest of ten child- 
ren, and born in New Providence, N. J., Dec, 14, 1778; 
graduated at Princeton College, 1794; tutor in the same 
from 1797 — ^1800; Licensed by the Presbytery of New York 
May 7, 1800, and ordained and installed by the same body, 



306 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

pastor a"t Elizabethtown, D€C. 10, 1800. December, 1803, he 
was chosen to fill the chair of Divinity in the College, 
where he remained, also supplying the pulpit at .the same 
time, till 1806, when he accepted a call to the Independent 
Church, Savannah, where he continued till his death in 
1819. 

Having become a member of the Presbytery of New 
Brunswick at this time, he was dismissed by that body to 
the Presbytery of Hopewell, Savannah at that time being 
in its bounds; but as the Presbytery of Harmony was set 
up that same year, the letter was presented to and he was 
received by that body at its second meeting in Augusta, 
Jan. 11, 1811, the first meeting in Septebmer being a fail- 
ure for want of a quorum. 

Dr. Kollock was a man of rare gifts and accomplish- 
ments of culture, elegant speech, polished address, and 
deep piety withal and soon acquired a wide reputation as 
an orator and scholar. This appears from the fact already 
mentioned that he was called to fill the chair of Divinity at 
Princton College in 1803, when only 25 years old, and also 
having the title of Doctor of Divinity conferred upon him 
by Harvard College in 1806 at the age of 28; the same also 
being conferred a few months later, by Union College. His 
reputation grew as the years advanced. In 1810 he was 
elected to fill the position of president at the State Univer- 
sity. This position he declined, however. So in the same 
year, at the solicitation of friends, ne published a volume 
or his sermons, thus continuing to grow in reputation and 
to entrench himself in the hearts of his people and the 
community, till at length a dark shadow crossed his path 
which brought great disitress to his heart as well as that 
of his people and friends, and came near crushing his 
noble spirit. 

It was customary at that early day, to keep spirituous 
liquors on the sideboard for the use of the family as well 
as guests, which would be considered a breach of courtesy 
not to offer to the guests. This was not only considered an 
act of courtesy, but even demanded by the unhealthy 
climate and impure water, which, as Pat Tailfer et al, in 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 307 

their pronunciamento, declared "needed qualifying," as 
every body thought, if not "believed," as they said. Dr. 
Kollock fell into the general practice, especially at times 
when worn down with his .arduous labors, for in addition to 
regular Sabbath services, he conducted meetings in the 
week, and many times in summer he would be the only 
minister in the place. 

In 1812, the General Assembly passed some stringent 
resolutions on the subject of Intemperance. (Min. P. 8 & 9). 

The next year (1813) rumors were in circulation that 
Dr. Kollock was indulging too freely and became so ad- 
dicted to the habitual use of strong drink as to be unable to 
control himself, and so much so that several ministers 
and Elders signed a call for a Pro Re Nata Meeting of the 
Presbytery. 

As early as 1812, such rumors were afloat, and were 
privately communicated to him, with tenderness and can- 
dor and in return received -assurance of future circum- 
spection and constancy, but new instances being charged 
the above call was considered necessary. 

Pursuant to the call, the meeting of the Presbytery 
was held at Edgefield C. H. August 11, 1813, at which time 
charges were tabled, witnesses summoned, distant testi- 
mony ordered taken, and he cited to appear at next regu- 
lar meeting to answer. 

While on the threshold of this painful duty. Presby- 
tery received from him a communication, in which he says 
"I do hereby withdraw from the Presbyterian Govern- 
ment," together with an argument of some length and 
ability showing, as he claimed, that the only Presbytery 
of the Scriptures known to ithe early church was that which 
was Parochial or Congregational. 

Presbytery in their reply said that they regarded it 
unfortunate that he should take a position of that kind at 
that time, and suggested that fear of conviction, perhaps, 
was the real ground of objection, and that they regarded 
his conduct as an act of contumacy, and in the exercise of 
the authority, vested in them as well as a conscious sense 
of the responsibility resting upon them, they suspended 



308 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

him from the ministry. In the mean time the Stated Clerk 
was directed to furnish him with a copy of the action and 
also to cite him to appear at the next meeting and show 
reason why sentence of deposition should not be passed. 

By invitation the next sessions of Presbytery were 
held in the Scotch church, Charleston, April 14, 1814. Dr. 
Kollock neither appearing nor sending any communication. 
Presbytery proceeded to depose him from the ministry. 

Thus matters remained for two years, Dr. Kollock dis- 
regarding the action of the Presbytery and continuing to 
preach as heretofore, and his people still clinging to him 
and waiting upon his ministry till January 25, 1816, when 
there was a called meeting at White Bluff for the ordina- 
tion and installation of Rev. Thomas Goulding as pastor. 
At this meeting there were no Elders and only the follow- 
ing four ministers, viz: Dr. McWhir, John Cousar, Jno. R. 
Thompson, D. D., and Murdoch Murphy. Although the 
meeting was called only to ordain and install Mr. Gould- 
ing, the Presbytery took up the case of Dr. Kollock and 
proceeded to annul the sentence of deposition, and re- 
stored him to the ministry and recommended him to be 
treated as a minister of good and regular standing. They 
also instructed their clerk. Rev. John Cousar, to send a 
copy of these minutes to each member of the Presbytery 
and to the Moderator of each Presbytery under the General 
Assembly. 

The Presbytery, at its next regular meeting, refused to 
ratify these irregular proceedings, charging the pro re nata 
meeting with transcending its authority in considerng any- 
thing but what was included in the call. Besides, that they 
had no direct and formal communication from Dr. Kollock 
expressing either repentence or promise of reformation, 
and only some private letters to some of the members of 
vague and indefinite character; that the communications 
were all informal, and therefore no ground for their action. 
Such irregular action of the Presbytery gave occas- 
sion to a great deal of talk and discussion concerning the 
conduct of the case, wherefore the Presbytery addressed 
a letter to the General Assembly, rehearsing the entire 



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THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 309 

case, and asking for advice, and concluding with the state- 
ment "If you find us wrong, condemn us; if right, give us 
the support of your public approbation." The Assembly 
made a reply in which they expressed their great sympa- 
thy for them "in the painful business detailed to them and 
lamenting the unpleasant events which had taken place." 
They also expressed a willingness to consider the case when 
all the facts could be gathered and presented, yet they at 
the same time suggested that the case be referred to the 
Synod of South Carolina, (Min. 1816 p. 615) which was ac- 
cordingly done at its meeting at Willington. The Synod 
decided that the action of the Presbytery at White Bluff 
was irregular and sustained the action of the Presbytery 
at Charleston in repealing the action of the White Bluff 
Presbytery, thus leaving Dr. Kollock under sentence of 
deposition. 

Dr. Kollock continued his ministrations notwith- 
standing this action of the church courts, being upheld by 
his devoted people and the community in general, many of 
whom, not understanding the government of the church, 
felt that he had been treated with undue severity, declaring 
the action "arbitrary, unwise and tyrannical." 

All this was extremely painful to Dr. Kollock. After 
the first action of the Presbytery he writes: "I do not 
then attend the Presbytery and I cannot recognize your 
authority over me. To me it is a matter of little conse- 
quence what you do. Life has lost its charms to me, and, 
confiding in the cross to which I have fled and relying on 
that infinite grace, which is all my plea, hoping as a par- 
doned sinner to sing the song of Moses and the Lamb, I 
wait for the liberating stroke of death. I have received a 
wound in my heart which will cause me to groan all my 
days." 

In reviewing the case we can see errors and mistakes 
committed on both sides. Dr. Kollock erred in resisting the 
authority of the Presbytery to which he had promised obed- 
ience, and furthermore in not confessing his sin and ask- 
ing forgiveness and restoration. Had he done this his 
brethren doubtless would most gladly have forgiven and 



310 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

restored him, as clearly appears from the unconstitutional 
action of the Presbytery at White Bluff, and also from the 
fact that it seemed that he had reformed, as appears from 
an unpublished letter in reply to the letter of the Prest//- 
tery to the General Assembly in which he says "Is not 
your address calculated and designed to represent me as 
perfectly abandoned to intemperance? And yet you well 
know that on this point I had long abstained from the very 
appearance of evil, and was not only temperate but rigidly 
abstemious?" Howe. II. 241. And second, from the fact 
that he afterwards rendered acceptable service to the 
church, no charges being afterwards brought against him 
by any one. 

Dr. Kollock continued to entrench himself in the 
hearts of his people who clung to him, and whose confi- 
dence in his purity and integrity was not at all shaken. In- 
deed, his misfortune seemed only to have had the effect to 
draw them closer to him, and to whom he was the more 
willing to embosom himself in the warmth of a pastor's 
love. From Mr. Raymond Demere a Ruling Elder in Bry- 
an Neck Church, and whose parents were members of 
Dr. Kollock's church, and he a boy at the time, I learn some 
time during his troubles he delivered a sermon or address 
from the text, "This is my infirmity," and which Mr. De- 
mere said fell upon the audience with Magic effect, and we 
can well imagine the effect of his eloquence upon a people 
in full sympathy with him. 

Their continued interest in him further exhibited it- 
self in the fact that they increased his salary from $3,000, 
to which a parsonage had been added, to $4,000. 

Dr.. Kollock's popularity continued till his death. His 
health failing in 1817, he visited Europe, travelling in Eng- 
land, France and Italy, preaching with power to crowded 
and interested audiences in the British Isles, his brother, 
Dr. Sheppard K. Kollock supplying his pulpit during his 
absence. He also visited Europe to gather materials for 
a life of Calvin, which he had commenced, but finding it 
necessary for him to go to Germany to get those materials 
and his time being too short, he never completed the work. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 311 

His congregation increasing, it became necessary to 
erect a larger building for their accommodation. So a new 
building was erected on its present site which was dedi- 
cated by himself May 9, 1819. Text Hag. II, 7. Ser. Vol. IV. 
p. 250. The building was built of material most of which 
was brought from the North, and cost $96,108, the cost, 
size and splendor showing the resources of the city at that 
time, the strength and influence of the congregation, as 
well as the influence and power of the pastor. 

After a period of thirteen years' service this remark- 
able man was called to his reward I>ecember 29, 1819, in 
the 41st year of his age. His end was peace. His funeral 
was largely attended, the ministers of the city taking 
part. Rev. Mr. Sweat (Baptist) introduced the services 
with psalmody and prayer, Rev. (afterwards Bishop) Cap- 
ers preached the sermon. Rev. Mr. Goulding, of White 
Bluff, concluded with prayer, and Rev. Mr. Cranston, Epis- 
copal) reading the Episcopal service at the grave. 

The funeral was on Friday and was largely attended by 
all classes and professions. No man more honored than 
he. His death was regarded as a public calamity. The 
papers announcing his death appeared in mourning. The 
Mayor issued proclamation requiring all the stores to be 
closed; and a universal suspension of business. All the 
vessels in the harbor with colors at halfmast. MEM, Pref. 
Vol. I. 42. 

In 1806 at the age of 28, the degree of Doctor of Di- 
vinity was conferred upon him by Harvard College, and 
also by Union College a few months later. After his death 
4 Volumes of his sermons, edited by his brother, were pub- 
lished, the last containing those published by himself in 
1817 at the solicitations of his friends. 

Dr. Kollock married June 1, 1804, Mrs. Mahetebel, 
widow of .\lexander Campbell, Esq., of Richmond, Va. He 
had no children. 

Dr. James W. Alexander, in his memoir of his father, 
Dr. A. Alexander, speaks of Dr. Kollock, "As one of the 
most ornate, yet vehement orators whom this country has 
prduced." So Bishop Capers of the Methodist Church said 



312 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

of him, "I have not heard more than one speaker in my 
life whom I thought fairly on a par with him, and that 
was Dr. Jonathan Maxcy, the first President of South 
Carolina College," Howe, II. 243. 

REV. JAMES STACY 

The writer hopes to be pardoned for a personal allu- 
sion in giving the following incident: 

One of the most remarkable incidents in the author's 
life occurred in the year 1865. The Presbytery of 
Flint River extended at that time from Lawrenceville on 
the North to the Florida line on the South. The Presby- 
tery met that Fall in October at Americus. The Rev. Geo. 
C. Coit was then -pastor of the Church, a most excellent 
and lovely brother, and withal filled with the Spirit; and 
was exceedingly desirous for a blessing upon the church. 
After the close of the Presbytery, and at his request. Rev. 
Messrs. Wm. M. Cunningham, R. T. Marks and James 
Stacy remained to assist in carrying on a meeting. The 
meeting was continued for several days and resulted in a 
revival of the Church and the addition of several members. 
This might easily have been predicted from the fact that 
the pastor was himself so stirred. The Holy Spirit 
never awakens desires within us to mock us. So revivals 
also usually begin in the heart of some one, or a few of 
the members. Brother Coit seemed unusually wrought 
upon, as appeared from a prayer offered by him concerning 
which it was remarked by one of the brethren, that "no 
man could offer such a prayer who was not under the in- 
fluence of the Holy Spirit." 

During the Presbytery there were in attendance a 
number of the young people from Fort Gaines, to which 
people the writer had frequently ministered during his set- 
tlement at Cuthbert and Lumpkin. This was his first 
charge in 1853, his time being divided between those two 
fields with occasional visits to Fort Gaines. After a few 
days his Fort Gaines friends left for their homes. Feeling 
a deep interest in them his heart followed them. Before 
leaving, they gave him a warm and pressing invitation to 
go to Fort Gaines and hold a meeting for them and in that 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IM GEORGIA 313 

place. This was a new proposition to him, as he had left 
his home at Newnan with no intention of going anywhere 
else than Presbytery, and, as he had already been away 
from home several days over his time, he hesitated, not 
knowing what course to pursue. But as his heart went 
with his friends, in whom he felt the greatest interest, he 
concluded to accede to their request, and asked them to 
make the appointment for the meeting, which they did, to 
begin on Friday night; at which time he began the meet- 
ing. There being at that time no other minister of any 
other denomination in the place, the entire burden of the 
preaching, for a time, rested on him. The Spirit of God, 
however, seemed to be present from the very beginning. 
The whole town was stirred. Although the interest was 
unabaied, yet on Tuesday after the preacher felt im- 
pressed that he should close the meeting, which he did in 
face of the protestation of the entire congregation. And 
what seemed so remarkable about it, was the fact that 
there was no special reason for so doing, or to return to 
his people, whose minds and thoughts were entirely absorb- 
ed about the 'War and its issues, and really he did not see him- 
self why he should so decide till afterwards. So contrary 
TO the expressed wishes of the people, and the earnest en- 
treaty of his young friends concerning whom he felt so 
much concern, and the fact patent to every one that the 
harvest had not yet been gathered, he closed the meeting 
on Tuesday night, after receiving eight members into the 
church, and took the train for his home in Newnan on 
the next, Wednesday, morning. Scarcely had he closed 
the meeting when the question at once sprang up for debate 
in his mind whether he had done right in leaving a field so 
ripe for the harvest, and with such manifest tokens of the 
Divine presence and favor? This feeling only increased 
during the night, and next morning, at sunrise he boarded 
the cars under the most conflicting emotions. He sat on 
the rear seat in the end of the car, and as the train moved 
off he felt very much as Jonah did, that he was fleeing 
away from duty; and as the car moved around the high 
bluff and as he looked back to take the last view his heart 



314 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

sank within him, and he could but seek relief in tears. 
For now he was just as much persuaded that he had done 
wrong, as he had felt that he had done right in closing the 
meeting. His distress continued as he journeyed on, and 
found no relief till he resolved to return. On leaving 
Americus he promised the brethren, Cunningham and 
Marks, that he would stop at Americus and report the re- 
sult of the meeting at Fort Gaines. His mind, however, 
was fully made up to return to Fort Gaines the next day, 
although sixty miles on his way home, and which he ac- 
cordingly did; and never did he a thing with more joyful- 
ness. Next day, therefore, he started on his backward 
journey. On passing through Cuthbert, his old home, he 
felt actually ashamed to look out of the window lest he 
Ehould be recognized by some of his friends who knew that 
he had closed the meeting at Fort Gaines and had passed 
through their place the day before on his way home, and 
therefore would wonder the reasons for such strange con- 
duct. However, on looking out to his great relief he saw 
Dr. Gardner, who had been sent to Cuthbert to obtain the 
help of Rev. Homer Hendee and who was with him upon 
the platform with his handbag in hand. In a moment he 
took in the situation and saw the reason why he was call- 
ed away from Fort Gaines and also for his return, as there 
was work there for two instead of one, and especially as 
he had not been long in the ministry. The congratula- 
tions, of course, were mutual and encouraging. 

On reaching Fort Gaines quite a number of the young 
people were at the train to see whether Mr. Hendee had 
come. Imagine their astonishment and delight in also 
seeing "Brother Stacy." The news was soon borne through 
the town that they had now two ministers instead of none. 
At the evening services the writer remarked to the 
congregation that they knew how decided he was in his 
purpose to leave, and which neither they nor himself could 
explain. But the solution was now easy, as the Lord had 
work for two instead of one, and urged them to accept it 
as a direct appeal from the Lord to give themselves wholly 
to the work, and if they did the Lord would surely bless 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 315 

them. The people seemed to feel the force of the appeal 
and were thereby encouraged to lay hold of the promises 
as all seemed to see the hand of the Lord in the matter. 
Brother Hendee remained the rest of the week and then 
returned to his school at Cuthbert. In the mean while 
the meeting at Americus having closed Rev. Mr. Marks 
went down to Fort Gaines and remained with the 
writer, assisting till the close of the meeting on Wednesday 
night of the following week, at which fourteen more were 
added to the church, making twenty 'two in all. Among 
these were not only his young friends who had attended 
Presbytery at Americus, but others of experience and in- 
fluence in the community. The membership of the little 
church was doubled and so strengthened as to employ the 
services and support the Rev. Gaylord S. More a refugee 
from New Orleans, as their pastor till the close of the 
war. There were many other converts who joined the 
Methodist and Baptist Churches. Considering all the cir- 
cumstances, the unexpected visit of the Brother, his re- 
turn after 60 miles on his journey homeward, the manner 
of the additional help, and the number of converts and ad- 
ditions to the church, it must be regarded as one of the 
most remarkable revivals that has ever occurred in that 
church and that part of the county. 

FLINT RIVER PRESBYTERY. 
One of the most celebrated and interesting meetings 
of the Old Flint River Presbytery was the one held at 
White Sulphur Springs, Meriwether County, April 2-6, 1856, 
At that time White Sulphur Springs was a place of sum- 
mer resort, and was then owned and run by the Rev. R. 
T. Marks, a member of the Presbytery. Brother Marks had 
been a business man at Columbus, Ga., and entered the min- 
istry after several years of business life under the clause 
"extraordinary." He became a very useful and successful 
minister depending, however, upon his own efforts 
for support, rather than the feeble churches that he sup- 
pled. Being trained in matters of business, he was of great 
advantage to the Presbytery, being the treasurer for a 
number of years. He assisted, too, very much in the con- 



316 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

duct of busin€ss. While the Presbytery might be discuss- 
ing some question upon which they could not agree Brother 
Marks might be seen preparing a paper which he would 
offer at a suitable time and which the Presbytery would 
unanimously receive as the settlement of the matter. 

In the Fall of 1855 the Presbytery met at Newnan. 
When the question came up as to the place for the next 
meeting among the places nominated was White Sulphur 
Springs by Rev. R. T. Marks. Two objections were 
raised: One was that we had no church there; the other 
was it would be an imposition upon the brother to enter- 
tain such a body and also their horses, as there was no 
railroad or public conveyance any where near. To the 
first, he replied the fact that there was no or- 
ganization there was the very reason why the Presbytery 
should go there with the hope of planting one. To the sec- 
ond, he said that it would be no imposition, as he had made 
a fine crop and had an abundance of provisions for all the 
Presbytery and their horses; that the guests would not be 
coming in until May and therefore an abundance of room 
for all; that it would be a most pleasurable occasion to the 
Presbytery to have them all under the same roof and sit at 
the same table; that it would be equally so a pleasure to 
himself and family to entertain the Presbytery, and fur- 
thermore, that so far as expense was concerned the Lord 
could easily pay it back to him and more with one good 
shower of rain upon his fields. The arguments of the 
Brother prevailed and Presbytery accepted the invitation, 
and met there the following Spring. The Rev. S. H. Hig- 
gins, D. D., pastor of the Columbus Church, was chosen 
Moderator. There were present 13 Ministers and 9 Ruling 
Elders, and above all the Holy Spirit was present in the 
preaching. The Communion was administered on the 
Sabbath. After the adjournment two or three of the Breth- 
ren remained and held services for several days, which 
resulted in the organization of a little c'hurch consisting of 
of 14 members with two Ruling Elders, which church was 
reported by Rev. R. T. Marks, and received under the care 
of Presbycery at its next meeting at Ephesus, p. 264. The 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 317 

Church continued on the roll, being supplied by Mr. Marks 
and different ministers, a little chapel being erected for 
the purpose, till the removal of Mr, Marks and family, 
when the Spring property fell into other hands. In the 
mean while, the war coming on, the members became 
scattered and the church building, which had been erected 
by the family and being part of the estate, was sold with 
the rest. The church was formally dissolved by the Pres- 
bytery of Atlanta or rather dropped from the roll in Octo- 
ber, 1888. The following is the action of the Presbytery. 

"White Sulphur church having become extinct the 
name was dropped from the roll and the Stated Clerk in- 
structed to grant a certificate of dismission to Dr. D. A. Gil- 
lespie, the only remaining member and Elder, to join the 
Greenville Church." 

Thus the little church, after an existence of 82 years, 
became extinct. 

We will only add that the meeting of the Presbytery 
at which it was organized was voted by all the members 
as one of the most pleasant ever held. The following was 
the action of the Presbytery at the close of its business 
meeting and expressive of the feeling of its members: 

"Resolved, That the thanks of this hody be, and hereby 
are, tendered to the Rev. R. T. Marks and his family for 
their most liberal and generous heartfelt hospitality to- 
wards the members of this body during its present ses- 
sions, and that we take pleasure in here recording the 
fact that owing to the peculiar facilities that have been 
afforded us for business meetings and for social inter- 
course, we regard the present meeting as the most pleas- 
ant and fraternal in the history of this body." 

REV. REMEMBRANCE CHAMBERLAIN. 

In 1850 the Synod of Georgia held its annual sessions 
an the city of Augusta. At that meeting it fell to the lot 
of. our Synod to elect a Professor for the Seminary at Co- 
lumbia. Three candidates were nominated, viz., Dr. Alex- 
ander McGill, of Alleghany, Penn., Dr. Thomas Smythe of 
Charleston, S. C, though a native of Ireland, and Dr. Dan- 
iel McNiel Turner, of Abbeville, S. C. While the Synod 



318 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

was discussing the merits and demerits of the different 
candidates, none of them being present, considerable feel- 
ing was excited, it being a time when there was much 
abolition and sectional excitement and bitterness in the 
public mind. I began to fear that bitter and unkind feel- 
ings would be stirred up in the Synod, when Rev. Remem- 
brance Chamberlain, a Vermonter, but a large slave hold- 
er and who had hitherto maintained silence, arose to his 
full six feet of corpulent stature, and rubbing both hands 
over the front of his protuberant body, said in nasal tones: 
"Mr. Moderator, a good deal has been said in regard to 
where the respective candidates were born. Some object 
to Dr. McGill because he was born at the North, and some 
object to Dr. Smythe because he was born in old Ireland, 
and some are in favor of Dr. McNeil Turner because he 
was born in South Carolina. Now, Mr. Moderator, I do 
not think that any of these good brethren were born in a 
worse place than the place in which we were all born, 
which was in "a state of sin and misery," and down he 
sat amidst loud guffaws of the reverend Synod of Georgia. 
His wit and waggery had restored the Synod to good 
humor and soon after the vote was cast, and by a decided 
majority the man born in the North was elected. 

Although somewhat out of our pathway, it may be in- 
teresting to the reader to know what happened at the 
other end of the line. When the question came up before 
the Synod of South Carolina for confirmation, it was met 
with equal and even greater opposition than in the Synod 
of Georgia. That opposition was led by Rev. Julius J. Du- 
Bose, one of the younger members of the Synod. The 
meeting was held in Columbia. Being a student in the 
Seminary at that time, and interested in knowng who his 
teacher would be, the writer, in common with his fellow 
students attended the discussions. In the course of the de- 
bate the fact was emphasized by Mr. DuBose, as well as 
others, that both the other Professors, viz., Drs. Howe and 
LeLand were northern men, and whilst saying nothing 
against them or accusing them of sympathy with the 
abolition sentiment, for both were Slaveholders, he advo- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 319 

cated the principle that the remaining chair should be 
filled by some one entirely Southern in birth, as well as 
sentiment. Knowing the skill and quickness of Dr. Le- 
land at repartee, we watched him as he sat off to himself 
in the corner of the room listening to the speeches, grit- 
ting his teeth as his custom was and we knew full well 
that something sharp was coming, so after Mr. DuBose had 
finished his speech and sat down, Dr. Leland, a man vene- 
able in appearance and years, arose and said, "Moderator, 
our young Brother has said a good deal about northern 
and southern people. I would ask him to tell me what 
constitutes a southern man? How long a man must live 
at the south to be a good southern man? I would remind 
the young brother, that I have been at the South longer 
than he, and furthermore. Moderator, I came because I 
chose to, but he could not help himself." Then the old 
gentleman sat down amid the laughter as well as con- 
cealed blushes of the mothers in Israel, many of whom 
were present. This simple statement covered the whole 
field of argument, and doubtless settled the question, for 
the vote was soon taken confirming the choice of the Syn- 
od of Georgia. 

REV. W'M. McWHIR, D D. 

Mr. McWhir stands as a noted landmark in the early 
history of education in Georgia. He was born m Ireland, 
graduated and ordained, and came over to America in 
1783 and first taught school at Alexandria, Va., and for 
ten years was acquainted with President Washington 
who was one of the Trustees in his school, and was fre- 
quently a guest at his home; came to Liberty county, Ga., 
in 1793 and opened a school at Sunbury, which soon had 
an established reputation throughout the land, drawing 
pupils from all parts of the state and which continued for 
nearly 30 years. He deserves to be placed in the first 
ranks with the educators of the country. 

In addition to teaching he was also a useful minister, 
having appointments at Sunbury, Mcintosh, and also at 
Darien, but later in life visiting Florida where he organ- 
ized a church at Mandarin. Still later in life, when 90 



320 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

years old and upwards he engaged in the colporteur work, 
distributing Bibles and tracts to his neighbors and friends. 
I well remember when a boy seeing his" familiar face, and 
hearing him speak. He died in 1852. 

But what I desire more especially just now to do is to 
mention a rather singular and unusual thing that is said 
to have happened in his religious life. 

CONVERTED UNDER HIS OWN PREACHING. 

Though a Presbyterian minister in good and regular 
standing, he secretly held at first to Unitarian views, hav- 
ing doubts as to the divinity of Christ. It is said of him, 
that one day while preaching he made a statement which 
brought up the suggestion, and this thought was awakened 
and passed through his mind. "If this be true, then I am a 
lost man," and this conviction by the truth from his own 
lips; resulted in his conversion and a complete change in 
his views and life. It is not often we hear of a man being 
converted under his own preaching, and yet why not? It 
is not the speaker, but the truth that saves. This circum- 
stance was related to me by the son of one of the Col- 
league pastors of the Midway Church, and who was well 
acquainted with the history and life of Dr. McWhir. 
REV. THOMAS GOULDING, D. D. 

The life of Dr. Goulding is fully given in the mem- 
orials which have been published of him. It is known that 
he was the first native-born Presbyterian minister of our 
Branch ordained in the State. Also that he was the first 
Professor in the Columbia Seminary, when it was estab- 
lished in his own house in Lexington, and where he taught 
some pupils before its removal to Columbia. The only 
thing I desire to add to what has been already written con- 
cerning him, is the unusual circumstances in his religious 
life, viz: the fact of his conversion durng his sleep, as 
stated by himself. Said he, "If ever converted, it was 
when asleep," for he went to bed under a great distress 
and upon awaking in the morning the burden was gone. 
Why may not our prayers and the prayers of others be 
heard and answered when we are asleep as well as when 
awake? The Holy Spirit does the work without any as- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 321 

sistance on our part, and why not convert the man in the 
night, as well as in the day? 

REV. S. K. TALMAGE, D. D. 

I desire here to make record of a little incident which 
occurred in the life of Dr. Talmage, illustrative of his 
power in the pulpit. It occurred during his presidency of 
Oglethorpe and when preaching to the inmates of the 
Asylum near by. I take it from Rev. Groves H. Cartledge, 
who got it from t)r. T. O. Powell, the superintendent of 
the same. 

"One afternoon Dr. Talmage was preaching to the 
Lunatics on the pardon of the sinner. To illustrate some 
point he brought in the case of a murderer who had been 
condemned to be hung, but some of his friends sent a pe- 
tition to the Governor begging for a pardon. The day of 
execution arrived and no pardon had come for the doomed 
man. At the fixed hour the Sheriff took the criminal from 
the jail, seated him on his coflSn and drove him to the gal- 
lows. He made him ascend the scaffold, tied his feet to- 
gether, fastened the black cap over his face, bid him good 
bye, and, descending from the scaffold, raised his hand 
to strike the trigger which would launch the doomed man 
into eternity, when, upon hearing a noise in the distance 
he turned his eyes, and saw a horseman coming at full 
speed, and holding something like a paper in his hand, 
and crying out "Pardon, pardon, do not hang that man, I 
have a pardon for him." The Doctor, then leaving the 
the Sheriff with his hand still raised to strike the trigger, 
began to picture out the horseman and his horse, the rider 
spurring with all his might, and leaning forward in his 
eagerness to get the pardon to the poor culprit, the horse 
stretching every nerve and tendon of his body, with nos- 
trils distended and sides panting, etc, etc. To one little 
man, at least, the pictured scene, became a living reality, 
and at length, in hi'c impatience at the Doctor's tardiness, 
that little man at one bound sprang up, with his feet upon 
his seat, and cried out at the top of his voice, "O! Dr. Tal- 
mage do be in a hurry or that poor man will be hung be- 
fore you get his pardon to him." It is scarcely necessary 



322 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

to add that the whole audience became greatly excited, 
and the services terminated abruptly and without prayer, 
singing or the benediction." 

SHOWING GOD THE ANSWERER OF PRAYER. 

During the war services in the churches were very- 
much interfered with, especially towards its close, when 
the enemy was in their midst, and a large portion of the 
country overrun by them. In some places churches were 
closed, in others church buildings were used as hospitals, 
and in some instances, the bells were surrendered for 
making cannon. The pastor of the Newnan Church, 
though' in full sympathy with the South in her struggles, 
was not in hearty accord with the idea of closing the 
churches. He was always at the Soldier's prayermeeting 
unless off as missionary preaching to the soldiers. He 
was not in acocrd with the idea of taking the churches con- 
secrated to the services of God to be used as hospitals, but 
maintained that the residences and other buildings should 
be so used. And furthermore to show his true interest in 
the struggle was always at the Soldiers prayermeeting, 
which was kept up during the entire war. And now for 
the sequel: Twice was the town spared, as we confident- 
ly believe, in answer to those prayers. Twice the enemy 
passed through, with evil intent but with hands tied in 
both instances. 

In the latter part of July, 1864, two raids were pro- 
jected by the Federals, one under Gen. Kilpatrick, the 
other under Gen. Stoneman. The one to go down the 
eastern side, the other on the w^estern side of the Central 
Road and to form a union below Macon. The one under 
Gen. Kilpatrick on going down burned the depot at Pal- 
metto, also tearing up the track, but below Jonesboro, en- 
countered Gen. Wheeler, who drove him back. In his re- 
treat he sought to pass through Newnan that "he might 
cross the Chattahoochee, which was then the line. On 
the evening before. Gen. Roddy had started from West 
Point, for Atlanta, with a regiment of soldiers. On reach- 
ing Newnan he was informed by Col. Griffin, the Com- 
mandant of the post, that he would not be able to pass 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 323 

Palmetto on account of the destruction of the railroad at 
that place, by Kilpatrick, and moreover, on account of the 
excitement of the citizens, he would be glad for him to re- 
main at Newnan during the night, as he would have better 
accommodation for his men. This he consented to do. 
On the next morning, after the whistle had sounded, and 
G^n. Roddy and his men were getting on the train to 
leave, the advance guard of Kilpatrick's men came down 
the hill and commenced firing upon them. Gen. Roddy 
threw his men in battle line and soon drove them back. 
After retreating they made a detour around the town 
with the hope of reaching the river before Wheeler and 
his men should come up. But before doing that they again 
encountered Wheeler's men, who discomfitted them, scat- 
tering them in the woods and taking several hundred of 
them prisoners. There was a man in the neighborhood 
named Bostrom, and who had a lot of bloodhounds, and 
who assisted in the chase with his hounds, which greatly 
exsperated the Federals, many of whom were thus made 
prisoners, insomuch that they said that if they ever should 
have the opportunity they would wreak their vengeance 
upon the citizens and the place. 

Just before the close of the war, and but a few days 
before the armistice was declared, another raid was plan- 
ned and started from the upper part of Alabama under 
Col. Brownlow, who was a soldier under Kilpatrick of the 
first raid, who made Newnan the objective point, with the 
intention of destroying the place on account of indignities 
they had received. After reaching Georgia, they com- 
menced burning towns on the way till they reached Car- 
roUton, which they burned to show what they intended to 
do with Newnan, as they said on starting for the said 
doomed city. But fortunately for the place the armistice 
was proclaimed which put an end to the war. Citizens of 
the place were sent with a flag of truce to notify them 
that the armistice had been proclaimed. On learning 
this the raid passed through without doing any damage. 
On entering the place, however, they enquired of several 
citizens what had become of Bostrom and his dogs. Be- 



324 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

fore reaching the place they repeated their threats, and 
all through the country they expressed their regrets that 
the armistice had not met them after than before reaching 
Newnan, as they intended not to leave one stone standing 
upon another for the indignity of chasing them with dogs, 
and for the insults of the women, who had done every 
thing by way of indignity to them when prisoners, "ex- 
cept spit in their faces." 

Considering the kind protection over us when so near 
th€ enemies lines and so exposed, it being only nine miles 
to the Chattahoochee, the line, and the two marked divine 
interferences in the two cases mentioned, we can but feel 
and ever will believe it was a special act of protection and 
deliverance and in answer to prayer, which was regularly 
kept up by a faithful few during the entire period of the 



CHAPTER XXIII. 



FINAL OUTLOOK. 
WHY NO GREATER PROGRESS. 

(Written 1907.) 

It has now been one hundred and eleven years since 
the Presbytery of Hopewell was set up, and sixty two since 
the organization of the Synod of Greorgm. When organized 
there were on its roll sixty-four ministers, one hundred 
and thirty-four Churches, and five thousand ?nd fifty-seven 
n.embers. The present number is one hundred and sev- 
enteen ministers, two hundred and twenty-eight churches, 
and nineteen thousand and two hundred and forty three 
members. Thus it will appear that the annual rate of in- 
crease has been very small, being only a little more than 
one minister, two churches, and one hundred and seventy- 
three members per year. How account for this small 
growth? Although the Presbyterians were among the 
first to enter the field, bringing with them all the pres- 
tige of their past history and with all the educational 
centres in their hand, yet they have suffered the other 
Denominations to come in and far out strip them. While 
the Methodists and Baptists have their churches planted, 
like so many beacon lights in every village and hamlet, 
there are still forty of the counties of the state in which 
no Presbyterian church is to be seen. Of these three are 
in the Presbytery of Atlanta, nine in the Presbytery of 
Augusta, ten in Cherokee, eleven in Macon, six in Savan- 
nah. To Athens Presbytery alone belongs the honor of 
nah, and one in Athens. Here then, is a church 
one hundred and eleven years old, a church stained 
with the blood of martyrs, and rich in historic memories 
and associations, and still without a witness in about one 
fourth of the counties of the state. 

The fault surely cannot be with our Theology or 
Church Polity, for these have stood the test of ages; nor 
the fact that some of its doctrinal statements are regarded 



326 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

as hard, for they are held in common with a large portion 
of the Christian world; nor yet is the idle conceit to be in- 
dulged for a single moment that, while the numerical 
strength may be less, the excellency of the material used 
and superiority of the work done, will more than compen- 
sate for the deficiency in that direction. It is obviously 
out of place to talk of quality versus quantity, of Leonidas 
with his little band, or repeat the Scripture quotation of 
"one chasing a thousand, and two putting ten thousand 
to flight," so long as the roll of the churches are burdened 
with so many nominal and indifferent members. 

We think we can point out some few things, at least, 
that constitute a far more satisfactory solution of the 
problem. 

And first, we suggest that much of the ill success is 
attributable to the imperfect manner in which Presby- 
teries discharge their duty. The whole trouble may be 
summed up in one single sentence, viz: The want on 
their part of proper Episcopal authority and jurisdiction. 
In theory the Presbytery is a Bishop, with all power and 
authority, to manage and conrtol, but in practice it is but 
the indulgent parent Eli-like, wholly unable to control his 
household. "My sons why do you do such things?" being 
the extent of the jurisdiction. 

No one can read the minutes of the Assembly with- 
out being struck with the number of unsettled, umemploy- 
ed ministers and vacant churches. There are fifty of 
these in the Synod of Georgia alone. We have seen at 
times as many as one half of the churches of a Presbytery 
reported as "vacant." What a draft upon the resources 
and working force of a Presbytery. What farmer would 
remain long out of the Sheriff's hands who allowed so 
many of his laborers to remain idle, and so many of his 
fields to lie neglected? Or what merchant could keep 
out of the hands of the receiver who has his business no 
better in hand? 

With all due allowance for every honest effort to over- 
take the destitutions (and we know something of the diffi- 
culties), yet we cannot see how Presbyteries can hope to 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 327 

escape similar disaster when we consider some of their 
business methods. 

First, their treatment of newly organized churches. 
The sight is a very common one, and none the less sad on 
that account, to see the Presbyteries organize a church 
and then, seemingly oblivious to any further responsibility 
in the matter, leave it to shift for itself. Hundreds if not 
thousands of little churches have thus been organized and 
left to themselves only to linger, droop and die. Let the 
farmer plant his crop and then abandon it, or the hen. 
hatch her brood and then forsake them, and it would 
hardly require the wisdom of a prophet to forsee the re- 
sult. 

We lay down this broad proposition that organization 
carries with it the. idea of responsibility. No Presbytery 
has the right to organize a church unless it intends to take 
care of and nourish it until able to take care of itself. 
Nourishing is an important part of motherhood, and one 
of the main objects for which the Presbytery was constitu- 
ted. The helpless infant needs no more the mothers care 
than the feelble church the fostering care of the Presby- 
tery. The strong church can take care of itself. If the 
neglectful parent can become chargeable with the sin of 
infanticide, why may not the charge of Ecclesiasticide 
equally lie against the Presbytery that neglects its off- 
spring and leaves it to die? 

The same principles apply to licensure and ordination. 
No Presbytery has the right to license and ordain a man 
without giving him a field. To lay hold of a man and 
claim his time and labor, is but requiring brick without 
straw. And yet how often do we see men Icensed, and 
even ordained and then turned loose to manage their own 
affairs. We may well ask where is Episcopal authority in 
all this? 

The theory is for the church to select its own pastor. 
This is Presbyterianism as far as it goes, being only half 
of it however. The other half is Presbyterial care and 
oversight. The elective principle, allowing the church to 
choose its pastor does not destroy Episcopal authority for 



328 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

a moment. Until the pastor receives the call and the 
church is able to take care of itself, it is the solemn duty 
of the Presbytery to take the matter in hand, and furnish 
a field to the minister and a supply to the church. In this 
our Methodist Brethren furnish us a good example, and 
give one of the reasons for their success. They give em- 
ployment to every minister, and a laborer to every field. 
Their churches are never allowed to remain vacant, or 
their laborers idle. If they have a single vacant church in 
the state we are not aware of it. If Presbyterians would 
adopt this rule, there would be a wonderful improvement 
in the rate of their increase. 

Second. A second ground of failure lies in the matter 
of the dissolution of the pastoral relation, many of which 
are hasty and uncalled for. Not finding the field as pro- 
ductive as he had hoped, and in many instances unreason- 
ably expecting fruit without any previous labor, the young 
minister, especially, becomes restless and unable to wait 
till the regular meeting, succeeds in getting a called meet- 
ing and the relation dissolved and the church declared 
"vacant"' which means stoppage of work, loss of interest, 
waste of time, with general demoralization, leading to dis- 
integration and decay. No moving train can be brought 
to a standstill without a loss of time. No tree can be re- 
moved out of its bed and planted elsewhere withut being 
retarded in its growth. The waste of time and energy 
connected with the breaking up of pastoral relations in the 
Presbyterian church is simply enormous. Yea, beyond all 
computation. No wonder the progress of the church has 
been so slow when the interruptions have been so numer- 
ous. The wonder rather is that there has been any prog- 
ress at all. Here, again, the Methodist brethren have the 
advantage of us, inasmuch as they make their transfers 
all at once. 

But the matter assumes a still more serious aspect, 
when we remember the little part taken in these transfers, 
either by the Presbytery or the church. The practice has 
become so common of late of not regarding the wishes of 
the church, and to take action before consulting the Pres- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 329 

bytery, that it may be regarded well nigh the settled pol- 
icy of the church that the whole matter of removal is with 
the minister. If the minister only feels it to be his duty 
to go, the feeling of the church, no matter how strong 
over, goes for naught. Strange that the call from without 
should be regarded as the voice of God, but no voice of 
God in the louder unanimous home call. If the call to an- 
other field is to be interpreted as the voice of God calling 
him away, why is not the hearty unanimous wish of the 
home church, also interpreted as the voice of God to stay? 
Indeed, the churches are beginning to feel that it is useless 
for them to interpose any objections, and therefore seldom 
ever offer any. If the ministers wish is to be the rule 
then wherein consists the use or sense of consulting either 
the church or the Presbytery? Or what is the use for any 
Presbytery at all, if the whole thing is to be done in the 
pastor's study? My Brethren will pardon me for saying 
that this matter of establishing and dissolving the pastoral 
relation in the Presbyterian church is becoming in the 
minds of many, nothing but a solemn farce. For it all 
amouts simply to this: That the Presbytery is called to- 
gether simply to endorse what the pastor has not only de- 
termined to do, but what he has already done. If this be 
Presbyterianism, it is high time that some of the older 
ministers were reviewing their studies in this department 
at least, for to them, instead of Presbyterianism, it seems 
to be but a disguised species of independency. 



OHAPTER XXIV. 



The following statistics, comiparing all the ministers 
and churches ever in connection with th« (Synod were 
chiefly compiled from the church records. As the eccles- 
iastical year covers a part of two years, from April to 
April, for the Presytery and from November to Novem'ber 
for the Synod, there may be discovered, in some instances 
some slight inaccuracies, as to dates, as we have no 
means of determining whether the event recorded, oc- 
curred in the latter part of the one year, or the former 
part of the next. iWe have spared no pains, however in 
endeavoring to make the list as accurate and complete as 
possible. The star (*) after a name means "ordained." 
HOPEWEDL IPRESBYTERY. 
Set up December, 1796. 
MINISTERS. 

John Newton, received in 1797 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; died 1797. 

John Springer, received in 1797 from South Carolina 
Presbytery, died 1798. 

Robert Cunningham, received in 1797 from South Car- 
olina Presbytery; 'dismissed in 1809 to W. Lexington 
Presbytery; died in 1839. 

Moses Waddell, received in 1797 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1801 to South Carolina Presby- 
tery; died in 1840. 

Wm. Montgomery, received in 1797 from South Caro- 
lina Presbytery; dismissed in 1813 to Mississippi PresTay- 
tery; 'died in 1848. 

The above were the original ministers of the Presby- 
tery. 

Thomas Newton*, received in 1799; dismissed in 1822 
to Alabama IPresbytery; died in 1845. 

Edward Pharr*, received in 1801; died in 1845. 

John Hodge*, received in 1805 Lie. from Cumberland 
Presbytery; died in 1819. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 331 

Francis Cummins, received in 1805 from South Caro- 
lina Presbytery; died in 1832. 

Jno. R. Thompson*, received in 1807 Lie. from New 
York Presbytery; dismissed in 1809 to Harmony Presby- 
tery; died in 1846. 

John Brown, received in 1813 from Harmony Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1836 to Flint River Presbytery; died in 
1842. 

N. S. S. Beman, received in 1813 from Cumberland 
Association; dismissed in 1821; set off to Georgia Presby- 
tery. 

Henry Reid, received in 1815 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1819 to South Carolina Presby- 
tery; received in 1819 from South Carolina Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1829 to South Carolina Presbytery; received 
in 1829 from South Carolina Presbytery; dismissed to 
Tombeckbee Presbytery in 1837. 

Robert Finley, received in 1817 from New Brunswick 
Presbytery; died in 1817. 

B. Gildersleeve*, received in 1820; dismissed in 1827 
to Charleston Union Presbytery; died in 1875. 

Thos. Goulding, received in 1822 from Georgia Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1832 to Harmony Presbytery; died in 
1848. 

Orson Douglass*, received in 1822 Lie. from New 
Brunswick Presbytery; dismissed in 1823 to New Castle 
Presbytery. 

Jesse 'Stratton, received in 1823 from W. District As- 
sociation; dismissed in 1832 to South Alabama Presby- 
tery. 

R. Chamberlain, received in 1824 from Georgia Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1841 to Flint River Presbytery; died 
in 1856. 

Jno. S. Wilson, received in 1824 from South Caro- 
lina Presbytery; dismissed 1833; set off to Flint River 
Presbytery. 

A. H. Webster*, received in 1824; died in 1827. 

'f. Y. Alexander, received in 1825 from South Carolina 
Presbytery. 



332 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Henry Safford, received in 1821 from Royalton Associ- 
ation; dismissed in 1829 to Buffalo Presbytery; received 
in 1831 from Buffalo Presbytery; died in 1870. 

A. Church*, received in 1824; died in 1862. 

George Root*, received in 1825; dismissed in 1827 to 
Brookfield Association. 

A. Kirkpatrick, received in 1826 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1829 to South Carolina Presby- 
tery. 

Jos. C. Stiles*, received in 1826; dismissed in 1833 to 
Georgia Presbytery; died in 1879. 

James Gamble, received in 1827 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1840 to Flint River Presbytery. 

S. K. Talmage, received in 1828 from Newton Presby- 
tery; 'died in 1865. 

Nathan Hoyt, received in 1828 from Albany Presby- 
tery; died in 1866. 

John Harrison*, received in 1828 from South Carolina 
Presbytry; died in 1847. 

J. G. Patterson, received in 1828. 

S. J. Cassels*, received in 1829; dismissed in 1837 to 
Flint River Presbytery. 

W. B. Richards*, received in 1829; dismissed in 1833 
to Flint River Presbytery. 

■C. P. Beman, received in 1829; died in 1875. 

D. M. Winston*, received in 1829; dismissed in 1832 
to Georgia Presbytery. 

Henry Reed, received in 1829 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1837 to Tombeckbee Presbytery. 

Robert McAlpin, received in 1830 from Union Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1837 to East Alabama Presbytery. 

John Boggs, received in 1830 from Georgia Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1833 to South Carolina Presbytery. 

H. C. Carter, received in 1830; dismissed in 1840 to 
Etowah Presbytery; received in 1842 from Etowah Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1852 to Cherokee Presbytery. 

I. W. Waddell*, received in 1830, Lie. from South Car- 
olina Presbytery; dismissed in 1832 to South Carolina 
Presbytery; received in 1842 to from South Carolina Pres- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 333 

bytery; dismissed in 1843 to Good iHope Presbytery; died 
in 1849. 

Thos. F. Scott*, received in 1830; dismissed in 1833 to 
Good Hope Presbytery. 

Wm. Quillen, received in 1831 from Holstein Presby- 
tery; died in 1842. 

Edwin Holt, received in 1831 from Elizabethtown Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1833 to Good Hope Presbytery. 

Arthur A. Mooney, received in 1831 from Soutb Caro- 
lina Presbytery; dismissed in 1835 to Flint River Presby- 
tery. 

W. K. Patton*, received in 1832; dismissed in 1833; 
set off to Good Hope Presbytery. 

John Baker*, received in 1833, Lie. -.'om Georgia Pres- 
bytery; set off to Good Hope Presbytery 1833. . 

J. W. Reid, received in 1833; died in 1867. 

S. S. Davis, received in 1834 from Harmony Fresby- 
tery; dismissed in 1843 to Albany Presbytery; received in 
1845 from Albany Presbytery; dismissed in 1846 to Harm- 
ony Presbytery; received in 1853 from Harmony Presby- 
tery; died in 1877. 

C. W. Howard*, received in 1834; dismissed in 1840; 
joined Etowah Presbytery; died in 1876. 

T. M. Dwight*, received in 1834; dismissed in 1840; 
joined Etowah Presbytery; died in 1849. 

P. iC. Shellman, received 1834 from Methodist Episco- 
pal church; disappeared in 1840. 

Samuel P. Pressley, received in 1834 from the Associ- 
ate Reformed church; died in 1840. 

Lawson Clinton, received in 1834 from the Georgia 
Presbytery; died in 1838 or 1839. 

John G. Likens, received in 1835 from Union Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1836 to South Alabama Presbytery; died 
in 1840. 

F. R. Goulding*, received in 1835; dismissed in 1853 to 
Cherokee Presbytery; received in 1859 from Georgia Pres- 
bytery, dismissed in 1867 to Macon Prest>ytery; died in 
1881. 



334 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

J. H. George*, received in 1836; dismissed in 1840; 
joined Etowah Presbytery. 

J. W. Baker*, received in 1836 Lie. from New Bruns- 
wick Presbytery; dismissed in 1854 to Cherokee Presby- 
tery. 

R. H. Hooker*, received in 1837; died in 1857. 

J. B. Cassells*, received in 1836 Lie. from Harmony 
Presbytery; died in 1838. 

F. Bowman, received in 1837 from West Hanover 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1857 to Georgia Presbytery. 

John Warnock, received in 1837 from Flint River Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1841 to South Alabama Presbytery. 

A. N. Cunningham, received in 1838 from South Ala- 
bama Presbytery; dismissed in 1845; withdrew from Pres- 
bytery. 

Jas. W; Freeman, received in 1838; dismissed in 1842 
to Concord Presbytery. 

Jos. Templeton*, received in 1839; dismissed in 1842 
to Muhlenburg Presbytery. 

A. M. Edgerton, received in 1839 from Harmony Pres- 
bytery. 

G. H. W. 'Petrie*, received in 1839 from- Harmony 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1854 to Cherokee Presbytery, 

Philo Phelps, received in 1840 from Troy Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1840; set off to Florida Presby^tery. 

Joshua Phelps, received in 1840 from Philadelphia 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1840; set off to Florida ©resbj'- 
tery. 

R. M. Baker*, received in 1840; dismissed in 1841 to 
Florida Presbytery; received in 1847 from Florida Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1853 to Cherokee Presbytery. 

N. A. Pratt, received in 1840 from Georgia Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1842; set off to Cherokee Presbytery; died 
in 1879. 

A. B. McCorkle, received in 1842 from W. Lexington 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1842; set off to Cherokee Pres- 
bytery. 

I. W. Waddell, received in 1842. 

Jno. C. Baldwin, received in 1843 from Flint River 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 335 

Presbytery; dismissed in 1848 to Tombeckbee Presbytery. 

C. S. Dodd*, received in 1844; dismissed in 1847 to 
Cherokee Presbytery. 

Homer Hendee*, received in 1845; dismissed in 1853 
to Florida Presbytery; received in 1859 from Florida 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1861 to Flint River Presbytery; 
received in 1867 from Flint River Presbytery; dismissed 
in 1871 to Louisville Presbytery. 

Henry Newton*, received in 1847. 

W. P. Gready*, received in 1847 Lie. from New Bruns- 
wick Presbytery; dismissed in 1857 to South Carolina 
Presbytery; died in 1882. 

E. P. Rogers, received in 1847 from New Hampshire 
Association; dismissed in 1854 to Philadelphia Presby- 
tery. 

W. Baird, received in 1847 from Georgia Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1853 to Charleston Presbytery; died in 1868. 

R. C. Ketchum, received in 1848 from Charleston Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1867 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

W. H. Thompson*, received in 1849; dismissed in 
1853 to Nashville Presbytery. 

G. H. Cartledge*, received in 1849; died in 1899. 

J. U. Parsons, received in 1849 from Georgia Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1853 to the Barnstable Association. 

C. B. King*, received in 1850; dismissed in 1850 to 
Flint River Presbytery; dismissed in 1861 to Georgia Pres- 
bytery. 

J. L. Rogers, received in 1852 from Cherokee Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1852 to Cherokee Presbytery. 

J. R. Bowman*, received in 1852; dismissed in 1854 to 
Tuscaloosa Presbytery. 

D. McN. Turner, received in 1852 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1854 to Florida Presbytery. 

Robert Logan, received in 1853 from Concord Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1854 to South Carolina Presbytery; re- 
ceived in 1856 from South Carolina Presbytery; dismissed 
in 1858 to Flint River Presbytery. 

Wm. G, Williams, received in 1853 from Georgia Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1856 to Tuscambia Presbytery. 



336 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

R. L. Br€ck, received in 1854 from W. Lrexington Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1858 to New Albany Presbytery. 

R. K. Porters*, received in 1854; dismissed in 1867 to 
Atlanta Presbytery; died in 1869. 

R. W. Milner*, received in 1854; dismissed in 1867 to 
Cherokee Presbytery. 

I. S. K. Axson, received in 1854 from Georgia Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1865 to Georgia Presbytery. 

Wm. Flinn, received in 1855 from Tuscaloosa Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1865 to Augusta Presbytery. 

E. D. Eldridge, received in 1855 from Hopkinson Asso- 
ciation; dismissed in 1859 to Flint River Presbytery. 

R. A. Houston*, received in 1855; dismissed in 1856 
to East Alabama Presbytery; received in 1858 from East 
Alabama Presbytery. 

John Jones, received in 1856 from Georgia Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1857 to Cherokee Presbytery. 

C. W. Lane*, received in 1857; died in 1896. 

L. A. Simonton*, received in 1857; dismissed in 1859 
to Flint River Presbytery; died in 1859. 

J. R. Wilson, received in 1858 from Lexington Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1872 to Charleston Presbytery. 

G. W. Boggs, received in 1858 from Tuscaloosa Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1872 to Charleston Presbytery. 

J. C. Humphreys*, received in 1858 Lie. from Flint 
River Presbytery; died in 1859. 

David Wells, received in 1860 from South Carolina 
Presbytery. 

J. B. Dunwody, received in 1860 from Charleston 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1874 to Charleston Presbytery. 

James Woodrow, received in 1860. 

J. H. Kaufman, received in 1862 from Baltimore Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1864 to Cherokee Presbytery. 

F. T. Simpson, received in 1862. 

A. W. Pitzer, received in 1862 from Highland Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1865 to Montgomery Presbytery. 

A. D. Montgomery, received in 1863 from South Caro- 
lina Presbytery; dismissed 1868 to Concord Presbytery. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 337 

W. H. Adams*, received in 1863; dismissed in 1865 to 
East Alabama Presbytery. 

P. C. Morton*, received in 1866; dismissed in 1886 to 
South Alabama Presbytery. 

In 1867 the Presbytery of Hopewell ceased to exist, 
as its name was then changed and afterwards divided by 
the Synod of Georgia into the Presbyteries of Athens and 
Augusta. 

CHURCHES OF HOPEWELL PRESBYTERY. 

Bethsalem — Now Lexington, organized about 1787. 

Bethany — Organized about 1788. 

Ebenezer — (Mt. Zion), organized about 1788. ' 

Richmond, organized about 1788. 

Bethlehem, organized about 1789. 

Siloam — (Greensboro), organized about 1790. 

Goshen — "near Greensboro," organized about 1790. 

New Hope — Madison County. Probably the third old- 
est church in the Synod of Georgia. 

Smyrna — Washington. 

Providence — Wilkes County. 

Carmel. 

Joppa. 

Sharon. 

Shiloh. 

Liberty — Woodstock. 

Concord — Franklin County. 

The above were the original churches at the organiza- 
tion in 1796. 

Hebron — Received 1797. 

Unity — At confluence of Cedar Creek with Oconee 
River. 

Bethsaida — Sandy Creek, Jackson Co. 

Jefferson. 

Flat Creek— 1802. 

St. Paul's— Augusta, enrolled 1806. 

Mendham — Jackson County. 

Pisgah — Madison County, organized by John Hodge, 
1810. 

Union— Oglethorpe County, first mentioned 1810. 



338 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

P-ergamos — by Dr. Cummins, received 1810. 

Currie's Creek, Thyatira, Jackson County, first men- 
tioned 1810. 

Thyatira — Morgan County, 1810; name changed to 
Bethel, 1821. 

Carmel — Organized by Rev. Thos. Newton, 1810. 

Center — Oglethorpe County, Presbytery met there 1818. 

Alcovia — Walton County, first mentioned 1820. 

Goshen— (Walton County?), first mentioned 1820. 

Eatonton, first mentioned 1820. 

Danielsville, first mentioned 1820. 

Mulberry — Jackson County, first mentioned 1820. 

Madison, first mentioned 1820. 

Athens, first mentioned 1820. 

Clinton — Jones County, 1820. 

Bethel — Lincoln County, .lirst mentioned 1823. 

Bethesda — Elbert County, first mentioned 1824. 

First Presbyterian Church — ^^Gwinnett County, Fair- 
view, 1824. 

Westminster — Decatur, De Kalb County, organized by 
Dr. Wilson, 1825. 

Harmony — "Near Decatur," De Kalb County, organized 
by Dr. Wilson, 1825. 

Philadelphia — Henry County, 1825. 

Cherokee Corner — Oglethorpe County, 1825. 

Hillsboro — Jasper County, first mentioned 1826. 

Jackson — Butts County, by Chamberlain, 1826. 

Milledgeville, by Gildersleeve, 1826. 

Macon, 1826. 

Covington, 1827. 

Smyrna — Newton County, reported by Dr. J. S. Wilson 
as organized December 1827. 

First Presbyterian Church — Hall County. 

McDonough — Henry County. 

Newnan, by Chamberlain, 1828. 

New Lebanon — (Homer), Franklin County, 1828. 

South Liberty, 1828. 

Zebulon— Pike County, 1828. 

Forsyth — Monroe County, 1828. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 339 

Mt. Olivet— Columbia County, 1828, extinct in 1839. 

Hopewell — Crawford County, first mentioned 1828. 

Bethel — Jasper County, 1828. 

Greenville — Meriwether County, 1829. 

Thomaston — Macon County, 1829. 

LaGrange, 1829. 

Nazareth— Hall County, 1829. 

Columbus, 1829. 

Ephesus, 1829. 

Hamilton, 1829. 

Monticello, 1829. 

Hickory Grove— Hall County, 1829. 

Lincolnton, 1829. 

Concord— Hall County, 1829. 

Burke County Church, received 1830. Formerly Con- 
gregational. 

Gainesville, first mentioned 1830, stricken from roll 
1848. 

Fayetteville— Fayette County, first mentioned 1830. 

Berhesda— Bibb County, by Dr. Patterson, received 

1830. 

Providence— Heard County, by Carter, received 1831. 

Oak Grove — Ja&per County, first mentioned 1832. 

Hopewell— Jasper County, by Richards 1833, stricken 
from roll 1848, dissolved 1855. 

Bethel— Columbia County, by Moderwell 1833. 

Livingston — ^Floyd County, Dr. Wilson, 1834. 

Cassville, Dr. WilsOn, 1834. 

Salem — Wilkes County, reorganized 1834, by Cassels. 

Canton, by Quillin, 1835. 

Gumming — Forsyth County, 1835. 

Enon— Walker County, 1835. 

Louisville— Burke County, reported 1825, reorganized 
1846, committee appointed by Augusta Presbytery 1859 to 
organize "if expedient." 

Chattooga, by Quillin, 1836. 

Ebenezer— Clarke County, by Dr. Church 1837, dis- 
solved 1859. 

Marietta, 1837, first mentioned. 



340 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Mars Hill, 1839, first mentioned. 

Walnut Grov€, 1840, first mentioned. 

Sardis, 1840, first mentioned. 

African Church — Augusta, 1840, first mentioned. 

Roswell, received 1840. 

Turkey Creek — Franklin County, by Freeman 1840; 
name changed to Carnesville 1859. 

Ebenezer — Walker County, first mentioned 1841. 

Hickory Flat — Cherokee County, first mentioned 1841. 

Harmony, received from Etowah Presbytery 1842. 

'Salem, organized by Carter, 1842. 

Crawfordville, first mentioned 1844, dissolved 1845, 

Sparta, first mentioned 1844. 

Clarksville, 1844. 

Pleasant Hill— Elbert County, 1851. 

Green St., Augusta, 1852, dissolved 18^6. 

Waynesboro and Bath, received 1853. Oldest church 
in Synod of Georgia, as it was in existence in 1760. 

Irwinton, by Dr. Talmage, 1854. 

Pleasant Green — Jackson County, 1856, from Thyatira. 

Appling — Columbia County, 1858. 

Harmony — Hart County, 1858. 

Goshen — Lincoln County, first mentioned 1858. 

Colored church — Macon, 1866. 

Elberton— Elbert County, first mentioned 1867. 

Gainesville, first mentioned 1867. 



GEORGIA PRESBYTERY. 
Set up 1820, Changed to Savannah 1867. 
MINISTERS. 
Wm. McWhir, received in 1815 from Killilah Presby- 
tery; died 1851. 

Murdock Murphy, received in 1813, dismissed in 1826 
to East Alabama Presbytery; died in 1833. 

N. S. S. Beman, received in 1813; dismissed to Troy 
Presbytery in 1823. 

Thos. Goulding; died in 1848. 
Wm. Moderwell. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 341 

S. S. Davis; dismissed in 1828 to Harmony Presby- 
tery. 

R. Chamberlain; dismissed in 1829 to Hopewell Pres- 
bytery; died in 1877. 

B. Gildersleeve. 

Above were the original members. 

Joseph Wood*, received in 1821 Lie. from Harmony 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1823 to Tennessee Presbytery. 

Horace S. Pratt*, received in 1822 Lie. New Bruns- 
wick Presbytery; dismissed in 1839 to Tuscaloosa Presby- 
tery. 

G. G. McWhorter, received in 1823 from Harmony 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1828 to Alabama Presbytery. 

Robert Quarterman*, received in 1823 Lie. from Harm- 
ony Presbytery; died in 1849. 

N. A. Pratt, received in 1826 from New Brunswick 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1840 to Hopewell Presbytery. 

Lawson Clinton*, received in 1826; dismissed in 1834 
to Hopewell Presbytery; died in 1838. 

E. H. Snowden, received in 1827 from New York Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1830 to E. Hanover Presbytery; re- 
ceived in 1833 from E. Hanover Presbytery; dismissed in 
1834 to Waterton Presbytery. 

H. M. Blodgett, received in 1828 from Andover Asso- 
ciation; dismissed in 1833 to Charleston Union; dismissed 
in 1838 to New Haven Association. 

John Boggs, received in 1828 from New Brunswick 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1829 to Hopewell Presbytery. 

Jas. S. Olcott, received in 1830 from Newark Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1836 to Flint River Presbytery; 1839 
deposed. 

Daniel Baker, received in 1830 from District of Co- 
lumbia Presbytery; dismissed in 1835 to W. Lexington 
Presbytery. 

C. C. Jones*, received 1831 Lie. from New Brunswick 
Presbytery; died in 1863. 

Jno. D. Mathews, received 1832 from Winchester 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1833 to Philadelphia Presbytery. 



342 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Thos. Alexander, received in 1833 from Harmony 
Presbytery; died in 1836. 

A. Benedict, received in 1833 from Fairfield Associa- 
tion; died in 1833. 

Jos. C. Stiles, received in 1833 from Hopewell Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1835 to W. Lexington Presbytery; died 
in 1879. 

D. M. Winston, received in 1833 from Hopewell Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1835 to W. Lexington Presbytery; 
died in 1839. 

Benj. Burroughs, received in 1833 from New York 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1846; set off to Florida Presby- 
tery; received in 1847 from Florida Presbytery; died in 
18'54. 

Horace Galpin, received in 1835 from Ontario Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1841 to New York Presbytery. 

W. Bairds*, received in 1836, Lie. from Charleston 
Union; dismissed in 1847 to Hopewell Presbytery. 

Jos. H. Jones, received in 1837 from Flint River Pres- 
bytery; died in 1841. 

J. C. Cosby*, received in 1837, Lie. from Hopewell 
Presbytery; died in 1837. 

I. S. K. Axson, received in 1838 from Charleston Un- 
ion; dismissed in 1854 to Hopewell Presbytery; received 
in 1854 from Hopewell Presbytery; dismissed in 1867 to 
Savannah Presbytery; died in 1891. 

Robert Dunlop*, received in 1838, Lie. from Philadel- 
phia Presbytery; dismissed in 1840 to New Castle Pres- 
bytery; died in 1891. 

John Winn*, received in 1838 from Harmony Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1858 to Peoria Presbytery. 

John Jones*, received in 1841; dismissed in 1848 to 
Cherokee Presbytery; reeceived in 1855 from Cherokee 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1855 to Hopewell Presbytery. 

B. M. Palmer*, received in 1842, Lie. from Charleston 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1843 to Charleston Presbytery. 

Henry Axtel, received in 1842 from Newark Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1851 to Louisiana Presbytery. 

A. W. McClure, received in 1844 from Suffolk Associa- 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 343 

tion; dismissed in 1847 to Suffolk Association. 

J. B. Ross, received 1844 from W. Hanover Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1854 to W. Hanover Presbytery. 

J. B. Stevens, received in 1845 from Cumberland As- 
sociation; dismissed in 1847 to Flint River Presbytery. 

L. S. Beebee, received in 1845 from New Brunswick 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1852 to Eastern Shore Presby- 
tery; suspended in 1853. 

R. K. Sewell*, received in 1846; dismissed in 1853 
to Lincoln Association. 

J. W. Quarterman*, received in 1846; dismissed in 
1846 missionary to China; died in 1857. 

M. A. Williams*, received in 1846; dismissed- in 1849 
to Red Stone Presbytery. 

T. S. Winn*, received in 1846; dismissed in 1855 to 
Tuscaloosa Presbytery. 

S. J. Cassels, received in 1847 from Hanover Presby- 
tery. 

H. K. Reese*, received in 1848, Lie. from Cherokee 
Presbytery; joined Episcopal church in 1853. 

W. G. Williams*, received in 1848 from E. Hanover. 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1853 to Hopewell Presbytery. 

J. M. Quarterman*, received in 1851; dismissed in 
1855 to Florida Presbytery; died in 1858. 

Donald Fraser*, received in 1851 ; dismissed in 1856 
to Florida Presbytery; dismissed in 1872 to Atlanta Pres- 
bytery; died in 1890. 

J. H. Meyers, received in 1853 from Union (N. S.) 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1854 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

E. J. Williams, received in 1853, Lie. from New Castle 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1853 missionary to Africa; died 
in 1866. 

Jas. Stacy*, received in 1853; dismissed in 1855 to 
Flint River Presbytery; died 1912. 

A. W. Sproull*, received in 1853, Lie. from Philadel- 
phia Presbytery; dismissed in 1854 to Florida Presbytery. 

D. L. Buttolp'h*, received in 1854 from Charleston Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 186'5 to Cherokee Presbytery. 



344 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

T. B. Neil*, received in 1855 from Charleston Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1865 to Cherokee Presbytery. 

D. H. Porter*, received in 1855 from Charleston Pres- 
bytery; died in 1873. 

R. Q. Mallard*, received in 1856; dismissed in 1863 
to Flint River Presbytery; dismissed in 1866 to New Or- 
leans Presbytery. 

Geo. C. Fleming, received in 1857 from Florida Pres- 
bytery; died in 1858. 

H. L. Deane, received in 1857 from Flint River Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1868 to Atlanta Presbytery; died in 
1886. 

F. H. Bowman, received in 1857 Lie. from Hopewell 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1859 to Tuscaloosa Presbytery; 
died in 1873. 

F. Bowman, received in 1857 from Hopewell Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1862 to W. Hanover Presbytery. 

F. R. Goulding, received in 1858 from Cherokee Pres- 
bytery; transferred to Macon Presbytery in 1866; died in 
1881. 

R. Q. Way, received in 1861 from Ningpo Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1868 to Savannah Presbytery; died in 1895. 

Geo. W. Ladson, received in 186'2; died in 1864. 

C. B. King, received in 1862 from Hopewell Presby- 
tery; transferred in 1881 to Savannah Presbytery. 

Jas. S. Cosby*, received in 1864 Lie. from Charleston 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1868 to Macon Presbytery. 

N. P. Quarterman*, received in 1866; dismissed in 1877 
to Florida Presbytery. 

Name of Presbytery changed from Georgia to Savan- 
nah in 1867. 

CHURCHES. 

Augusta — Received 1821, received from Harmony at 
organization. 

Mt. Zion — Received 1821, received from Hopewell at 
organization. 

Darien— Received 1821, dissolved 1823. 

St. Marys— Received 1822. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 345 

Louisville — Received 1823. 

Clinton — Received 1822, Jones County. 

St. Augustine — Received 1826. 

Savannah — Received 1827. 

Bryan Neck — Received 1830. 

Waynesville— Received 1832, dissolved 1897. 

Mandarin (Fla.)— Received 1834. 

Bethel— Received 1834. 

Tallahassee— Received 1834. 

Linton Grove — Received 1837, Camden County, dis- 
solved 1849. 

Quincy (Fla.)— Received 1839. 

Madison, (Fla.)— Received 1840. 

Pleasant Grove — Received 1843, Liberty County. 

Jacksonville — Received 1844. 

Mt. Vernon — Received 1851. 

Walthousville — Received 1856. 

Flemington — Received 1866. 

Bainbridge — Received 1867, set off to Macon Pres. 
1898. 

Brunswick — Received 1867. 

NAME OF THE PRESBYTERY CHANGED TO 
SAVANNAH 1867 

Thomasville — Received 1868, set off to Macon 1898. 

Quitman— Received 1868, set off to Macon 1898. 

Bethany— Received 1868, set off to Macon 1898. 

Mineral Spring — Received 1868. 

Valdosta— Received 1868. 

Stockton— Received 1868, dissolved 1871. 

Pleasant Grove— Received 1870, set off to Macon 1898. 

Dorchester — Received 1871. 

Blackshear — Received 1872. 

Mt. Horeb— Received 1875, set off to Macon 1898. 

Cairo— Received 1878, set off to Macon 1898. 

From 1881—1890 the Presbytery of Savannah was con- 
nected with the Synod of South Georgia and Florida. The 
condition of the churches remained the same with the fol- 
lowing exceptions: 

Hazelhurst — Received 1881. 



346 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Savannah Col'd — Received 1881, dissolved 1884. . 

Faceville— Received 1883, set off to Macon 1898. 

Waycross — Received 1886. 

Poulan— Received 1888, set off to Macon 1898. 
PRESBYTERY OF SAVANNAH RESTORED TO 'SYNOD 
OF GEORGIA 1890 

Vidalia— Received 1890. 

Bushy Park— Received 1890, dissolved 1896. 

Savannah 2nd — Received 1890, changed to Westmin- 
ster 1902. 

Glenwood — Received 1891. 

Mt. Zion— Received 1891. 

Pooler — Received 1891, dissolved 1901. 

Adel— Received 1891. 

McEachern — Received 1892, dissolved 1894. 

Oconee— Received 1892, dissolved 1896. 

Marlow — Received 1892, changed to Helmy Chapel 1904. 

Ebenezer — Received 1892. 

Grant Chapel — Received 1892, (col'd) transferred to 
Knox Pres. 1898. 

Moultrie— Received 1892, set off to Macon 1898. 

Climax— Received 1893, set off to Macon 1898. 

Statesboro— Received 1896. 

Offerman— Received 1896, dissolved 1898. 

Fitzgerald— Received 1896. 

Erick — Received 1897. 

Daisy— Received 1898. 

McRae — Received 1898. 

Tifton— Received 1899. 

Douglas — Received 1903. 

Metter — Received 1903. 

McGregor — Received 1903, 

Aimwell — Received 1904. 

Sadie — Received 1906, 

Nashville — Received 1906, 

Ludowici — Received 1906. 

Swainsboro — Received 1907. 

Jesup — Received 1907. 

Lumber City — Received 1907. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 341 

SAVANNAH PRESBYTERY 
S€t up 1867. 
MINISTERS. 

D. L. Buttolph; died 1891. 

D. H. Porter; died 1873. 

Jas. S. Cosby; died 1894. 

R. Q. Way; died 1895. 

N. P. Quarterman; dismissed in 1877 to Florida Pres- 
bytery. 

I. S. K. Axson; died in 1891. 

C. B. King; died in 1890. 

J. H. Meyers. 

H. L. Deane; died in 1886. 

The above were the original members. 

David Comfort, received in 1868 from Florida Pres- 
bytery; died in 1873. 

J. H. Alexander, received in 1868 from Florida Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1872 to North Alabama Presbytery. 

Jno. McKittrick, received in 1868 from Florida Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1869 to South Carolina Presbytery. 

W. E. Hamilton, received in 1868 from Florida Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1869 to Elizabeth Presbytery. 

H. B. Cunningham, received in 1869 from Patapsco 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1870 to W. Lexington Presby- 
tery. 

A. W. Clisby, received in 1869 from Florida Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1873 to Macon Presbytery. 

J. W. Montgomery, received in 1871 from Florida 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1893 to Dallas Presbytery. 

J. W. Quarterman*, received in 1871; went out with 
the Presbytery in 1881. 

R. Q. Baker*, received in 1872; went out with the Pres- 
bytery in 1881. 

H. F. Hoyt, received in 1872 from Macon Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1879 to Macon Presbytery. 

S. H. Bell*, received in 1874 Lie. from Washington 
Presbytery; name lost from roll in 1876. 

J. A. Smith*, received in 1874; joined another church 
in 1880. 



348 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

J. A. McKee, received in 1874 from New Albany Pres- 
bytery; transferred with Presbytery to Florida in 1881; 
died in 1897. 

E. C. Gordon, received in 1874 from Lexington Pres- 
bytery; transferred with Presbytery to Florida in 1881; 
died in 1887. 

D. K. McFarland, received in 1874 from Chickashaw 
Presbytery; transferred with Presbytery in 1881 to Pres- 
bytery of Florida. 

Jos. Washburn, received in 1875 from Augusta Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1880 to Athens Presbytery; died in 
1886. 

A. B. Curry*, received in 1875; went out with Pres- 
bytery in 1881. 

R. A. Mickle, received in 1858 from Charleston Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1880 to Mobile Presbytery; died in 
1906. 

J. J. Anderson*, received in 1868 candidate South Ala- 
bama Presbytery; dismissed in 1876 to East Hanover 
Presbytery. 

D. C. Rankin*, received in 1877 Lie. from Harmony 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1878 to Orange Presbytery. 

R. P. Kerr, received in 1877 from Lafayette Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1880 to Macon Presbytery. 

J. T. McBride, received in 1879 from Macon Presby- 
tery; went out with the Presbytery in 1881. 

M. C. Britt, received in 1879 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; went out with the Presbytery in 1881. 

B. E. Goode*, received in 1879 Lie. from W. Hanover 
Presbytery; name disappears in 1883. 

From 1881 to 1891 the Presbytery of Savannah was 
connected with the Synod of South Georgia and Florida. 

T. M. Boyd, received in 1881 from Lexington Presbv- 
'tery; dismissed in 1886 to Ovachita Presbytery; died ^n 
1906. 

I. W. Waddell*, received in 1883 Lie. from Cherokeft 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1885 to Macon Presbytery. 
G. W. Brown, colored, received in 1883. 
J. W. Kerr, received in 1883 from Macon Presbytery; 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 349 

in 1886 to Central Mississippi Presbytery; died in 1901. 

J. W. Rogan, received in 1883 from Abington Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1890 to Baltimore Presbytery; died in 
1891. 

R. Henderson, received in 1884 from E. Hanover Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1885; died in 1886. 

J. N. Bradshaw, received in 1885 from Atlanta Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1889 to Florida Presbytery. 

Luther Link*, received in 1885. 

J. H. Herberner*, received in 1886; dismissed in 1892 
to Louisville Presbytery, U. S. A. 

W. A. Jones*, received in 1886 Lie. from Baltimore 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1890 to East Texas Presbytery. 

W. H. McMeen, received in 1886 from Marion Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1891 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

P. F. Brown, received in 1886 from W. Hanover Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1892 to Knoxville Presbytery. 

H. H. N-ewman*, received in 1886 Lie. Columbia Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1889 to Florida Presbytery. 

W. McF, Alexander, received in 1887; dismissed in 
1890 to Memphis Presbytery. 

W. C. Wallace, received in 1888 from Larned Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1893 to Larned Presbytery. 

J. P. Word, received in 1889 from North Alabama 
Presbytery; set off to Macon in 1881. 

R. L. Fulton, received in 1889 from Tuscaloosa Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1889 to Augusta Presbytery. 

L. B. Davis*, received in 1889; dismissed in 1893 to 
Atlanta Presbytery. 

N. Keff Smith, received in 1889 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1892 to Charleston Presbytery. 

L. C. Vass, received in 1890 from Albermarle Presby- 
tery; died in 1897. 

R. E. Steele*, received in 1890; dismissed in 1891 to 
New Orleans Presbytery. 

After their return to the Synod of Georgia: 

J. E. McLean, received in 1891 from North Alabama 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1892 to the Dallas Presbytery. 

T. J. Allison, received in 1891 from Concord Presby- 



350 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

tery; dismissed in 1893 to North Alabama Presbytery. 

Robert S. Brown, received in 1892 from Mecklenburg 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1894 to Columbia Presbytery. 

W. S. Porter*, received in 1892 Lie. from Charleston 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1895 to Florida Presbytery. 

E. W. Way*, received in 1892; dismissed in 1895 to 
Suwanee Presbytery. 

J. D. Taylor*, colored, received in 1892 Lie. from Meck- 
lenburg Presbytery; dismissed in 1898 to Knox Presby- 
tery. 

L. T. Way*, received in 1892; dismissed in 1899 to 
Macon Presbytery. 

C. C. Carson*, received in 1893 Lie. Holston Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1908 to Holston Presbytery. 

J. P. Marion, received in 1893 from Concord Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1896 to South Carolina Presbytery; died 
in 1907. 

D. F. Sheppard, received in 1893 from North Missis- 
sippi Presbytery; dismissed in 1893 to Atlanta Presbytery; 
received in 1900 from Atlanta Presbytery; dismissed 1890 
to Mecklenburg Presbytery. 

M. McGillivary*, received in 1894 Lie. from Charles- 
ton Presbytery; dismissed in 1896 to Macon Presbytery. 

W. A. Nesbit, received in 1894 from Cherokee Presby- 
tery. 

T. M. Hunter*, received in 1895 Lie. from Nashville 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1897 to Western District Pres- 
bytery. 

R. C. Gilmore*, received in 1895 Lie. from Lexington 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1898 to Lexington Presbytery. 

E. D. Viser, received in 1895 from Mississippi Presby- 
tery; died in 1896. 

J. W. Folsom, received in 1895 from Richland (Cum- 
berland) Presbytery; dismissed in 1897 to Georgia (Cum- 
berland) Presbytery. 

Geo. L. Cook, received in 1895 from Columbia Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1898 to Concord Presbytery. 

N. M. Templeton*, received in 1896 Lie. from Enorea 
Presbytery; died in 1897. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 351 

R. A. Brown, received in 1896 Lie. from Orange Pres- 
bytery. 

Chas. Montgomery*, received in 1896 Lie. from Har- 
mony Presbytery. 

November, 1897, the counties of Decatur, Thomas, 
Worth, Brooks and Colquitt were by the iSynod set off 
from Savannah to the Presbytery of Macon. 

A. J. Smith, received 1897 Classis of Greene; dismiss- 
ed in 1901 evangelist. 

E. D. McDougal, received in 1897 from Cherokee Pres- 
bytery; set off to Macon Presbytery in 1897. 

R. A. QPair, received in 1897 from East Hanover Pres- 
bytery; died in 1899. 

Jas. Y. Fair, received in 1897 from East Hanover 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1910 to East Hanover Presby- 
tery. 

W. F. Hollingsworth, received in 1898 from Cherokee 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1905 to Concord Presbytery. 

W. M. Hunter, received in 1899 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1903 to Norfolk Presbytery. 

H. G. Griswold, received in 1899 from Macon Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1900 to Macon Presbytery. 

L. R. Lynn*, received in 1899 Cand. Memphis Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1901 to Suwanee Presbytery. 

A. S. Allen, received in 1899 from Nashville Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1904 to Columbia Presbytery. 

W. P. McCorkle, received in 1901 from Orange Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1907 to Roanoke Presbytery. 

Edgar Tufts, received in 1901 from Concord Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1902 to Concord Presbytery. 

J. Y. Yandle, received in 1901 from Fayetteville Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1904 to North Mississippi Presbytery. 

J. B. Cochran, received in 1901 from Asheville Pres- 
bj^ery; dismissed in 1903 to Kings Mountain Presbytery. 

iS. W. DuBose, received in 1903 from Cherokee Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1905 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

W. C. Hagan, received in 1903 from Mecklenburg Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1905 to Macon Presbytery. 



352 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

J. McD. A. Lacy, received in 1902; dismissed in 1903 
to Abingdon Presbytery. 

W. W. Edge, received in 1905 from Concord Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1907 to Westminster Presbytery. 

F. D. Thomas, received in 1905 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery. 

H. E. McClure, received in 1906 from Tombeckbee 
Presbytery. 

Alex Kirkland, received in 1906 from Macon Presby- 
tery; died in 1910. 

W. S. Harden*, received in 1906 Lie; dismissed in 
1910 to Macon Presbytery. 

H. M. Perkins, received in 1907 from Rio Grande U. S. 
A. Presbytery; dismissed in 1908 to Pecos U. S. A. PreslDy- 
tery, 

J. W. Atwood, received 1907 from Meridian Presby- 
tery; dismissed 1908 to Louisville Presbytery. 

W. S. Wadley, received in 1907 from Chickasaw Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1908 to Florida Presbytery. 

Wm. Denham, received in 1907 from Nashville Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1909 to Arkansas Presbytery. 

Wm. Moore Scott, received in 1908 from Memphis Pres- 
bytery. 

Henry Rankin, received in 1908 from Reformed Epis- 
copal Church. 

C. B. Boyles, received in 1908 from Memphis Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1910 to Tuscaloosa Presbytery. 

L. A. McLaurin, received in 1909 from Fayette^ille 
Presbytery. 

Geo. L. Bitzer, received in 1909 from Eastern Texas 
Presbytery. 

W. S. Milne, received in 1909 from St. Johns Presby- 
tery. 

C. 'G. Christian, received in 1910 from Albermarle 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1911 to Central Texas Presby- 
tery. 

Rockwell S. Brank, received in 1910 from St. Louis 
Presbytery. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 353 

R. M. Mann, received in 1911 from Mecklenburg Pres- 
byterj^ 

A. \V. Pierce, received in 1911 from St. John Presby- 
tery. 



GOOD HOPE PRESBYTERY 

(And Flint River and Atlanta.) 

Set up 1834. 

MINISTERS. 

James Gamble, dismissed in 1838 to Hopewell Presby- 
tery. 

R. Chamberlain, dismissed in 1841 to Hopewell Presby- 
tery; died in 1856. 

Jno. S. Wilson, died in 1873. 

J. Y. Alexander, died in 1857. 

J. C. Patterson, died in 1866. 

Thos. F. Scott, dismissed in 1837 to West Tennessee 
Presbytery; joined Episcopal church in 1839. 

W. B. Richards, joined Baptist church in 1839. 

W. K. Patton, dismissed in 1842 to East Alabama Pres- 
bytery. 

John Baker, died in 1834. 

Edwin Holt, dismissed in 1836 to Newburyport Presby- 
tery. 

Above were original members. 

Michael Dickson, received in 1834 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1843 to East Alabama Presby- 
tery; received in 1844 from East Alabama Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1846 to East Alabama Presbytery. 

James Stratton*, received in 1835; joined another 
church in 1843. 

Name of Presbytery changed to Flint River March 14, 
1835. 

Thos. Goulding, received in 1835 from Harmony Pres- 
bytery; died in 1848. 

A. M. Mooney, received in 1835 from Harmony Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1841 to South Alabama Presbytery. 

Jno. Warnock, received in 1835 from Fayetteville Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1837 to Hopewell Presbytery. 



354 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

T. F. Montgom€ry*, received in 1836; dismissed in 
1857 to Cherokee Presbytery; received in 1858 from Cher- 
okee Presbytery; dismissed in 1870 to Florida Presbytery. 

Jos. L. Jones*, received in 1836; dismissed in 1837 to 
Georgia Presbytery. 

John Brown, received in 1837 from Hopewell Presby- 
tery; set off to Florida in 1841. 

S. J. Cassells, received in 1837 from Hopewell Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1842 to East Hanover Presbytery; re< 
ceived in 1850 (?) from E. Hanover Presbytery; dismissed 
in 1851 to Georgia Presbytery; died in 1853. 

Lyman Corbin*, received 1838 Lie. from Hopewell 
Presbytery; died in 1844. 

Jas. H. Saye*, received in 1838; dismissed in 1839 to 
Bethel Presbytery. 

J. G. Likens, received in 1839 from South Alabama 
Presbytery; died in 1840. 

R. J. Montgomery, received in 1839 from Union Presby- 
tery; died in 1840. 

R. T. Marks*, received in 1839; died in 1867. 

S. W. Erwin*, received in 1839 from Concord Presby- 
tery; died in 1840. 

Geo. W. McKoy*, received in 1840. 

Aaron H. Hand*, received in 1841; dismissed in 1843 
to Northumberland Presbytery. 

W. M. Cunningham, received in 1841 from Lexington 
Presbytery; died in 1870. 

Daniel Engles*, received in 1842; dismissed in 1851 to 
Cherokee Presbytery. 

Geo. Dunham, received in 1842 from Holston Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1849 to Greenbrier Presbytery. 

H. L. Dean, received in 1842 from New Hampshire As- 
sociation; dismissed in 1856 to Georgia Presbytery. 

N. A. Pratt, received in 1843; added by Synod. 

I. W. Waddell, received in 1843; added by Synod; died 
in 1849. 

A. B. McCorkle, received in 1843; added by Synod. 

J. U. Parsons, received in 1845 from Evangelical Asso- 
ciation; dismissed* in 1849 to Hopewell Presbytery. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 355 

W. J. Keith, received in 1846 from Union Presbytery; 
died in 1874. 

J. R. McCarter*, received in 1846; dismissed in 1855 
to East Alabama Presbytery. 

F. McMurray*, received in 1848; dismissed in 1857 to 
East Alabama Presbytery. 

Jos. Gibert*, received in 1848; dismissed in 1852 to 
South Carolina Presbytery. 

J. B. Stevens, received in 1848 from Georgia Presby- 
tery; died in 1860. 

A. G. Peden, received in 1849 from Harmony Presby- 
tery; died in 1896. 

Jas. Rosamond*, received in 1849; dismissed in 1852 to 
Tombecbee Presbytery. 

Albert Shotwell*, received in 1849; dismissed in 1854 
to Louisville Presbytery. 

Wm. Mathews*, received in 1850; dismissed in 1858 to 
Florida Presbytery; died in 1862. 

C. B. King, received in 1850 from Hopewell Presby- 
tery; died in 1880. 

J. L. King*, received in 1850 Lie. from Hopewell; died 
in 1901. 

S. D. Campbell, received in 1851 from Montgomery 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1853 to Florida Presbytery; died 
in 1962. 

Jno. McKittrick, received in 1853 from South Caro- 
lina Presbytery; dismissed in 1863; died in 1874. 

S. H. Higgins, received in 1853 from Suffolk Associa- 
tion; dismissed in 1867. 

Jas. iStacy, received in 1855 from Georgia Presbytery; 
died in 1912. 

W. C. Smith, received in 1857 from South Alabama 
Presbytery; went North in 1863, name stricken. 

J. E. DuBose, received in 1853 from Cherokee Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1858 to Florida Presbytery. 

J. L. Rogers, received in 1857 from Tuscambia Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1867 to Cherokee Presbytery, 
C. P. B. Martin*, received in 1854; died in 1908. 
R. A. Mickle, received in 1858 from Charleston Presby- 



356 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

tery; dismissed in 1862 to South Alabama Presbytery; died 
in 1906. 

Robt. Logan, received in 1858 from Hopewell Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1868. 

A. R. Liddell*, received in 1858; died in 1860. 

G. H. Coit*, received in 1858 Lie. from Charleston 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1867; died in 1877. 

C. M. Shepperson, received in 1858 from Cherokee 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1861 to East Alabama Presbytery. 

H. C. Carter, received in 1859 from Cherokee Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1867 to Cherokee Presbytery. 

E. D. Eldridge, received in 1859 from Hopewell Presby- 
tery. 

H. F. Hoyt*, received in 1860 Lie. from Hopewell Pres- 
bytery. 

W. P. Harrison, received in 1861 from Cherokee Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1865 to Florida Presbytery. 

Homer Hendee, received in 1862 from Hopewell Pres- 
bytery. 

R. Q. Mallard, received in 1863 from Georgia Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1866 to New Orleans Presbytery; died 
in 1903. 

John Jones, received in 1866 from Cherokee Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1879 to Augusta Presbytery; died in 1893. 

T. E. Smith, received in 1866 from Cherokee Presbytery. 

J. N. Bradshaw, received in 1866 from Knoxville Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1885 to Savannah Presbytery. 

L. H. Wilson*, received in 1866 Lie. from Knoxville 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1875 to Augusta Presbytery. 

Presbytery divided into Atlanta and Macon Presby- 
teries in 1866. Name changed to Atlanta Presbytery 1867. 



ATLANTA PRESBYTERY 
MINISTERS. 
J. S. Wilson; died in 1873. 
John Jones; died in 1893. 
W. J. Keith; died in 1874. 
A. G. Peden; died in 1896. 
W. M. Cunningham; died in 1870. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 357 

Robert Logan; dismissed in 1867 to Cherokee Presby- 
tery; received in 1868 from Cherokee Presbytery; dis- 
missed in 1877 to Eastern Texas Presbytery. 

Jas. Stacy; died 1912. 

H. C. Carter; dismissed in 1867 to Cherokee Presby- 
tery; died in 1870. 

R. T. Marks; died in 1868. 

T. F. Montgomery; dismissed in 1870 to Florida Pres- 
bytery. 

J. L. Rogers; died in 1892. 

Above were original members. 

James Wilson, received in 1867 from Knoxville Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1868 to Nashville Presbytery. 

R. K. Porter, received in 1867 from Hopewell Presby- 
tery; died in 1869. 

M. D. Wood, received in 1867 from Bethel Presbytery; 
deposed in 1871. 

Henry Quigg, received in 1867 from Associate Re- 
formed church; died in 1907. 

R. C. Ketchum, received in 1867 from Hopewell Pres- 
bytery; died in 1876. 

Washington Baird, received in 1867 from Hopewell 
Presbytery; died in 1868. 

A. E. Chandler, received in 1869 from Florida Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1871 to Cherokee Presbytery; re- 
ceived in 1883 from Macon Presbytery; dismissed in 1896 
to Harmony Presbytery. 

H. L. Deane, received in 1869 from Savannah Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1881 to St. Johns Presbytery; died in 1186. 

J. T. Leftwich, received in 1870 from Chesapeake Pres- 
bytery; dissmissed in 1879 to Baltimore Presbytery. 

W. W. Brimm*, received in 1870; dismissed in 1873 to 
East Texas Presbytery; received in 1901 from New Orleans 
Presbytery. 

J. N. Bradshaw, received in 1871 from Macon Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1885 to Savannah Presbytery. 

F. McMurray, received in 1872 from East Alabama 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1884 to Tuscaloosa Presbytery. 

R. H. Nail, received in 1872 from East Alabama Pres- 



358 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

bytery; dismissed in 1878 to South Carolina Presbytery. 

H. L. Harvey, received in 1872 from East Alabama 
Presbytery; joined Methodist church, South, in 1875. 

L. H. Wilson, received in 1872 from Macon Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1875 to Augusta Presbytery. 

J. L. King, received in 1872 from Macon Presbytery; 
died in 1901. 

D. Eraser, received in 1872 from Florida Presbytery; 
died in 1887. 

Wm. Dimmock*, received in 1872; died in 1880. 

J. H. Martin, received in ^1873 from Holston Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1883 to West Lexington Presbytery. 

S. S. Gaillard, received in 1875 from Macon Presbytery 
died in 1879. 

T. D. Latimer*, received in 1875; dismissed in 1878 to 
East Texas Presbytery. 

J. L. Rogers, received in 1876 from Cherokee Presby- 
tery; died in 1891. 

W. A. Dabney*, received in 1876; dismissed in 1880 to 
Ouichita Presbytery; received in 1902 from West Hanover 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1904 to Lexington Presbytery. 

R. F. Taylor, received 1877 from Cherokee Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1880 to Bethel Presbytery. 

F. Jacobs, received in 1877 from South Carolina Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1877 to East Texts Presbytery. 

M. C. Britt*, received in 1877; dismissed in 1879 to 
Savannah Presbytery. 

W. T. Hollingsworth*, received in 1877; dismissed in 
1887 to East Alabama Presbytery. 

A, A. Jones, colored, received in 1879; joined Knox 
Presbytery. 

W McN. McKay, received in 1879 from East Alabama 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1890 to Washbourne Presbytery. 

N. Keff (Smith, received in 1879 from Memphis Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1884 to Augusta Presbytery; received 
in 1855 from Augusta Presbytery; dismissed in 1889 to 
Savannah Presbytery. 

W. E. Boggs, received in 1880 from Memphis Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1885 to Memphis Presbytery. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 359 

Andrew MeElroy, received in 1880 from Nashville 
Presbytery; died in 1884. 

J. F. McClellend*, received in 1881; died in 1885. 

G. B. Strickler, received in 1883 from Lexington Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1898 to Lexington Presbytery. 

E. H. Barnett, received in 1883 from Abingdon Pres- 
bytery; died in 1898. 

J. H. Alexander, received in 1883 from Abingdon Pres- 
bytrey; dismissed in 1889 to Abingdon Presbytery; re- 
ceived in 1895 from Abingdon Presbytery; died in 1910. 

Z. B. Graves, received in 1883 from Macon Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1885 to Tombeckbee Presbytery. 

J. T. Bruce*, received in 1883; dismissed n 1893 to 
South Alabama Prsbytery; died in 1897. 

J. R. Harris*, colored, received in 1883 Lie. from 
Abingdon Presbytery; dismissed in 1887 to Knox Presby- 
tery. 

K. P. Julian, received in 1884 from Montgomery Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1886 to Florida, St. Johns Presby- 
tery; died in 1889. 

J. E. DuBose, received in 1884 from Central Mississip- 
pi Presbytery; died in 1895. 

T. P. Cleveland, received in 1885 from Athens Presby- 
tery. 

W. D. Heath, received in 1886 from N. Ga. Conference 
M. E. Church; dismissed in 1890 to South Alabama Presby- 
tery. 

Samuel Scott*, received in 1886; dismissed in 1889 to 
Augusta Presbytery. 

W. E. Dozier*, received in 1887. 

W. H. Johnson*, received in 1888 Lie. from Cherokee 
Presbytery; died in 1890. 

W. H. Sheppard, colored, received in 1888 from Tus- 
caloosa Presbytery; Missionary to Africa in 1890. 

W. A. Nisbet*, received in 1888; dismissed in 1892 to 
Cherokee Presbytery. 

H. K. Walker, received in 1888 from Columbia Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1888 to Cherokee Presbytery. 



860 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

F. R. Cowan, received in 1889; dismissed in 1889 to 
Campinas Presbytery. 

F. H. Gaines, received in 1889 from Montgomery Pres- 
bytery. 

N. B. Mathes*, received in 1889 Lie. from Nashville 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1905 to Cherokee Presbytery. 

A. A. Little, received in 1889 from West Hanover Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1890 to West Hanover Presbytery. 

J. W. Pogue, received in 1889 from Nashville Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1901 to Cincinnati Presbytery. 

A. G. Wardlaw, reecived in 1889 from the North Ga. 
Conference M. E. Church; dismissed in 1890 to Enoree 
Presbytery. 

A. R. Holderby, received in 1890 from East Alabama 
Presbytery. 

J. H. Colton, received in 1890 from Fayetteville Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1892 to Transylvania Presbytery. 

J. B. Mack, received in 1890 from Fayetteville Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1902 to North Alabama Presbytery; died 
in 1912. 

R. D. Perry, received in 1890 from Mecklenburg Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1896 to Bethel Presbytery. 

R. N. Abraham*, received in 1891 Lie. from Charleston 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1899 to Athens Presbytery. 

W. G. Woodbridge, received in 1891 from Long Island 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1905 to North Alabama Presby- 
tery. 

G. L. Cook, received in 1891 from South Carolina Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1893 to Columbia Presbytery. 

W. H. McMeen, received in 1891 from Savannah Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1896 to St. Johns Presbytery. 

J. K. Smith*, received in 1891; dismissed in 1892 to 
Augusta Presbytery. 

Chalmers Eraser, received in 1891 from Bethel Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1899 to Bethel Presbytery. 

J. P. Anderson, received in 1891 from Suwanee Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1899 to August Presbytery. 

M. F. Duncan, received in 1891 from Paducah Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1897 to Philadelphia Presbytery. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 361 

I. W. Waddell, received in 1892 from Macon Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1893 to Athens Presbytery.) 

T. P. Burgess, received in 1893 from South Alabama 
bytery; dismissed in 1899 to Augusta Presbytery. 

R. A. Bowman, received in 1893 from North Alabama 
Presbytery; died in 1898. 

Edward Bailey, received in 1893 from Cheroke-e Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1895 to Cherokee Presbytery. 

L. B. Davis, received in 1893 from Savannah Presby- 
tery. 

Samuel Young, received in 1893 from Alleghany U. 
P. C. 

T. B. Trenholm*, received in 1893 Lie. from Charleston 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1901 to Charleston Presbytery. 

D. F. Sheppard, received in 1894 from Savannah Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1899 to Savannah Presbytery. 

J. F. Pharr, received in 1894 from Augusta Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1898 to Concord Presbytery. 

W. P. Chevalier, received in 1894 from Louisville Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1895 to Tuscaloosa Presbytery. 

R. O. Flinn*, received in 1894 Lie. from Harmony 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1898 to Macon Presbytery; re- 
ceived in 1899 from Macon Presbytery. 

G. W. Bull, received in 1896 from South Alabama Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1903 to Nashville Presbytery. 

P. P. Winn, received in 1896 from South Alabama 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1909 to Asheville Presbytery. 

W. M. Hunter*, received in 1896 Lie, from Mecklen- 
burg Presbytery; dismissed in 1899 to Savannah Presby- 
tery. 

W. P. Hemphill*, received in 1896; died in 1906. 

J. G. Patton, received in 1896 from Paducah Presby- 
tery. 

T. H. Rice, received in 1896 from Chesapeake Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1908 to East Hanover Presbytery. 

J. B. Hillhouse, received in 1896; dismissed in 1906 to 
Augusta Presbytery. 

R. L. Fulton, received in 1896 Irom Suwanee Presby- 
tery; died in 1902. 



362 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

F. R. Graves, received in 1897 from St. Johns Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1902 to North Alabama Presbytery. 

D. G. Armstrong, received in 1897 from Macon Pres- 
bytery; died in 1901. 

J. S. Sibley, received in 1897 Lie. Upper Mississippi 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1900 to Winchester Presbytery. 

J. W. Lacy, received in 1908 Lie. from Greenbrier Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1900 to Norfolk Presbytery. 

H. C. Hammond*, received in 1898; dismissed in 1911 
to Harmony Presbytery. 

J. W. Stokes*, received in 1898; dismissed in 1904 to 
Macon Presbytery. 

R. C. Reed, received in 1899 from Nashville Presby- 
tery. 

T. C. Cleveland*, received in 1898; dismissed in 1901 
to N. E. Conference M. E. church. 

C. P. Bridewell, received in 1899 from Fort Worth 
Preebytery; suspended in 1907. 

J. A. Clotfelter*, received in 1899. 

W. H. Eraser*, received in 1899 Lie. East Alabama 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1901 to Macon Presbytery. 

C. W. Humphreys, received in 1899 from Bethel Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1906 to Greenbrier Presbytery. 

C. R. Nisbet, received in 1900 from Macon Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1906 to Nashville Presbytery. 

J. G. Herndon, received in 1900 from Bethel Presby- 
tery. 

E. W. Russell*, received in 1900. 

C. O'N. Martindale, received in 1901 from Cherokee 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1906 to N. Alabama Presbytery. 

W. Lee Harrell, received in 1901 from Athens Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1904 to Augusta Presbytery; died in 
1906. 

R. L. Bell, received in 1902 from 2d Pres. A. R. Synod; 
dismissed in 1903 to East Alabama Presbytery. 

J. L. Martin, received in 1902 from Palmyra Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1906 to Suswanee Presbytery. 

>B. H. Holt, received in 1902 from Western Texas Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1906 to North Alabama Presbytery. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGLl 363 

L. G. Henderson, received in 1902 from Macon Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1906 to Knoxville Presbytery. 

J. W. Atwood*, received in 1902 Cand. Ouichita Pres- 
byt-ery; dismissed in 1904 to Macon Presbytery. 

J. E. Jam€s*, received in 1902 Lie. from Tuscaloosa 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1904 to South Carolina Presby- 
tery. 

R. H. Overcash, received in 1902 from Asheville Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1903 to W. Lexington Presbytery. 

R. H. Morris, received in 1902 from Suwanee Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1903 to New Brunswick Presbytery. 

J. B. Ficklen, received in 1904 from Cherokee Presby- 
tery. 

K. A. Campbell, received in 1904 from North Alabama 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1908 to Mecklenburg Presbytery. 

E. Mac Davis, received in 1904 from Asheville Presby- 
tery; died in 1905. 

W. C. Young, received in 1904 from Fort Worth Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1906 to Lexington Presbytery. 

L. R. Walker, received in 1904 from Florida Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1910 to Florida Presbytery. 

F. D. Thomas, received in 1904 from Athens Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1905 to Savannah Presbytery. 

T. E. Converse, received in 1905 from Louisville Pres- 
bytery. 

Homer McMillan, received in 1905 from Classis Re- 
formed church of America. 

S. W. DuBose, received in 1905 from Savannah Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1908 to Macon Presbytery. 

Jos. E. Hannah*, received in 1905. 

J. S. Montgomery, received in 1906 from St. Clairville 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1906 to Augusta Presbytery. 

J. H. Dixon, received in 1906 from Mecklenburg Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1907 to Fayetteville Presbytery. 

W. W. McMorries, received in 1906 from 2d Pres. As. Ref. 

J. B. Mack, received in 1906 from Mecklenburg Pres- 
bytery; died in 1912. 

Moses C. Liddell, received in 1906 from the Baptist 
church; dismissed in 1906 to Durant Presbytery. 



364 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

R. F. Otts, received in 1906 from Tuscaloosa Pres- 
bytery; demitted ministry in 1908. 

T. H. Newkirk, received in 1906 from Peedee Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1910 to Athens Presbytery. 

Jno. B. Gordon, received in 1906 from Louisville Pres- 
bytery. 

W. A. Murray, received 1906 from Kings Mountain 
Presbytery. 

Jno. I. Simpson, received in 1906 from Transylvania 
Presbytery. 

Jno. I. Armstrong*, received in 1906 Lie. from West 
Hanover Presbytery. 

B. F. Guille, received in 1907 from Cairo Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1908 to Cherokee Presbytery. 

H. J. Williams, received in 1907 from Kanawha Pres- 
bytery. 

W. L. Lingle, received in 1907 from Bethel Presbytery. 

F. D. Hunt, received in 1907 from Enoree Presbytery. 

T. W. Winfield, received in 1907 from New York Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1909 to Ottawa, Canada, Presbytery. 

James Bradley, received in 1907 from Enoree Presby- 
tery. 

E. D. Brownlee*, received in 1907. 

P. H. Moore*, received in 1907 Lie. from Bethel Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1908 to Bethel Presbytery. 

Jno. W. Grier*, received in 1907 from Mecklenburg 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1908 to Mecklenburg Presbytery. 

Robert H. Orr, received in 1908 from Cherokee Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1911 to Florida Presbytery. 

John David Keith, received in 1908 from Ga. Conf, M. 
P. church; dismissed in 1910 to Suwanee Presbytery. 

A. W. Grigg, received in 1908 from Philadelphia Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1910 to Newark U. S. A. Presbytery. 

H. W. Flinn, received in 1908 from North Alabama 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1911 to Norfolk Presbytery. 

Fritz Rauchenberg*, received in 1908. 

A. A. Little, received in 1908 from Tuscaloosa Pres- 
bytery. 

L. B. Fields, received in 1908. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 365 

R. D. Stinson, received in 1908 from Macon Presby- 
tery; died in 1910. 

N. B. Mathes, received in 1909 from Cherokee Presby- 
tefry. 

D. H. Ogden, received in 1909 from Knoxville Presby- 
tery. 

C. C. Carson, received in 1910 from Mangum Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1911 to Mecklenburg Presbytery. 

J. P. Smith, received in 1910 from Chesapeake Presby- 
tery. 

A. L. Johnson, received in 1910 from Augusta Pres- 
bytery. 

W. C. Young, received in 1910 from Lexington Pres- 
bytery. 

W. H. Chapman, received in 1910 from Chattanooga 
U. S. A. Presbytery. 

Thornwell Jacobs, received in 1910 from Enoree Pres- 
bytery. 

C. E. Wehler, received in 1910 from Reformed church 
U. S. A. 

W. McC. Miller, received in 1911 from Ebenezer Pres- 
bytery. 

J. M. Harris, received in 1911 from Kings Mountain 
Presbytery. 

W. Beale, received in 1911 from Mangum Presbytery. 

M. C. Liddell, received in 1911 from Mangum Presby- 
tery. 

G. R. Buford, received in 1911 from Louisville Presby- 
tery. 

W. P. Chevalier, received in 1911 from Louisville 
Presbytery. 



GOOD HOPE PRESBYTERY. 
CHURCHES 
Alcovia — ^^Organized 1823, first mentioned 1823; drop- 
ped 1889. 

Bethesda — Organized 1830, Bibb County; dissolved. 
Carmel — Organized 1810, dissolved 1840. 
Columbus — Organized 1829; with 5 members. 



366 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Covington— Organized 1827, dissolved 1847; reorgan- 
ized 1877. 

Decatur — Organized 1825 by Dr. Wilson, as Westmin- 
ster Church. 

Ephesus — Organized 1829. 

Fairview. 

Fayetteville — Stricken 1841. 

Forsyth — ^Organized 1828. 

Hopewell— Organized 1828, Crawford County; dis- 
solved 1856. ' 

Hamilton — ^Organized 1829. 

Harmony — Organized 1825, DeKalb County, near Deca- 
tur, by Dr. Wilson. 

Greenville — Organized 1829. 

Goshen— Organized 1834, name changed to Norcross 
1884. 

Jackson— 1826, declared extinct 1875. Reorganized 
1889. 

LaGrange — ^Organized 1829. 

Macon — Organized 1826, transferred with Bibb County 
to Hopewell 1842. 

McDonough — ^Organized 1827. 

Newnan — Organized 1828. 

Providence — Organized 1831, Franklin, Heard County. 

Philadelphia — Organized 1825. 

Smyrna — ^Organized 1827. 

Thomaston — ^Organized 1829. 

Union Chapel — Organized 1834, Fayette County, chang- 
ed to Fayetteville 1847. 

Zebulon — Organized 1828, stricken 1868; reorganized 
1898; dissolved 1905. 

Mt Zion— Organized 1834, Talbot County. (Nam€ 
changed to Flint River 1835.) 

FLINT RIVER PRESBYTERY. 

Friendship — Received 1835, set off from Zebulon. 

Muscogee — Received 1835, organized by Dr. Goulding. 

Mt. Zion— Received 1836, Talbot County. 

Franklin— Received 1836, Heard County, dissolved 
1844. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 367 

Mt Tabor— Received 1836. 

Long Cane — Received 1837, changed to Loyd, 1887. 

White Oak — Received 1838, name changed to Turin, 
1888. 

Ebenezer — Received 1838, set off from LaGrange. 

Berea — Received 1838, name changed to Cuthbert, 
1847. 

Florence — Received 1839, dissolved 1884. 

Monroe — Received 1839, merged in Social Circle, 1843. 

West Point — Received 1841. 

Griffin — Received 1842, organized by Rev. L. M. Cor- 
bin, with 6 members. 

Carrollton — Received, 1842. 

Salem — Received 1842, dissolved, 1867. 

Brainerd— Received 1843, dissolved 1882. 

Bethany— Received 1843. 

Marietta — Received 1843, added by change of bound- 
ary by Synod, 1842. 

Hickory Flat — Received 1843, added by change of 
boundary by Synod, 1842. 

Mrs Hill — Received 1843, added by change of boundary 
by Synod, 1842. 

Fellowship — Received 1843. 

Central Church, Walton County — Organized 1843 Social 
Circle; dissolved 1848. 

Americus — Received 1846. 

Emmaus — Received 1847, Muscogee County. 

Perry — Received 1847. 

Pachitla — Received 1850. 

Lumpkin — Received 1853. 

White Sulphur— Received 1856, dissolved, 1888. 

Central — Received 1857. 

Villa Rica— Received 1858. 

Conyers — Received 1860. 

Bethel — Received 1863, Mitchell County. 

Atlanta Col'd. — Received 1866. 

Rock Spring — Received 1871. 

Thomaston — Received 1871. 



368 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Bowenville — Received 1873, Carroll County; dissolved 
1878. 

Stone Mountain — Received 1847. 

Atlanta 3rd. — Received 1874, name changed to Moore 
Memorial, 1891. 

Lithonia — Received 1875, reorganized 1891. 

Salem— Received 1875, at Flat Shoals. 

Midway— Received 1876, DeKalb County. 

Hunter St — Received 1876. 

Mt Sinai Col'd. — Received 1876, joined Knox Pres., 
about 1894. 

Jonesboro — Received 1880. 

Timber Ridge— Received 1880.. 

Zion Col'd. 

Atlanta — Received 1880, added to roll 1885; dissolved 
1894. 

Flat Rock— Received 1884, Henry County. 

West End— Received 1887. 

Mountville — Received 1887. 

4th Atlanta— 1888, name changed to Druid Park, 1910. 

Tallapoosa — Received 1888. 

Georgia Ave. — Received 1890. 

Palmetto— Received 1890. 

Buford— Received 1891. 

Lawrenceville — Received 1891. 

Barnett— Received 1891. 

Barnesville — Received 1891. 

Kirkwood — Received 1892. 

Senoia — Received 1893. 

Manchester — Received 1894, changed to Hapeville 
1896. 

Stacy — Received 1896, at Greenville. 

Morris Grove — Received 1896, dissolved in 1909. 

Bamah — Received 1898, at Luxomni; dissolved 1901. 

North Ave.— Received 1899. 

Kelley— Received 1900. 

Ingleside — Received 1900. 

College Park— Received 1900. 

Westminster — Received 1901. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 369 

Prior Street — Received 1902. 

Pantherville — Received 1902. 

Bremen — Received 1902. 

McTyre Chapel — Received 1903, dissolved 1909. 

Stock Bridge — Received 1909. 

Battle Hill, 1911. 

PRESBYTERY OF FLORIDA 

Set up 1840 

MINISTERS. 

John Brown, received in 1841, set off from Flint River 
Presbytery; died in 1842. 

Phiilo F. Phelps, reecived in 1841 from Troy Presby- 
tery; died in 1841. 

Benj. Burroughs, received in 1841; died in 1854. 

Joshua Phelps, received in 1841 from Philadelphia 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1853 to Iowa Presbytery. 

R. M. Baker, received in 1841; dismissed in 1846 to 
Hopewell Presbytery. 

Joel S. Graves, received in 1841. 

Eli Graves, received in 1841; died, in 1866. 

The above were set off from Flint River Presbytery 
in 1840. 

Jno. C. Baldwin, received in 1842 from South Alabama 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1843 to Hopewell Presbytery. 

Edmond Lee*, received in 1845; died in 1892. 

W. E. Buell, received in 1846 from E. Hanover Presby- 
tery. 

James Wood, reecived in 1846 from West Tennessee 
Presbytery. 

William Neil, received in 1847; dismissed in 1853 to 
W. Hanover Presbytery. 

Jno. H, Rice, received in 1848; dismissed in 1850 to 
W. Hanover Presbytery. 

W. H .Crane, received in 1850. 

Jesse Hume, received in 1851 from Nashville; died 
in 1854. 

W. E. Hamilton*, received in 1851; dismissed in 1867 
to Savannah, Boundary changed. 

S. D. Campbell, received in 1853 from Flint River 



370 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Presbytery; dismissed in 1862 to E. Alabama Presbytery; 
died in 1862. 

Samuel S. Milleken*, received in 1853. 

D. J. Auld, received in 1853 from Bethel Presbytery; 
died in 1857. 

Henry Cherry, received in 1853 from Rochester Pres- 
bytery. 

Homer Hendee, received in 1853 from Hopewell Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1857 to Hopewell Presbytery. 

D. McNeil Turner, received in 1855; dismissed in 1860 
to South Carolina Presbytery. 

J. H. Meyers, received in 1855 from Georgia Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1857 to Elizabethtown Presbytery; died 
in 1890. 

A. W. Sproull,, received in 1854 from Georgia Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1856 to Philadelphia Presbytery. 

A. R. Wolfe, received in 1855; dismissed in 1860 to 
Newark Presbytery. 

Geo. C. Fleming*, received in 1855; dismissed in 1857 
to Georgia Presbytery; died in 1858. 

Donald 'Eraser, received in 1856 from Georgia Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1872 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

Wm. N. Peacock, received in 1856 from Fayetteville 
Presbytery; died in 1863. 

Joseph Brown, received in 1857 from Mississippi Pres- 
bytery; set off in 1878 to St. Johns Presbytery; died in 
1880. 

Jos. M. Quarterman, received 1857 from Georgia Pres- 
bytery; died in 1858. 

A. W. Clisby*, received in 1857 from Florida Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1867 by change of boundary. 

William Mathews, received in 1858 from Flint River 
Presbytery; died in 1862. 

E. O. Frierson, received in 1858; dismissed in 1862 to 
Harmony Presbytery. 

Henry Brown, received in 1858 from Lexington Pres- 
bytery; dismissed to Lexington Presbytery. 

E. P. Crane, received in 1858 from Hudson Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1868 to Ohio Presbytery. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 371 

A. E. Chandler, received in 1858 from Harmony Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1868 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

W. J. McCormick, received in 1859 from Bethel Presby- 
tery; died in 1883. 

J. E. DuBose, received in 1859 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1871 to Muhlenburg Presbytery. 

Archibald Baker, received in 1860 from Concord Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1873 to Fayetteville Presbytery. 

G. W. Butler, received in 1860; dismissed in 1860 to 
East Alabama Presbytery. 

James Little*, received in 1860 Lie. from New York 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1876 to Whitby, Canada, Pres- 
bytery. 

S. S. F. Holliday, received in 1862. 

Jas. E. Dunlap*, received in 1862 Lie. from Bethel 
Presbytery. 

E. T. Williams*, received in 1863 from Georgia Pres- 
bytery; died in 1866. 

W. P. Harrison, received in 1865 from Flint River 
Presbytery. 

J. H. Alexander, received in 1866; died in 1910. 

David Comfort, received in 1866; dismissed to Savan- 
nah Presbytery; died in 1873. 

T. A. Carruth, received in 1866; joined elsewhere in 1866. 

W. B. Telford, received in 1865 from Cherokee Pres- 
bytery; died in 1891. 

T. L. Deveaux, received in 1868; dismissed in 1873 to 
Fayetteville Presbytery; died in 1876. 

J. W. Montgomery, received in 1869; dismissed in 1871 
to Savannah Presbytery. 

Chas. Kenmore, received in 1869 from Central Mis- 
sissippi Presbytery; died in 1871. 

T. F. Montgomery, received in 1871 from Atlanta Pres- 
bytery; died in 1875. 

B. C. Robertson*, received in 1871; died in 1872. 

B. L. Baker, received in 1871 from Bethel Presbytery. 

F. Jacobs, received in 1871 from Augusta Presbytery. 
J. C. Grow*, received in 1871; dismissed in 1878 to 

Augusta Presbytery. 



372 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Henry Brown, received in 1871 from Knoxville Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1877 to Lexington Presbytery. 

Samuel Donelly, received in 1874 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; died in 1878. 

P. M. McKay*, received in 1874; died in 1875. 

S. R. Preston*, received in 1874 Lie. from Harmony 
Presbytery. 

W. H. Dodge*, received in 1874 Lie. from Macon Pres- 
bytery. 

T. T. Johnson*, received in 1874 from Toronto Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1875 to Toronto Presbytery. 

N. M. Long*, received in 1875 Lie. from Holston Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1878 to Columbia Presbytery. 

A. H. Mathes, received in 1876 from Macon Presby- 
tery; died in 1878. 

J. C. Sturgeon, received in 1876 from East Alabama 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1878 to East Alabama Presby- 
tery. 

J. H. Myers, D. D., received in 1876 from North River 
Presbytery. 

E. H. Briggs*, received in 1877 Lie. from Macon Pres- 
bytery. 

N. P. Quarterman, received in 1877 from Savannah 
Presbytery. 

R. Henderson*, received in 1878; dismissed in 1880 to 
Harmony Presbytery. 

A. Duncan, D. D., received in 1879 from Schuyler Pres- 
bytery. 

H. R. Raymond, Jr., received in 1880 from Tuscaloosa 
Presbytery. 

D. W. Humphries, received in 1880 from North Mis- 
sissippi Presbytery. 

H. Anderson, received in 1880 from East Hanover 
Presbytery. 

K. P. Julian, received in 1885 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; died in 1889. 

CHURCHES 

Tallahasee — Received 1841. 

Monticello — Received 1841. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 373 

Marianna — Received 1841. 

Quincy — Received 1841. 

Madison — Received 1841. 

Thomasville — Received 1842. 

Ft Gaines — Received 1842. 

lamonia — Received 1844. 

First Church Lowndes County — Received 1842. 

Manhattee — Received 1846, dissolved 1853. 

Boston — Received 1851, name changed to Bethany in 
1862. 

Greenfield (ville) — Received 1855. 

Uchee Valley — Received 1853. 

Bainbridge — Received 1853. 

Attapulgus — Received 1853. 

Currys Church — Received 1853, proper name (Damas- 
cus) dissolved 1862. 

St Augustine — Received 1854. 

Jacksonville — Received 1854. 

Micanopy — Received 1854. 

Thomasville — Received 1854. 

Newport — Received 1855. 

Tampa — Received 1855. 

Palatka— Received 1856. 

Alligator — Received 1856. 

Orange Springs — Received 1856. 

Little River— Received 1858. 

Ocala — Received 1858. 

Fernandina — Received 1858. 

Hamilton — Received 1858. 

New Providence — Received 1858. 

Kanapaha — Received 1859. 

Ocklocknee — Received 1859. 

Mineral Springs — Received 1859, dissolved 1862. 

Union — Received 1860. 

Houston — Received 1867. 

Quitman — Received 1867. 

Ocala— Received 1867. 

Suwanee — Received 1867. 

Oakland— Received 1867 



374 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Friendship — Received 1867, 
Valdosta — Received 1867. 
Bethlehem — Received 1867. 
Ellisville— Received 1869. 
Sumter — Received 1869. 
Gainesville — Received 1870. 
Silver Lake — Received 1870. 
Live Oak— Received 1870. 
Ebenezer — Received 1872. 
Leesburg — Received 1874. 
Enterprise — Received 1874. 
Cedar Keys — Received 1876. 
Orlando— Received 1876. 
Freeport — Received 1876. 
Andrews Memorial — Received 1877. 
New Hope — Received 1877. 
Apopka — Received 1877. 
Mikesville — Received 1877. 
Magnolia Springs — Received 1879. 
Waldo— Received 1879. 



PRESBYTERY OF ST JOHNS. 

The 7th Presbytery set up by the Synod of Georgia at 
its meeting at Columbus October, 1877, held its first meet- 
ing April, 1878, and organized with 7 Ministers and 11 
Churches, viz: 

Ministers— W. B. Telford, 1877; E. H. Briggs, Edmund 
Lee, Joseph Brown, dismissed to Brazos Presbytery 1879; 
W. H. Dodge, J. H. Myer, A. H. Mathes, died 1878; John 
Daniel, received from Holston Presbytery; dismissed in 
1878 to Holston Presbytery in 1879; T. M. Smith, received 
1880; died, 1888. 

Churches — Jacksonville, Andrews Memorial, Silver 
Lake, Fernandina, Palatka, Appoka, Leesburg, Ocala, En- 
terprise, Orange Creek, Orlando. Two churches were re- 
ceived in 1880 — Acron and Lake Beresford. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 375 

CHEROKEE PRESBYTERY 
Set up 1844. 
MINISTERS. 

James Gamble; received from Flint River Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1843; died in 1867. 

N. A. Pratt, received from Flint River Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1843; died in 1879. 

I. W. Waddell, received from Flint River Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1843; died in 1849. 

A, B. McCorkle, received from Flint River Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1843 to East Alabama Presbytery; died 
in 1886. 

Richard A. Milner*, received in 1844 Lie. from Etowah 
Presbytery; died in 1855. 

Chas. R. Smith*, received in 1845; dismissed in 1845 to 
East Alabama Presbytery. 

J. M. M. Caldwell, received in 1845 from Concord 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1866 to Concord Presbytery; re- 
ceived in 1870 from Orange Presbytery; died in 1892. 

W. H. Moore*, received in 1845 Lie. from Bethel Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1847 to East Alabama Presbytery. 

A. Y. Lockridge, received in 1846 from Concord Pres- 
bytery; died in 1876. 

Ben DuPree, received in 1846 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1853 to Flint River Presbytery; 
died in 1866. 

W. H. Johnson*, received in 1846; dismissed in 1858 to 
Bethel Presbytery; died in 1890. 

Chas. S. Dodd, received in 1847 from Hopewell Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1850 to Chickasaw Presbytery. 

Jas. McLin, received in 1847 from Chattahoochee N. 
S.,; died in 1849. 

J. F. Lanneau, received in 1849 from Charleston Pres- 
bytery. 

John Jones, received in 1849 from Georgia Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1855 to Georgia Jresbytery; received in 1857 
from Georgia Presbytery; dismissed in 1866 to Flnt River 
Presbytery. 



376 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Wm. Swift, received in 1849 from Chattahoochee' N. S. 

T. C. Crawford*, received in 1850; died in 1885. 

A. G. Johnson*, received in 1850; died in 1902. 

J. L. Rogers*, received in 1851; dismissed in 1851 to 
Hopewell Presbytery; received in 1852 from Hopewell 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1855 to Tuscambia Presbytery; 
received in 1857 from Tuscambia Presbytery; dismissed 
in 1875 to Atlanta Presbytery; died in 1891. 

J. E. Du'Bose*, received in 1851; dismissed in 1854 to 
Flint River Presbytery. 

H. C. Carter, received in 1852 from Hopewell Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1859 to Flint River Presbytery; died in 
1869. 

Daniel Engles, received in 1852 from Flint River Pres- 
bytery; died in 1855. 

C. M. Shepperson, received in 1853 from Lutheran 
Synod; dismissed in 1858 to Flint River Presbytery. 

D. F. Smith*, received in 1854; dismissed in 1859 to 
East Alabama Presbytery; received in 1883 from Holston 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1885 to Knoxville Presbytery. 

F. R. Goulding, received in 1854 from Hopewell Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1858 to Georgia Presbytery; received 
in 1872 from Macon Presbytery; died in 1881. 

G. H. W. Petrie, received in 1854 from Hopewell Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1857 to East Alabama Presbytery. 

J. W. Baker, received in 1855 from Hopewell Presby- 
tery; died in 1901. 

R. M. Baker, received in 1855 from Hopewell Presby- 
tery; died in 1896. 

W. B. Telford, received in 1855 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1865 to Florida Presbytery. 

H. B. Pratt*, received in 1855 Lie. from New Bruns- 
wick Presbytery; dismissed in 1862 to Orange Presbytery. 

T. B. Neil, "received in 1856 from Georgia Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1856 to Orange Presbytery. 

W. P. Harrison, received in 1857 from East Alabama 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1861 to Flint River Presbytery. 

T. F. Montgomery, received in 1857 from Flint River 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1858 to Flint River Presbytery. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 377 

E. P. Palmer, received in 1858 from Harmony Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1869 to Red River Presbytery. 

J. A. Wallace, received in 1859 from Harmony Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1869 to East Alabama Presbytery, 

R. F. Taylor, received in 1859 from Associated Re- 
formed Pres. Tenn.; dismissed in 1876 to Atlanta Presby- 
tery; received in 1884 from Bethel Presbytery; died in 
1896. 

H. Brown, received in 1859 from Florida Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1866 to Lexington Presbytery. 

T. E. Smith, received in 1863 from Harmony Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1866 to Flint River Presbytery; died in 
1899. 

J. H. Kaufman, receved in 1866 from Hopewell Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1866 to Baltimore Presbytery. 

E. M. Green*, received in 1866; dismissed in 1866 to 
Hopewell Presbytery. 

R. W. Milner, received in 1866 from Hopewell Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1873 to Augusta Presbytery. 

S. E. Axson, received in 1866 from Charleston Pres- 
bytery; died in 1884. 

H. C. Carter, received in 1867 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; died in 1870. 

R. H. Walton, received in 1867 from Lexington Pres- 
bytery; connection terminated in 1870. 

D. L. Buttolph, received in 1867 from Georgia Pres- 
bytery; died in 1905. 

Robert Logan, received in 1868 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1869 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

A. W. Gaston*, received in 1869 Lie. from Charleston 
Presbytery; died in 1897. 

J. L. Milburn, received in 1871 from Hiawassee 
(Cumb.) Presbytery; dismissed in 1874 to Georgia (Cumb.) 
Presbytery. 

A. E. Chandler, received in 1871 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1872 to Knoxville Presbytery. 

J. G. Lane*, received in 1872; dismissed in 1881 to 
North Alabama Presbytery. 

W. A. Milner*, received in 1873; died in 1897. 



378 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

J. DeW. Burkhead, received in 1874 from Augusta Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1879 to North Alabama Presbytery. 

J. B. Hillhouse, received in 1874 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; died in 1887. 

J. E. Jones*, received in 1875; dismissed in 1890 to 
Central Mississippi Presbytery. 

S. W. Newell*, received in 1877 Lie. from Chickasaw 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1883 to Western District Pres- 
bytery. 

T. W. Raymond*, receiver in 1883 Lie. from South 
Alabama Presbytery; dismissed in 1883 to Western Dis- 
trict Presbytery. 

I. W. Waddell*, received in 1881; dismissed in 1882 to 
Savannah Presbytery; received in 1899 from Athens Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1905 to Suwanee Presbytery. 

J. J. Robinson, received in 1884 from East Alabama 
Presbytery; died in 1895. 

R. F. Bunting, received in 1884 from Brazos Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1885 to Nashville Presbytery. 

J. S. Hillhouse*, received in 1884; dismissed n 1893 to 
North Mississippi Presbytery. 

T. S. Johnson*, received in 1885; dismissed in 1892 to 
Paris Presbytery. 

G. T. Goetchius, received in 1886 from Augusta Pres- 
bytery; died in 1900. 

H. C. Brown, received in 1886 from Potosi Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1890 to Tuscaloosa Presbytery. 

Edward Bailey*, received in 1886; dismissed in 1893 
to Atlanta Presbytery; received in 1896 from Atlanta Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1900 to Central Texas Presbytery. 

C. Eraser*, received in 1888 Lie. from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1889 to Bethel Presbytery. 

W. E. Baker, received in 1888 from Lexington Pres- 
bytery; died in 1905. 

H. K. Walker, received in 1889 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1891 to North Alabama Presbytery. 

W. W. Brimm, received in 1889 from North Alabama 
Presbytery. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 379 

M. A. Matthews, received in 1890 from Georgia (Cum.) 
Presbyiery. 

G. F. Robertson, received in 1891 from Holston Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1892 to Tuscaloosa Presbytery. 

M. W. Doggett, received in 1892 from Abingdon Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1894 to Dallas Presbytery. 

J. H. Patton, received in 1892 from North Alabama 
Presbytery. 

W. A. Nisbet, received in 1892 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1894 to Savannah Presbytery. 

W. L. Harrell*, received in 1892; dismissed in 1895 to 
Orange Presbytery. 

R. P. Baird*, received in 1892 Lie. from Charleston 
Presbytery; dismissed to Brazil in 1895; died in 1909. 

E. D. McDougal*, received in 1893 Cand. Paducah 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1896 to Savannah Presbytery. 

C. B. Berryhill, received in 1894 Cand. Western Dis- 
trict Presbytery; dismissed in 1899 to Central Texas Pres- 
bytery. 

W. S. Hamiter, received in 1895 from Bethel Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1898 to South Carolina Presbytery. 

W. S. Wallace, received in 1896 from Suwanee Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1900 to Boston Presbytery. 

M. D. Smith, received in 1896 from M. E. Church, South 

W. H. Darnall, received in 1896 from North Alabama 
Presbytery. 

J. M. Mecklin*, received in 1896 Cand. Central Mis- 
sissippi Presbytery; dismissed in 1901 to Presbyterian 
Church, U. S. A. 

G. T. Bourne, received in 1896 from Western District 
Presbytery. 

W. F. Hollingsworth, received in 1897 from Harmony 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1898 to Savannah Presbytery. 

B. R. Anderson, received in 1897 from Enoree Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1903 to Mobile Presbytery, 

C. B. MeLeod, received in 1898 from Tuscaloosa Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1901 to East Alabama Presbytery. 

E. M. Craig, received in 1898 from Macon Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1901 to North Alabama Presbytery. 



380 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

W. L. Lingle, received in 1898 from Concord Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1902 to Bethel Presbytery. 

R. H. Rusk, received in 1900 from Charleston Presby 
tery. 

C. O'N. Martindale, received in 1900 from East Ala- 
bama Presbytery; dismissed in 1901 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

H. E. McCliire, received in 1900 from Tuscaloosa Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1902 to Tombeckbee Presbytery. 

John Milner*, received in 1900 Lie. from North Ala- 
bama Presbytery; dismissed in 1903 to North Alabama 
Presbytery. 

Wm. Goddard, received in 1900 Cand. from Nashville 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1904 to Dallas Presbytery. 

D. W. Hollingsworth*, received in 1901 Lie. from East 
Alabama Presbytery; dismissed in 1902 to Abingdon Pres- 
bytery. 

A. D. P. Gilmore,* received in 1901 Lie. from E. Hano- 
ver Presbytery; dismissed in 1901 to Holston Presbytery. 

J. B. Ficklen,* received in 1901 Lie, from M'ontgomery 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1904 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

G. G. Sydnor, received in 1901 from Augusta Presbytery. 

H. C. White, received in 1902 from Kansas City Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1901 to Union Presbytery, U. S. A. 

L. A. Simpson, received in 1902 from Athens Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1903 to Athens Presbytery. 

W. R. McCalla, received in 1902 from North Alabama 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1905 to Tombeckbee Presbytery. 

Asahel Enloe, received in 1901 from St. Johns Presby- 
tery; died in 1904. 

F. L. McFadden*, received in 1902 Lie. from Memphis 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1904 to Meridian Presbytery. 

S. W. DuBose*, received in 1902; dismissed in 1903 
to Savannah Presbytery. 

H. B. Searight*, received in 1902; dismissed in 1908 to 
Albermarle Presbytery. 

E. W. Way, received in 1903 from Suwanee Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1907 to Suwanee Presbytery. 

G. W. Tollett, received in 1904 from Florida Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1905 to Nashville Presbytery. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 381 

W. A. Cleveland, received in 1904 from Columbia 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1909 to Mecklenburg Presbytery 

N. B. Mathes, received in 1905 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1908 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

R. S. Burwell, received in 1905 from Nashville Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1908 to East Alabama Presbytery. 

A. E. Spencer*, received in 1905; dismissed in 1907 to 
Red River Presbytery. 

K. P. Simmons, received in 1905 from Abingdon Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1908 to St. Clairsville Presbytery, U. 
S. A. 

Wm. N. Sholl*, received in 1906; dismissed in 1908 to 
Boise Presbytery, U. S. A. 

C. B. Ratchford, received in 1906 from Transylvania 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1908 to Concord Presbytery. 

F. K. Sims, received in 1907 from Mobile Presbytery. 

W. W. Powell, received in 1907 from W. Lexington 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1910 to Mangum Presbytery. 

R. H. Orr, received in 1907 from Albemarle Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1908 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

Jonas Barclay, received in 1908 from Enoree Pres- 
bytery. 

B. F. Guille, received in 1908 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery. 

E. D. Patton, received in 1908 from Nashville Pres- 
bytery. 

J. T. Wade, received in 1909 from Athens Presbytery. 

J. C. Hardin, received in 1909 from Durant Presbytery. 

R. C. McRoy, received in 1909 from Dallas Presbytery, 

J. C. Clarke*, received in 1909. 

L. W. Mathews*, received in 1909. 

L. G. Hames, received in 1910 from Tuscaloosa Pres- 
bytery. 

E. A. Thomas, received in 1911 from Ebenezer Pres- 
bytery. 

CHURCHES. 

Lafayette. 

Roswell. 

Marietta. 



382 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Pleasant Green, dissolved 1861. 

Mars Hill. 

Hickory Flat. 

Walnut Grove. 

Sardis. 

Sweet Water, dropped 1848. 

Chickamauga. 

Dahlonega, transferred to Athens Pres. 1867. 

Cummin, dissolved 1859. 

Rome — Received 1846. 

Peavine — Received 1846, dissolved 1857. 

Friendship — Received 1847. 

Armuchee — Received 1847, merged into Bethel 1880. 

Cassville — Received 1847, name changed to Manassas 
1862; dissolved 1870; restored 1871; dissolved 1872. 

Dalton— Received 1847. 

Hightower — Received 1847. 

Bethel— Received 1848, near Dirttown,, S. E. of Sum- 
merville. 

Harmony — Received 1848, dissolved 1877. 

Mt. Zion— Received 1848, dropped 1849. 

Cedar Branch — Received 1848, dissolved 1849. 

Concord — Received 1849, received from New School; 
dissolved 1867. 

Carthage — Received 1850, name changed to Hickory 
Flat, 1885. 

Summerville — Received 1850. 

Canton — Received 1850,, merged into Carthage 1866, 
reorganized 1891. 

Midway — Received 1850. 

Adairsville — Received 1850; reorganized 1858, and 
again 1883. 

Resaca — Received 1850, dissolved 1868. 

Calhoun— Received 1852, dissolved 1867; reorganized 
1874. 

Chattoogata— Received 1852, merged into Tunnel Hill 
1859. 

New Lebanon — Received 1852, dissolved 1874. 

Euharlee — Received 1854. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 383 

Hopewell — Received 1854, merged into Resaca 1859. 

Floyd Springs — Received 1854, dissolved 1870; reor- 
ganized 1874; dissolved 1883. 

Alpine — Received 1855. 

Kingston — Received 1855, dissolved 1874. 

Beersheba — Received 1855. • 

Nazareth — Received 1855, dissolved 1867. 

Dallas — Received 1856, dissolved 1860. 

Tunnel Hill — Received 1858. 

Spring Place — Received 1867, reorganized. 

Red Clay— Received 1868, name changed to Cohutta 
1891. 

Bethesda— Received 1869. 

Talking Rock — Received 1869, received from New- 
School; dropped from roll 1897. 

Sonora — Received 1870, dissolved 1890. 

Cave Spring — Received 1871. 

Van Wert— Received 1871. 

Shiloh — Received 1872, dissolved 1875. 

Cedar Valley — Received 1873. Name Cedartown 1854- 
1857; Cedar Valley 1857-1870 when dissolved; reorganized 
1873; name again changed to Cedartown 1886. 

Smyrna — Received 1874. 

Silver Creek — Received 1875, name changed to Lindale 
1897. 

South Rome — Received 1882, name changed to Rome 
2nd 1893. 

Acworth — Received 1882. 

Blairsville — Received 1883, transferred from Athens 
Presbytery. 

Brasstown — Received 1883, transferred from Athens 
Presbytery. 

Austell — Received 1891, transferred to Atlanta Pres. 
1891. 

Salem — Received 1895, name changed to Milner Mem- 
orial 1895. 

Blue Spring — Received 1895. 

Powder Spring — Received 1898. 

Woodstock — Received 1900. 



384 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Ellijay— Received 1903. 
Blue Ridge— Received 1903. 
Ringgold — Received 1906. 
Chicamauga — Received 1911. 



PRESBYTERY OF MACON. 

Set up 1866. 
MINISTERS. 

J. C McCain, received in 1869 from West Texas Pres- 
bytery. 

J. N. Bradshaw, received in 1871 from Atlanta Pres- 
bytery. 

Homer Hendee, received in 1869 from Augusta Presby- 
tery; died in 1881. 

H. F. Hoyt, received in 1871 from Savannah Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1879. 

F. R. Goulding, received in 1868 from Cherokee Pres- 
bytery; died in 1881. 

J. L. King, received in 1871 from Atlanta Presbytery, 

C. P. B. Martin, received in 1875 from Brazos Presby- 
tery. 

L. H. Wilson, received in 1866. 

David Wills, received in 1875 from Washington City 
Presbytery. 

T. E. Smith, received in 1868 from Cherokee Presby- 
tery. 

W. A. Hall, received in 1869 from Red River Presby- 
tery. 

S. S. Gaillard, received in 1868 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; dismissed 1875 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

J. R. Mcintosh, received in 1868 from East Alabama 
Presbytery; died in 1881. 

S. H. Higgins, received in 1867; dismissed in 1867. 

E. D. Eldridge, received in 1867; dismissed in 1867. 

G. H. Coit, received in 1867; dismissed in 1867. 

J. H. Nail, received in 1868 from East Alabama Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1879 New Orleans Presbytery. 

J. S. Cosby, received in 1869 from the Savannah Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1873 to Harmony Presbytery. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 385 

A. H. Math€s, received in 1869 from East Alabama 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1872 to Florida Presbytery; re- 
ceived in 1874 from Florida Presbytery; dismissed in 1876 
to Florida Presbytery. 

Wm. McKay, received in 1869. 

G. W. Maxson*, received in 1871 Lie. from Louisville 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1878 to Knst Alabama Presbytery. 

G. T. Goetchius*, received in 1871 Lie. from Augusta 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1873 to Augusta Presbytery. 

J. S. White*, received in 1872 Lie. from Bethel Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1874 to Bethel Presbytery. 

A. W. Clisby, received in 1873 from Savannah Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1892 to Savannah Presbytery; died in 
1903. 

R. A. Mickle, received in 1874 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1876 to Savannah Presbytery. 

J. T. McBride, received in 1874 from South Alabama 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1879 to Savannah Presbytery. 

John Beveridge, received in 1876 from Cincinnati 
Presbytery; died in 1882. 

T. R. English, received in 1877 Lie. from Harmony 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1880 to Bethel Presbytery. 

A. E. Chandler, received in 1878 from Concord Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1882 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

G. T. Chandler, received in 1879; dismissed in 1890 
to Nashville Presbytery. 

L. H. Wilson, received in 1880 from Bethel Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1882 to East Texas Presbytery. 

J. W. Kerr, received in 1880 from Mississippi Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1881 to Savannah Presbytery. 

R. P. Kerr, received in 1880 from Savannah Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1881 to Savannah Presbytery. 

W. A. Carter, received in 1881 from East Alabama 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1883 to East Hanover Presby- 
tery. 

J. V. Worsham, received in 1881 from Potosi Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1882 to Paducah Presbytery. 

Z. B. Graves, received in 1881 from Athens Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1883 to Atlanta Presbytery. 



386 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

M. C. Britt, received in 1883 from Savannah Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1886 to Enoree Presbytery. 

I. W. Waddell, received in 1886 from Savannah Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1892 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

B. D. D. Grier, received in 1886 from South Alabama 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1887 to Dallas Presbytery. 

Robert Adams, received in 1887 from Augusta Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1895 to Enoree Presbytery. 

W. B. Jennings, received in 1887 from Bethel Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1895 to Louisville Presbytery. 

Alex Kirkland, received in 1887 from Wilmington Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1904; died in 1910. 

S. L. Morris, received in 1890 from South Carolina 
Presbytery. 

W. W. Elwang, received in 1891 from New Orleans 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1892 to St. Johns Presbytery. 

C. H. Hyde*, received in 1891 Lie, from Atlanta Pres- 
bytery; died in 1904. 

E. D. Covington*, colored, received in 1891 Lie. from 
Tuscaloosa Presbytery; dismissed in 1895 to Central Ala- 
bama Presbytery. 

W. W. Brimm, received in 1892 from Cherokee Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1895 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

G. W. Bull*, received in 1892 Lie. from East Hanover 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1894 to South Alabama Presbytery. 

H. G. Griswold*, received in 1895; dismissed in 1900 
to Savannah Presbytery; died in 1905. 

R. R. White, received in 1895 from Winchester Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1901 to New York Presbytery. 

E. M. Craig, received in 1896 from Roanoke Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1898 to Cherokee Presbytery. 

D. G. Armstrong, received in 1896 from Rio de Jane- 
rio Presbytery; dismissed in 1897 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

M. McGillivry, received in 1897 from Savannah Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1899 to Tuscaloosa Presbytery, 

L. G. Henderson*, received in 1897; dismissed in 1902 
to Atlanta Presbytery. 

J. P. Word, received in 1898; dismissed in 1899 to 
North Alabama Presbytery. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 387 

E. D. McDougal, received in 1898; dismissed in 1902 
to North Alabama Presbytery. 

R. O. Flinn, received in 1898 from Atlanta Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1899 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

H. T. Darnall, received in 1898 from Norfolk Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1903 to Harmony Presbytery; died in 1908. 

W. R. O wings, received in 1898; died in 1905. 

W. F. Strickland*, received in 1898 Lie. from South 
Carolina Presbytery; dismfssed in 1901 to South Carolina 
Presbytery. 

J. C. Tims, received in 1898 Lie. from Central Mis- 
sissippi Presbytery; dismissed 1899 to Suwanee Presby- 
tery; received in 1902 from Suwanee Presbytery; dis- 
missed in 1907 to St. Johns Presbytery. 

C. R. Nisbet, received in 1898 Lie. from Athens Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1900 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

G. A. Hough, received in 1899 from Mecklenburg 
Presbytery. 

L. T. Way, received in 1899 from Savannah Presby- 
tery; divested of office without censure in 1901. 

F. D. Jones, received in 1900 Lie. from Bethel Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1901 to Charleston Presbytery, 

K. L. Mclver, received in 1901 Lie. from Fayetteville 
Presbj^ery; dismissed in 1904 to St. Johns Presbytery. 

I. M. Auld, received in 1901 from St. Johns Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1902 to St. Johns Presbytery. 

R. W. Alexander, received in 1901 from Fayetteville 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1902 to Albermarle Presbytery. 

W. H. Fraser, received in 1902 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1906 to South Carolina Presbytery. 

J. W. Quarterman, received in 1902 from Savannah 
Presbytery. 

R. E. Douglas, received in 1902 from West Lexington 
Presbytery. 

W. H. McMeen, received in 1902 from Savannah Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1908 to Harmony Presbytery; re- 
ceived in 1910 from Harmony Presbytery. 

Fred Perkins, received in 1903 from Binghampton 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1905 Classis D. Ref. 



388 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

J. L. Irvin, received in 1903 from Ebenezer Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1910 to Suwanee Presbytery. 

A. McLaughlin, received in 1903 from Fayetteville 
Presbyt-ery. 

S. L. McCarty, received in 1903 from Florida Presby- 
tery. 

W. O. Stephen, received in 1903 from Meridian Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1910 to North Alabama Presbytery. 

W. H. Zeigler, received in 1903 from West Lexington 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1907 to Florida Presbytery. 

R. D. Stimson, received in 1903 from Mecklenburg 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1908 to Atlanta Presbytery; 
died in 1910. 

W. E. Phifer*, received in 1903 Lie. from Concord 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1905 to Mississippi Presbytery. 

E. B. Witherspoon, received in 1904 from Brownwood 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1910 to Meridian Presbytery. 

J. W. Atwood, received in 1904 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1904 to North Alabama Presbytery. 

J. W. Stokes, received in 1904 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1909 to St. Johns Presbytery. 

Luther Link, received in 1904 from St. Louis Presby- 
tery. 

E. S. McFadden*, ordained in 1905; died in 1909. 

W. H. Dodge, received in 1905 from Transylvania Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1907 to Suwanee Presbytery. 

W. C. Hagan, received in 1905 from Savannah Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1907 to Dallas Presbytery. 

I. S. McElroy, received in 1905 from West Lexington 
Presbytery. 

J. H. Taylor, received in 1905 from Louisville Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1907 to Chesapeake Presbytery. 

J. M. W. Elder, received in 1906 from Roanoke Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1907 to East Alabama Presbytery. 

G. T. Bourne, received in 1906 from Cherokee Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1909 to North Alabama Presbytery. 

D. N. McLaughlin, received in 1906 from Fayetteville 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1908 to Central Texas Presbj'- 
tery. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 389 

T. R. Best, received in 1907 from Arkansas Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1908 to Transylvania Presbytery. 

J. S. Kennison, received in 1907 from West Texas 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1910 to Greenbrier Presbytery. 

J. L. Brownlee, received in 1907 from Tuscaloosa 
Presbytery. 

S. W. DuBose, received in 1907 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1911 to Athens Presbytery. 

J. G. Venable, received in 1907 from Lafayette Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1911 to Suwanee Presbytery. 

G. E. Fogartie, received in 1907 from Muhlenburg Pres- 
bytery. 

B. R. Anderson, received in 1908 from Florida Pres- 
bytery. 

C. P. Coble, received in 1908 from Pee dee Presby- 
tery. 

C. A. Campbell, received in 1908 from Asheville Pres- 
bytery. 

R. G. Newsome, received in 1909 from Nashville Pres- 
bytery. 

C. M. Chumbley, received in 1910 from E. Hanover 
Presbytery. 

J. E. Ward, received in 1910 from East Alabama Pres- 
bytery. 

C. B. Currie, received in 1910 from Muhlenburg Pres- 
bytery. 

W. S. Harden, received in 1910 from Savannah Pres- 
bytery. 

H. C. Ray*, received in 1910 from Central Alabama 
Presbytery. 

Wm. McKay, Jr.,* received in 1910. 

S. E. Crosby*, received in 1910 from Mobile Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1911 to East Alabama Presbytery. 

S. G. Hutton, received in 1911 from Palmyra Presby- 
tery. 

J. W. Stokes, received in 1911 from St. Johns Pres- 
bytery. 

G. W. Tollett, received in 1911 from Nashville Pres- 
bytery. 



390 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

CHURCHES. 

Ft Gaines. 

Lumpkin, dropped from roll 1891. 

Cuthbert. 

Pachitla, changed to Whitney 1872. 

Americus. 

Mt Tabor. 

Albany. 

New Hopewell, dissolved 1872. 

Perry. 

Mt Zion, dissolved 1875. 

Muscogee, dissolved 1900. 

Smyrna (New). 

Eph€sus. 

Macon. 

Emmaus, dissolved 1870. 

Columbus. 

Newton — Received 1867. 

Bethesda— Received 1867, Bibb County, dissolved. 

Hamilton— Received 1867, reorganized 1873; dropped 
from roll 1891. 

Forsyth— Received 1867. 

Jackson — Received 1867. 

Dawson — Received 1872, dissolved 1877, reorganized, 
1889 and 1901. 

Ft Valley— Received 1873 

Wootten Station— Received 1873, changed to I^ees- 
burg. 

Geneva — Received 1874. 

Hawkinsville Received 1877. 

Eastman — Received 1877. 

Camilla— Received 1880. 

Macon 2nd— Received 1887, changed to Tattnall 
Square 1892. 

Hicksville (Col)— Received 1890. 

Cordele — Received 1891. 

Smithville — Received 1891. 

Pleasant Hill— Received 1892. 

Rochelle— Received 1892. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 391 

Talbotton— Received 1893, dissolved 1897. 
Rose Hill— Received 1897. 
Poulan — Received 1898. 
Moultrie — Received 1898. 
Quitman — Received 1898. 

Mt Horeb — Received 1898, changed to Morven 1900. 
Bethany— Received 1898. 
Thomasville — Received 1898. 
Cairo— Received 1898. 
Climax— Received 1898. 
Paceville— Received 1898. 
Pleasant Grove — Received 1898. 
Bainbrldge— Received 1898. 

Dublin — Received 1898, changed to Henry Memorial 
1902. 

Danolsonville — Received 1898. 
Butler — Received 1901. 
Pelham — Received 1903. 
Vineville — Received 1904. 
Blakely — Received 1905. 
East Macon— Received 1906. 
Mantezuma — Received 1910. 
South Macon — Received 1910. 



AUGUSTA PRESBYTERY 
Set up 1867 
MINISTERS. 
Original Members: S. S. Davis, died 1877; C. P. Re- 
man, D. D., died 1875; Henry Safford, Henry Newton, G. H. 
Cartledge, died 1899; Wm. Flinn, C. W. Lane, J. R. Wilson, 
R. A. Houston, died 1869; James Woodrow, died 1907; F. 
T. Simpson, died 1906; J. B. Dunwody, J. J. Robinson, T. 
P. Cleveland, E. M. Green, J. D. Burkhead, dismissed to 
Cherokee Presbytery in 1873; P. C. Morton, F. Jacobs — 18. 
Momer Hendee, received in 1869 from Macon Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1871 to Louisville Presbytery. 

Robt. Irvine, received in 1871 from Hamilton, Canada, 
Presbytery; died in 1881. 



392 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Wm. LeConte*, received in 1872; dismissed in 1872 to 
Sao Paulo Presbytery; died in 1876. 

W. S. Bean*, received in 1873; dismissed in 1884 to 
Harmony Presbytery. 

G. T. Goetchius, received in 1873 from Macon Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1885 to Cherokee Presbytery; died in 
1900. 

R. W. Milner, received in 1873 from Clierokee Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1881 to Atlanta Presbytery; died 1889. 

W. P. Gready, received in 1873 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1880 to Athens Presbytery; died 
in 1882. 

Jos. Washburn*, received in 1873; dismissed in 1876 
to Savannah Presbytery. 

R. C. Smith, received in 1873 from East Alabama Pres- 
bytery (Unused Certificate) dismissed to Augusta Pres- 
bytery; died in 1874. 

J. B. Morton*, received in 1874; dismissed in 1879 to 
Athens Presbytery (Division); received in 1885 from Ath- 
ens Presbytery; dismissed in 1887 to St. Johns Presby- 
tery. 

F. P. Mullally received in 1875 from Ebenezer Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1877 to Lexington Presbytery. 

O. P. Fitzsimmons*, received in 1875; divested of 
office in 1883. 

R. N. Smith*, received in 1875; dismissed in 1877 to 
Eastern Texas Presbytery. 

W. H. Davis, received in 1876 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1885 to East Alabama Presbytery. 

J. C. Grow, received in 1879 from Florida Presbytery; 
dismissed to Brownwood Presbytery; died in 1903. 

D. McQueen*, received in 1880; dismissed in 1892 to 
North Alabama Presbytery. 

John Jones, received in 1880 from Atlanta Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1886 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

N. H. Smith, received in 1881 from Platte Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1882 to Athens Presbytery. 

A. M. Hassell, reecived in 1881 from Harmony Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1885 to South Carolina Presbytery. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 393 

Wm. Adams, received in 1882 from Louisville U. S. A. 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1889 to Boston Presbytery. 

N. Keff Smith, received in 1884 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1885 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

A. S. Doak, received in 1885 from Central Texas Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1888 to Tuscaloosa Presbytery. 

J. D. A. Brown, received in 1885 from Charleston 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1892 to Tuscaloosa Presbytery. 

Robt. Adams*, received in 1886; dismissed in 1887 to 
Macon Presbytery. 

T. M. Lowry, received in 1886 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1896 to Mecklenburg Presbytery. 

M. C. Britt, received in 1889 from Enoree Presbytery. 

Samuel Scott, received in 1889 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; died in 1890. 

R. L. Fulton, received in 1889 from Savannah Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1892 to Florida Presbytery. 

J. T. Plunkett, received in 1890 fK)m Detroit U. S. A. 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1909 to North Alabama Presby- 
tery. 

E. G. Smith, received in 1891 from Pee Dee Presby- 
tery; died in 1910. 

W. K. Boggs, received in 1891 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1893 to Bethel Presbytery. 

J. K. Smith, received in 1892 from Atlanta Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1895 to Transylvania Presbytery. 

N. M. Plowden, received in 1893 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1894 to Lexington Presbytery. 

J. F. Pharr, received in 1893 from Pine Bluff Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1894 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

D. W. Brannen*, received in 1893. 

T. D. Cartledge, received in 1895 from Athens Pres- 
bytery; dismissed 1902 to Athens Presbytery. 

S. J. Cartledge, received in 1895 from Athens Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1901 to South Carolina Presbytery. 

T. P. Burgess, received in 1895 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1899 to South Carolina Presbytery. 

B. M. Shive, received in 1896 from Columbia Presby- 
- tery; dismissed in 1898 to Transylvania Presbytery. 



394 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

G. G. Sydnor, received in 1898 from Montgomery Pres- 
bytery; dism^issed in 1901 to Cherokee Presbytery. 

J. P. Anderson, received in 1899 from Atlanta Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1902 to Tuscaloosa Presbytery. 

A. L. Whitfield; received in 1899 from Marshall 
(Cumb.) Presbytery; dismissed in 1902 to Oklahoma Pres- 
bytery. 

D. S. McAlister, received in 1901 from Enoree Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1907 to Florida Presbytery. 

H. W. Burwell, received in 1901 from Pee dee Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1904 to New Orleans Presbytery. 

M. E. Peabody*, received in 1901; dismissed in 1906 
to Athens Presbytery. 

C. I. Stacy*, received in 1902; dismissed in 1906 to 
Athens Presbytery. 

P. S. Rhodes*, received in 1903; dismissed in 1904 to 
East Alabama Presbytery. 

W. Lee Harrell, received in 1904 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; died in 1906. 

J. W. Lafferty, reecived in 1904; dismissed in 1906 to 
Concord Presbytery. 

D. M. Stockard, received in 1905 from Western Dis- 
trict Presbytery. 

R. E. Telford, received in 1906 from Durant Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1910 to South Carolina Presbytery. 

J. A. Thompson, received 1906 from West Lexington 
Presbytery; dismissed 1910 to Holston Presbytery. 

J. S. Montgomery, received in 1906 from Atlanta Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1911 to Montgomery Presbytery. 

J. B. Hillhouse, received in 1906 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1907 to South Carolina Presbytery. 

D. N. Yarbro, received in 1907 from Nashville Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1910 to Lexington Presbytery. 

Jas. L. Martin, reecived in 1907 from Suwanee Pres- 
bytery. 

A. L. Johnson, received in 1907 from Greenbrier Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1909 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

Geo. N. Howerton, received in 1907 from Harmony 
Presbytery. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 395 

Jno. F. Matheson, received in 1908 from Soutli Caro- 
lina Presbytery; dismissed in 1911 to Enoree Presby- 
tery. 

J. T. Plunket, received in 1907 from North Alabama 
Presbytery. 

Geo. F. Mason, received in 1910 from Knoxville Pres- 
bytery. 

Jos. R. Sevier, received in 1911 from Chesapeake Pres- 
bytery. 

L. A. Simpson, received in 1911 from Athens Presby- 
tery. 

A. M. Lewis, received in 1911 from Chicago Presby- 
tery. 

E. P. Mickle, D. D., received in 1911 from Florida 
Presbytery. 

CHURCHES. 

Bethany. 

Mt Zion, transferred to Sparta 1903. 

Woodstock. 

Pleasant Grove, dissolved 1871. 

Milledgeville. 

Greensboro. 

Augusta. 

Sparta. 

Madison. 

Monticello. 

Washington. 

Waynesboro. • 

Bath. 

Eatonton. 

Lincolnton. 

Union Point — Received 1872. 

Penfield— Received 1877. 

Augusta 2nd — Received 1879; now Greene Street. 

Crawfordville — Received 1880. 

Sibley— Received 1891. 

Hastings — Received 1895, changed to Siloam 1903. 

Lexington — Received 1906, received from Athens Pres- 
bytery. 



396 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Gough— Received 1907. 

Mt Olive— Received 1909. 

Poplar Springs — Received 1909. 

Millen— Received 1910. 

Sandersville — Received 1910. 

Sylvania — Received 1910. 

Thomson — Received 1910. 

PRESBYTERY OF ATHENS. 
Set off 1880. 
MINISTERS. 

J. R. Baird; died 1900. 

G. H. Cartledge; died 1899. 

T. P. Cleveland; dismissed in 1885 to Atlanta Presby- 
tery. 

W. P. Gready; died in 1882. 

J. C. Grow; dismissed in 1886 to Paris Presbytery; died 
in 1903. 

C. W. Lane; died in 1896. 

R. W. Milner; dismissed in 1884 to Tuscaloosa Pres- 
bytery. 

J. B. Morton; dismissed in 1883 to Augusta Presby- 
tery. 

The above were the original members. 

Jos. Washburn, received in 1881 from Savannah Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1881 to Ouichita Presbytery. 

Z. B. Graves, received in 1881 from Western Texas 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1882 to Macon Presbytery. 

N. H. Smith, received in 1882 from Augusta Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1884 to Augusta Presbytery. 

E. P. Mickle*, received in 1882; dismissed in 1883 to 
West Lexington Presbytery. 

H. F. Hoyt, received in 1883 from Macon Presbytery; 
died 1912. 

L. A. Simpson*, received 1884 Lie. from South Carolina 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1902 to Cherokee Presbytery; re- 
ceived in 1904 from Cherokee .Presbytery; dismissed in 
1911 to Augusta Presbytery. 

J. L. Stevens, received in 1885; died in 1901. 

C. A. Baker, received in 1885 from East Alabama Pres* 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 397 

byt€ry; dismissed in 1886 to East Alabama Presbytery. 

J. L. Cartledge*, received in 1886; died in 1910. 

J. H. Dixon, received in 1887 from Lousville Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1889 to Harmony Presbytery. 

W. F. Wallace, received in 1888 from St. Johns Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1889 to Enoree Presbytery. 

W. C. C. Foster*, received in 1888; dismissed in 1889 
to Mecklenburg Presbytery. 

S. J. Cartledge*, received in 1889; dismissed in 1895 
to Augusta Presbytery; received 1911 from Bethel Pres- 
bytery. 

E. P. Burns, colored*, received in 1889; name dropped 

in 1898. 

T. D. Cartledge*, received in 1890; dismissed in 1894 
to Augusta Presbytery; received in 1902 from the Augusta 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1905 to South Carolina Presby- 
tery. 

Henry Newton, received in 1891 from Augusta Pres- 
bytery. 

R. E. Telford*, received in 1891; dismissed in 1903 
to Indian Presbytery. 

W. E. Boggs, received in 1892 from Memphis Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1901 to Suwanee Presbytery. 

W. O. Phillips, received in 1892 from Parkersburg 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1895 to Congregational Church. 

H. S. Allyn*, received in 1893; dismissed in 1896 to 
Rio Janerio Presbytery. 

I. W. Waddell, received in 1894 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1899 to Cherokee Presbytery. 

H. C. Fennell, received in 1895 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1896 to South Carolina Presby- 
tery. 

J. A. Young*, received in 1895 Lie. from Atlanta Pres- 
bytery; died in 1900.. 

T. Thompson, colored*, received in 1895. 
W. L. Barber*, received in 1896; dismissed in 1903 to 
Lafayette Presbytery; received 1906 from Lafayette Pres- 
bytery; dismissed 1911 to Atlanta Presbytery. 

J. W. Walden, received in 1897 from New Orleans 



398 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Presbytery; dismissed in 1908 to Florida Presbytery. 

S. W. Wilson, received in 1897 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1889 to South Carolina Presby- 
tery. 

W. Lee Harrell, received in 1897 from Orange Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1901 to Atlanta Presbytery; died in 
1906. 

J. J. Harrell, received in 1897 from Muhlenburg Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1899 to Muhlenburg Presbytery, 

S. J. Morrow, colored, received in 1897 from Asheville 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1899 to Catawba Presbytery. 

F. D. Thomas, received in 1899 from Albermarle Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1904 to South Carolina Presbytery. 

R. N. Abraham, received in 1899 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery. 

J. A. Black*, received in 1900; dismissed in 1903 to 
South Carolina Presbytery. 

W. F. Tims, received in 1902 from Central Mississippi 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1904 to Central Mississippi Pres- 
bytery. 

D. J. Blackwell, received in 1902 from South Carolina 
Presbytery; dismissed in 1907 to East Alabama Presby- 
tery. 

T. M. McConnell, received in 1903 from Enoree Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1905 to Harmony Presbytery, 

J. T. McBride received in 1904 from Enoree Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1905 to Knoxville Presbytery. 

J, E. Stevenson, received in 1904 from Harmony Pres- 
bytery; died in 1905. 

J. T. Wade, received in 1904 from South Carolina Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1909 to Cherokee Presbytery. 

C. I. Stacy, received in 1905 from Augusta Presby- 
tery. 

T, J, Ponder, received in 1905 from East Alabama 
Presbytery. 

C. C. Carson*, reecived in 1905; dismissed in 1905 to 
Durant Presbytery. 

M. E. Peabody, received in 1906 from Augusta Pres- 
bytery; dismissed in 1909 to South Carolina Presbytery. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 399 

E. L. Hill, receieved in 1907 from East Alabama 
Presbytery. 

J. F. Pharr*, received in 1908 Can. Altanta Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1892 to Pine Bluff Presbytery; received in 
1892 from Pine Bluff Presbytery; dismissed in 1894 to 
Atlanta Presbytery; received in 1903 from Enoree Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1908 to North Alabama Presbytery. 

J. D. McPhail*, received in 1908. 

J. K. Coit, received in 1909 from Bethel Presbytery. 

C. H. Ferran, received in 1909 from Suwanee Presby- 
tery; dismissed in 1909 to St. Johns Presbytery. 

E. L. Siler, received in 1910 from Orange Presbytery; 
dismissed in 1910 to Asheville Presbytery. 

Geo. M. Telford, received in 1910 from East Hanover 
Presbytery. 

J. R. McAlpine, received in 1910 from East Alabama 
Presbytery. 

T. H. Newkirk, received in 1910 from Atlanta Presby- 
tery. 

S. W. DuBose, received in 1911 from Macon Presby- 
tery. 

W. T. Wadley, received in 1911 from North Alabama 
Presbytery. 

Chalmers Frazer, received in 1911 from Bethel Pres- 
bytery. 

CHURCHES OF ATHENS PRESBYTERY. 

Hebron. 

Homer. 

Maysville. 

Gainesville. 

Chesnut Mountain. 

Toccoa. 

Thyatira. 

Mizpah. 

Pleasant Groce, dissolved 1890. 

Athens. 

Dahlonega. 

Concord, dissolved 1896. 

Hopewell. 



400 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

Lexington, transferred to Augusta Presbytery 1906. 

New Hope. 

Elberton. 

Bethaven, incorporated with Athens Church 1900; re- 
organized 1910. 

Woodstock, transferred to Augusta Presbytery. 

Nacoochee. 

Clarksville. 

Blairsville, transferred to the Pres. Cherokee 1889. 

Pleasant Hill. 

Danielsville. 

Sandy Creek, dissolved 1910. 

Harmony, dissolved 1896. 

Above were the (original churches, 1880.) 

Hartwell, 1882. 

Brasstown, 1883; transferred to Cherokee Pres, 1889. 

Hoschton, 1883. 

Harmony Grove, 1883; name changed to Commerce 
1905. 

Carnesville, 1883. 

Bowman, 1884; dissolved 1896. 

Mt Hermon. 

Bowersville, 1888; dissolved 1893. , 

Falling Water, 1888; dropped from Roll 1899. 

Jefferson, 1888. 

Sardis (Col), 1889; transferred to Presbytery of Abbe- 
ville 1898. 

Lavonia, 1890. 

Mt Zion (Col), 1890; transferred to Presbytery of 
Abbeville 1898. 

Demorest, 1891; dissolved 1896. 

Mt Airy, 1891; dissolved 1896; reorganized 1906. 

Royston, 1891. 

Center, 1892. 

Mt Olivet (col), 1892; transferred to Presbytery of 
Abbeville 1898. 

Bogart, 1893. 

Cedar Grove (col.), 1893; transferred to Presbytery 
of Abbeville 1898. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 401 

Comer, 1894. 

Edgefield, 1896; dissolved 1901. 
Athens Broad St., 1901; dissolved 1905. 
Nacoochee reorganized 1902. 
Nacoochee reorganized 1902. 
. Cornelia, organized 1905. 

M't Airy, organized 1906. , 

Colbert, organized 1908. 
Bethanen, organized 1910. 

Prince Avenue, organized 1910; changed to Central 
1912. 

Sharon, organized 1911. 

MODERATORS OF THE SYNOD OF GEORGIA. 
1845— Rev. Thomas Goulding, D. D., Macon. 
1846 — Rev. Alonzo Church, D. D., Milledgeville. 
lg47_R€v. S. K. Talmage, Marietta. 
1848 — Rev. Francis Bowman, Columbus. 
^ 1849— Rev. N. A. Pratt, Greensboro. 
1850 — Rev. J. C. Patterson, Augusta. 
1851— Rev. Jno. B. Ross, Griffin. 
1852— Rev. N. Hoyt, D. D., Savannah. 
1853 — Rev. J. F. Lanneau, Athens. 
1854 — Rev. W. M. Cunningham, Macon. 
1855— Rev. C. P. Beman, D. D., LaGrange. 
1856 — Rev. S. D, Campbell, Atlanta. 
1857— Rev. Jno. S. Wilson, D. D., Rome. 
1858 — Rev. John Jones, Augusta. 
Ig59 — Rev. I. S. K. Axson, D. D., Jacksonville, Fla. 
1860 — Rev. Jno. K. Baker, Columbus. 
1861 — Rev. J. R. Wilson, D. D., Marietta. 
1862— Rev. S. H. Higgins, D. D., Macon. 
1863 — Rev. Wm. Flinn, Athens. 
1864 — Rev. R. K. Porter, Augusta. 
1865 — Rev. C. W. Lane, Augusta 
1866 — Rev. David Wills, Savannah. 
1867 — Rev. Donald Eraser, Atlanta. 
1868 — Rev. D. H. Porter, Rome. 
1869— Rev. D. L. Buttolph, Tallahassee, Fla. 
1870— Rev. Jno. S. Wilson, D. D., Macon. 



402 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

1871— R«v. A. W. Clisby, Athens. 
1872 — Rev. James Stacy, Albany. 
1873 — Rev. W. J, McCormick, Newnan. 
. 1874— Rev. Robt. Irvine, D. D., Savannah. 
1875— R«v. J. H. Martin, Cuthbert. 
1876 — Rev. J. W. Montgomery, Augusta, 
1877— Rev. J. T. Leftwich, D. D., Columbus. 
1878— Rev. J. W. Baker, Atlanta. 
1879 — Rev. James Woodrow, D. D., Gainesville. 
1880— Rev. J. L. Rogers, Thomasville. 
1881. — Rev. T. E. Smith, Decatur. 
1882— Rev. W. E. Boggs, D. D., Milledgeville. 
1883— Rev. G. T. Goetchius, Macon. 
1884— Rev. Henry Quigg, D. D., Marietta. 
1885— Rev. T. P. Cleveland, LaGrange. 
1886— Rev. C. W. Lane, D. D., Sparta. 
1887— Rev. G. B. Strickler, D. D., Rome. 
1888— Rev. H. F. Hoyt, D. D., Athens. 
1889 — Rev. J. J. Robinson, D. D., Griffin. 
1890 — Rev. James S'tacy, D. D., Americus. 
1891— Rev. L. C. Vass, D. D., Decatur. 
1892 — Rev. W. B. Jennings, Cartersville. 
1893— Elder J. A. Billups, Newnan. 
1894— Rev. E. H. Barnett, D. D., Savannah. 
1895— Rev. J. T. Plunket, D. D., Macon. 
1896— Rev. S. L. Morris, D. D., Athens. 
1897^Rev. J. H. Patton, Rome. 
1898— Rev. F. H. Gaines, D. D., Thomasville. 
1899— Rev. J. W. Walden, D. D., Marietta. 
1900— Rev. W. G. Woodbridge, D. D., Milledgeville. 
1901— Rev. T. H. Rice, D. D., Valdosta. 
1902 — Rev. Jas. Y. Fair, D. D., Atlanta. 
1903— Rev. R. C. Reed, D. D., Brunswick. 
1904— Rev. D. W. Brannen, Dublin. 
1905— Rev. J. G. Patton, D. D. Griffin. 
1906 — Rev. J. W. Quarterman, Waycross. 
1907— Rev. C. C. Carson, D. D., Macon. 
1908— Rev. R. O. Flinn, Athens. 
1909 — Rev. I. S. McElroy, D. D., Cedartown. 



THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 403 

1910 — Rev. G. G. Sydnor, D. D., Commerce. 

1911 — Rev. R. E. Douglas, Decatur. 
TABULAR VIEW. 

1705 — Presbytery of Philadelphia organized. 

1717 — Synod of Philadelphia set up. 

1745 — Synod of New York formed by a secession. 

1758 — Reunion of the Synods of New York and Phil- 
adelphia. 

1770 — Orange Presbytery set off from Hanover. 

1784— Presbytery of South Carolina set off from 
Orange. 

1788 — General Assembly formed by the division of the 
Synod of New York and Philadelphia, into four Synods, 
viz: New York and New Jersey, Philadelphia, Virginia, 
and the Carolinas. 

1813 — Synod of South Carolina and Georgia formed by 
the division of the Synod of the Carolinas. 

1796 — Presbytery of Hopewell set up. 

1809 — Presbytery of Harmony set up. 

1821 — Presbytery of Georgia set up. 

1824 — Boundary of Hopewell enlarged. 

1833 — Presbytery of Good Hope set up. 

1834 — Name of Good Hope changed to Flint River. 

1836 — Boundary between Flint River and Hopewell 
fixed. 

1840 — Florida Presbytery set up. 

1843 — Cherokee Presbytery set up. 

1845 — Synod of Georgia set up. 

1866 — Flint River Presbytery divided into Atlanta and 
Macon. 

1867 — Readjustment of boundaries, and change of 
names of Presbyteries. 

1867 — Hopewell changed to Augusta. 

1867 — Georgia changed to Savannah. 

1877 — Presbytery of St. Johns set up. 

1878 — Whole of Mitchell county put in Macon Presby- 
tery. 

1879 — Athens Presbytery set off from Augusta Presby- 
tery. 



404 THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH IN GEORGIA 

1881 — Savannah Presbytery transferred to form Synod 
of South Georgia and Florida. 

1891 — Savannah Presbytery restored to Synod of 
Georgia. 

1892 — Wilcox County declared in Macon Presbytery. 

1897 — Counties of Worth, Colquitt, Brooks, Thomas 
and Decatur transferred to Macon Presbytery. 

1904 — Oglethorpe County transferred to Athens Pres- 
bytery. 

1907 — Jenkins and Screven Counties transferred to 
Savannah Presbytery. 

CLERKS OF THE SYNOD. 
FIRST STATED CLERKS. 

Rev. John S. Wilson— 1845— 1872. 

Rev. R. C. Ketchum— 1872— 1876. 

Rev. James Stacy— 1876— 1908. 

Rev. John I. Armstrong, 1908. 

Rev. J. G. Herndon— 1909— 

PERMANENT CLERKS. 

Rev. Geo. T. Goetchius— 1887— 1900. 

Rev. E. D. McDougall— 1901. 

Rev. W. A. Nisbet— 1902— 1909. 

Rev. Geo. E. Guille— 1910— 



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